Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence:

Third Edition

Author: Committee on Science, Technology, and Law,Federal Judicial Center,National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on the Development of the Third Edition of the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309214211

Category: Political Science

Page: 1038

View: 4373

The Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, Third Edition, assists judges in managing cases involving complex scientific and technical evidence by describing the basic tenets of key scientific fields from which legal evidence is typically derived and by providing examples of cases in which that evidence has been used. First published in 1994 by the Federal Judicial Center, the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence has been relied upon in the legal and academic communities and is often cited by various courts and others. Judges faced with disputes over the admissibility of scientific and technical evidence refer to the manual to help them better understand and evaluate the relevance, reliability and usefulness of the evidence being proffered. The manual is not intended to tell judges what is good science and what is not. Instead, it serves to help judges identify issues on which experts are likely to differ and to guide the inquiry of the court in seeking an informed resolution of the conflict. The core of the manual consists of a series of chapters (reference guides) on various scientific topics, each authored by an expert in that field. The topics have been chosen by an oversight committee because of their complexity and frequency in litigation. Each chapter is intended to provide a general overview of the topic in lay terms, identifying issues that will be useful to judges and others in the legal profession. They are written for a non-technical audience and are not intended as exhaustive presentations of the topic. Rather, the chapters seek to provide judges with the basic information in an area of science, to allow them to have an informed conversation with the experts and attorneys.
Posted in Political Science

Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence:

Third Edition

Author: Committee on Science, Technology, and Law,Federal Judicial Center,National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on the Development of the Third Edition of the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309214254

Category: Political Science

Page: 1038

View: 2508

The Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, Third Edition, assists judges in managing cases involving complex scientific and technical evidence by describing the basic tenets of key scientific fields from which legal evidence is typically derived and by providing examples of cases in which that evidence has been used. First published in 1994 by the Federal Judicial Center, the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence has been relied upon in the legal and academic communities and is often cited by various courts and others. Judges faced with disputes over the admissibility of scientific and technical evidence refer to the manual to help them better understand and evaluate the relevance, reliability and usefulness of the evidence being proffered. The manual is not intended to tell judges what is good science and what is not. Instead, it serves to help judges identify issues on which experts are likely to differ and to guide the inquiry of the court in seeking an informed resolution of the conflict. The core of the manual consists of a series of chapters (reference guides) on various scientific topics, each authored by an expert in that field. The topics have been chosen by an oversight committee because of their complexity and frequency in litigation. Each chapter is intended to provide a general overview of the topic in lay terms, identifying issues that will be useful to judges and others in the legal profession. They are written for a non-technical audience and are not intended as exhaustive presentations of the topic. Rather, the chapters seek to provide judges with the basic information in an area of science, to allow them to have an informed conversation with the experts and attorneys.
Posted in Political Science

Forensic Science

An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques, Fourth Edition

Author: Stuart H. James,Jon J. Nordby, Ph.D.

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 143985386X

Category: Law

Page: 614

View: 657

Covering a range of fundamental topics essential to modern forensic investigation, the fourth edition of the landmark text Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques presents contributions from experts in the field who discuss case studies from their own personal files. This edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect the cutting edge of forensic science across many different areas. Designed for a single-term course at the lower undergraduate level, the book begins by discussing the intersection of law and forensic science, how things become evidence, and how courts decide if an item or testimony should be admissible. It takes the evidence from crime scene investigation into laboratory analysis and even onto the autopsy table for the fullest breadth of subject matter of any forensic text available. Topics include Forensic anthropology and the role of entomology in a death investigation Death investigation, including identifying the cause, manner, mechanism, and time of death Bloodstain pattern analysis, the identification of blood and body fluids, the work of forensic toxicologists, and seized drug analysis The history and development of DNA typing and the many ways it can be used Fingerprint, firearm and ballistic, tool mark, tread impression, and trace evidence The forensic analysis of questioned documents and computers Arson, fire, explosives, and the work of forensic engineers in vehicular accidents and structural collapses Forensic psychology and psychiatry, including criminal profiling The future of forensic science Going beyond theory to application, this text incorporates the wisdom of forensic practitioners who discuss the real cases they have investigated. Color-coded sidebars in each chapter provide historical notes, case studies, and current events as well as advice for career advancement. Each section and each chapter begins with an overview and ends with a summary, and key terms, review questions, and up-to-date references are provided. Appropriate for any sensibility, more than 300 photos from real cases give students a true-to-life learning experience. *Access to identical eBook version included
Posted in Law

A Convergence of Science and Law

A Summary Report of the First Meeting of the Science, Technology, and Law Panel

Author: National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Science, Technology, and Law Panel

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309183444

Category: Political Science

Page: 36

View: 2198

This report is a summary of the first meeting of the Science, Technology, and Law Panel. The Policy Division of the National Research Council established the panel to bring the science and engineering community and the legal community together on a regular basis to explore pressing issues, to improve communication, and to help resolve such issues between these communities.
Posted in Political Science

DNA Technology in Forensic Science

Author: Committee on DNA Technology in Forensic Science,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309045878

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 641

Matching DNA samples from crime scenes and suspects is rapidly becoming a key source of evidence for use in our justice system. DNA Technology in Forensic Science offers recommendations for resolving crucial questions that are emerging as DNA typing becomes more widespread. The volume addreses key issues: Quality and reliability in DNA typing, including the introduction of new technologies, problems of standardization, and approaches to certification. DNA typing in the courtroom, including issues of population genetics, levels of understanding among judges and juries, and admissibility. Societal issues, such as privacy of DNA data, storage of samples and data, and the rights of defendants to quality testing technology. Combining this original volume with the new update--The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence--provides the complete, up-to-date picture of this highly important and visible topic. This volume offers important guidance to anyone working with this emerging law enforcement tool: policymakers, specialists in criminal law, forensic scientists, geneticists, researchers, faculty, and students.
Posted in Science

Incendiary fires

a reference manual for fire investigators

Author: Steven E. Swab

Publisher: Brady

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 168

View: 9497

Posted in Political Science

Manual of Environmental Microbiology

Author: Christon J. Hurst,Ronald L. Crawford,Jay L. Garland,David A. Lipson

Publisher: American Society for Microbiology Press

ISBN: 1555813798

Category: Science

Page: 1293

View: 5584

The most definitive manual of microbes in air, water, and soil and their impact on human health and welfare. • Incorporates a summary of the latest methodology used to study the activity and fate of microorganisms in various environments. • Synthesizes the latest information on the assessment of microbial presence and microbial activity in natural and artificial environments. • Features a section on biotransformation and biodegradation. • Serves as an indispensable reference for environmental microbiologists, microbial ecologists, and environmental engineers, as well as those interested in human diseases, water and wastewater treatment, and biotechnology.
Posted in Science

The Polygraph and Lie Detection

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee to Review the Scientific Evidence on the Polygraph

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309263921

Category: Law

Page: 416

View: 6015

The polygraph, often portrayed as a magic mind-reading machine, is still controversial among experts, who continue heated debates about its validity as a lie-detecting device. As the nation takes a fresh look at ways to enhance its security, can the polygraph be considered a useful tool? The Polygraph and Lie Detection puts the polygraph itself to the test, reviewing and analyzing data about its use in criminal investigation, employment screening, and counter-intelligence. The book looks at: The theory of how the polygraph works and evidence about how deceptivenessâ€"and other psychological conditionsâ€"affect the physiological responses that the polygraph measures. Empirical evidence on the performance of the polygraph and the success of subjects’ countermeasures. The actual use of the polygraph in the arena of national security, including its role in deterring threats to security. The book addresses the difficulties of measuring polygraph accuracy, the usefulness of the technique for aiding interrogation and for deterrence, and includes potential alternativesâ€"such as voice-stress analysis and brain measurement techniques.
Posted in Law

The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence

Author: Committee on DNA Forensic Science: An Update,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309121949

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 1137

In 1992 the National Research Council issued DNA Technology in Forensic Science, a book that documented the state of the art in this emerging field. Recently, this volume was brought to worldwide attention in the murder trial of celebrity O. J. Simpson. The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence reports on developments in population genetics and statistics since the original volume was published. The committee comments on statements in the original book that proved controversial or that have been misapplied in the courts. This volume offers recommendations for handling DNA samples, performing calculations, and other aspects of using DNA as a forensic tool--modifying some recommendations presented in the 1992 volume. The update addresses two major areas: Determination of DNA profiles. The committee considers how laboratory errors (particularly false matches) can arise, how errors might be reduced, and how to take into account the fact that the error rate can never be reduced to zero. Interpretation of a finding that the DNA profile of a suspect or victim matches the evidence DNA. The committee addresses controversies in population genetics, exploring the problems that arise from the mixture of groups and subgroups in the American population and how this substructure can be accounted for in calculating frequencies. This volume examines statistical issues in interpreting frequencies as probabilities, including adjustments when a suspect is found through a database search. The committee includes a detailed discussion of what its recommendations would mean in the courtroom, with numerous case citations. By resolving several remaining issues in the evaluation of this increasingly important area of forensic evidence, this technical update will be important to forensic scientists and population geneticists--and helpful to attorneys, judges, and others who need to understand DNA and the law. Anyone working in laboratories and in the courts or anyone studying this issue should own this book.
Posted in Science

Digital Evidence and Computer Crime

Forensic Science, Computers and the Internet

Author: Eoghan Casey

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123742684

Category: Law

Page: 807

View: 4474

"Digital Evidence and Computer Crime" provides the knowledge necessary to uncover and use digital evidence effectively in any kind of investigation. This completely updated edition provides the introductory materials that new students require, and also expands on the material presented in previous editions to help students develop these skills.
Posted in Law

Reference Manual for Communicative Sciences and Disorders

Speech and Language

Author: Raymond D. Kent

Publisher: Pro Ed

ISBN: 9780890794197

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 393

View: 2475

A compendium of data and basic reference materials reprinted or excerpted from published sources, arranged in chapters on human development; orofacial structure and function; respiration; phonation; language; phonetics and phonology; related psychological, neurophysiological, and medical data; and pharmacology. Much of the material is in chart or tabular form. Lined pages for notes (space fillers?) are interspersed throughout. No index. Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

Discussions of the Committee on Daubert Standards:

Summary of Meetings

Author: National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on Science, Technology, and Law,Committee on Daubert Standards

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309181105

Category: Political Science

Page: 46

View: 8798

In 1993, the U.S. Supreme Court in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., laid out a new test for federal trial judges to use when determining the admissibility of expert testimony. In Daubert, the Court ruled that judges should act as gatekeepers, assessing the reliability of the scientific methodology and reasoning that supports expert testimony. The resulting judicial screening of expert testimony has been particularly consequential. While the Supreme Court sought to bring better science into the courtroom, questions remain about whether the lower courts’ application of Daubert accords with scientific practices. This report summarizes discussions held by an ad hoc committee of the The National Academies to consider the impact of Daubert and subsequent Supreme Court opinions and to identify questions for future study.
Posted in Political Science

Evidence-Based Psychotherapies for Children and Adolescents, Third Edition

Author: John R. Weisz,Alan E. Kazdin

Publisher: Guilford Publications

ISBN: 1462530052

Category: Psychology

Page: 622

View: 1629

Widely regarded as the standard reference and text on evidence-based therapies--and now substantially revised--this book has introduced tens of thousands of clinicians and students to exemplary treatments for social, emotional, and behavioral problems in children and youth. Concise chapters focus on specific psychotherapy models. The developers of the respective approaches review their conceptual underpinnings, describe how interventions are delivered on a session-by-session basis, and summarize what the research shows about treatment effectiveness. The book explores important questions and challenges facing the field and identifies best practices for treatment dissemination in real-world clinical contexts. New to This Edition: *Existing chapters significantly revised with the latest treatment research. *Chapters on assessment, personalizing evidence-based therapies, clinical implications of developmental psychopathology, and advances in neuroscience. *Coverage of additional clinical problems (self-injury and suicidal ideation, bulimia nervosa, encopresis) and treatments (Early Start Denver Model for autism spectrum disorder, Internet-assisted and technology-enhanced interventions). *Chapters on implementation in complex mental health systems, as well as international models.
Posted in Psychology

Handbook of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies, Third Edition

Author: Keith S. Dobson

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 1606234382

Category: Psychology

Page: 481

View: 770

This acclaimed text and practitioner reference presents an authoritative overview of major models of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Foremost treatment developers explain core CBT principles and provide a framework for systematic assessment, case conceptualization, and treatment planning. Scholarly yet accessible chapters on each therapy detail what makes the approach unique, which clinical problems it is used to treat, what assessment and intervention tools have been developed, how they are implemented, and what the research reveals about the therapy’s effectiveness. Special topics include working with children and adolescents, couples, and culturally diverse clients. The Handbook has been widely adopted in training programs, and the revisions in this edition reinforce its value as a text. New to This Edition * The latest findings and clinical advances. * Additional therapies: schema therapy and mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions. * Chapter on the empirical evidence base for CBT. * Chapters on treatment of couples and culturally diverse clients.
Posted in Psychology

Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders, Fifth Edition

A Step-By-Step Treatment Manual

Author: David H. Barlow

Publisher: Guilford Publications

ISBN: 1462513263

Category: Psychology

Page: 768

View: 2857

This clinical reference and widely adopted text is recognized as the premier guide to understanding and treating frequently encountered psychological disorders in adults. Showcasing evidence-based psychotherapy models, the volume addresses the most pressing question asked by students and practitioners--"How do I do it?" Leading authorities present state-of-the-art information on each clinical problem and explain the conceptual and empirical bases of their respective therapeutic approaches. Procedures for assessment, case formulation, treatment planning, and intervention are described in detail. Extended case examples with session transcripts illustrate each component of treatment. New to This Edition *Incorporates treatment innovations, the latest empirical findings, and changes to diagnostic criteria in DSM-5. *Chapter on acceptance-based treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. *Chapter on comorbid depression and substance abuse, demonstrating a transdiagnostic approach. *Chapter on sleep disorders.
Posted in Psychology

The California Private Investigator's Legal Manual (Third Edition)

Author: David D. Queen

Publisher: iUniverse

ISBN: 1462022189

Category: Law

Page: 448

View: 2757

This is the third edition of the "The California Private Investigator's Legal Manual," previously titled "The Private Investigator's Legal Manual (California Edition.)" The manual remains the only source for legal information of importance to California private investigators and the attorneys who hire and represent them. The 350+ page manual covers more than 150 topics, analyzes more than 180 court cases and 150 federal and state statutes and includes the text of some of the most significant statutes. The manual is fully indexed with more than 1,000 entries to allow for quick and easy referencing.
Posted in Law

Trace Elements in Soils and Plants, Fourth Edition

Author: Alina Kabata-Pendias

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420093703

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 548

View: 699

Still the Gold Standard Resource on Trace Elements and Metals in Soils This highly anticipated fourth edition of the bestselling Trace Elements in Soils and Plants reflects the explosion of research during the past decade regarding the presence and actions of trace elements in the soil-plant environment. The book provides information on the biogeochemistry of these elements and explores how they affect food quality. Incorporating data from over 1500 new resources, this edition includes the most up-to-date information on the relationship of trace elements to topics such as: Soil natural/background contents Sorption/desorption processes Anthropogenic impact and soil phytoremediation Phytoavailability and functions in plants Contents of food plants The book discusses the assessment of the natural/background content of trace elements in soil, bioindication of the chemical status of environmental compartments, soil remediation, and hyperaccumulation and phytoextraction of trace metals from the soil. The table of contents reflects the IUPAC’s recommendation for numbering element groups, giving the new edition an updated organizational flow. Trace Elements in Soils and Plants, Fourth Edition illustrates why trace elements’ behavior in soil controls their transfer in the food chain, making this book an invaluable reference for agronomists, soil and plant scientists, nutritionists, and geochemists.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Time Series Analysis and Its Applications

With R Examples

Author: Robert H. Shumway,David S. Stoffer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319524526

Category: Mathematics

Page: 562

View: 8526

The fourth edition of this popular graduate textbook, like its predecessors, presents a balanced and comprehensive treatment of both time and frequency domain methods with accompanying theory. Numerous examples using nontrivial data illustrate solutions to problems such as discovering natural and anthropogenic climate change, evaluating pain perception experiments using functional magnetic resonance imaging, and monitoring a nuclear test ban treaty. The book is designed as a textbook for graduate level students in the physical, biological, and social sciences and as a graduate level text in statistics. Some parts may also serve as an undergraduate introductory course. Theory and methodology are separated to allow presentations on different levels. In addition to coverage of classical methods of time series regression, ARIMA models, spectral analysis and state-space models, the text includes modern developments including categorical time series analysis, multivariate spectral methods, long memory series, nonlinear models, resampling techniques, GARCH models, ARMAX models, stochastic volatility, wavelets, and Markov chain Monte Carlo integration methods. This edition includes R code for each numerical example in addition to Appendix R, which provides a reference for the data sets and R scripts used in the text in addition to a tutorial on basic R commands and R time series. An additional file is available on the book’s website for download, making all the data sets and scripts easy to load into R.
Posted in Mathematics

Fundamental Neuroscience

Author: Larry R. Squire

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123858704

Category: Medical

Page: 1127

View: 7377

Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd Edition introduces graduate and upper-level undergraduate students to the full range of contemporary neuroscience. Addressing instructor and student feedback on the previous edition, all of the chapters are rewritten to make this book more concise and student-friendly than ever before. Each chapter is once again heavily illustrated and provides clinical boxes describing experiments, disorders, and methodological approaches and concepts. A companion web site contains test questions, and an imagebank of the figures for ready use in presentations, slides, and handouts. Capturing the promise and excitement of this fast-moving field, Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd Edition is the text that students will be able to reference throughout their neuroscience careers! New to this edition: * 30% new material including new chapters on Dendritic Development and Spine Morphogenesis, Chemical Senses, Cerebellum, Eye Movements, Circadian Timing, Sleep and Dreaming, and Consciousness * Companion website with figures, web links to additional material, and test questions * Additional text boxes describing key experiments, disorders, methods, and concepts * Multiple model system coverage beyond rats, mice, and monkeys * Extensively expanded index for easier referencing
Posted in Medical