Radiation Measurement in Photobiology

Author: B. L. Diffey

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483276783

Category: Science

Page: 244

View: 8802

Radiation Measurement in Photobiology deals with the measurement of optical radiation and its application in photobiology. Optical radiation detectors as well as the calibration of light sources and detectors are discussed, together with techniques for spectroradiometry and broadband radiometry. Action spectroscopy and ultraviolet radiation dosimetry are also considered. Comprised of nine chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the basic principles of light measurement, followed by a survey of optical radiation detectors based on physical principles and the problems associated with calibration. The next three chapters deal with important applications and extensions of these radiant measurements, including a short review of biological and medical users of lasers. The final three chapters on specialized studies and developments illustrate the wide diversity that exists in photobiology. These cover ultraviolet radiation dosimetry using polymer films, computer modeling of terrestrial ultraviolet radiation, and the "diffusion optics" in biological media. This book should be of interest to photobiologists.
Posted in Science

Photobiology

The Science of Light and Life

Author: Lars Olof Björn

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493914685

Category: Science

Page: 455

View: 9905

The new edition of this authoritative text provides an interdisciplinary treatise of all aspects of the interactions between light and the living world. It starts with a description of the physics of light, and how to deal with it in experiments and observations. The phenomena described in the rest of the book covers all organisms: how light is used by organisms for obtaining energy for life processes, for gathering information about the environment, and for communicating with others of the same or other species. The book also describes "bad" effects of light in causing disease or contributing to formation of environmental toxins. New techniques used by scientists to investigate life processes using light are also explored in the volume. Written by experts in the field, Photobiology: The Science of Life and Light, 3e is a valuable and accessible resource for both advanced undergraduates and established researchers.
Posted in Science

Photobiological Techniques

Author: Dennis Paul Valenzeno,Roy H. Pottier,Paul Mathis,Roy H. Douglas

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461538408

Category: Science

Page: 381

View: 677

The fIrst edition of the Science 0/ Photobiology edited by Kendric C. Smith (plenum Press, 1977) was a comprehensive textbook of photobiology, devoting a chapter to each of the subdisciplines of the fIeld. At the end of many of these chapters there were brief descriptions of simple experiments that students could perform to demonstrate the principles discussed. In the succeeding years some photobiologists felt that a more complete publica tion of experiments in photobiology would be a useful teaching tool. Thus, in the 1980s the American Society for Photobiology (ASP) attempted to produce a laboratory manual in photobiology. Cognizant of these efforts, Kendric Smith elected to publish the second edition of The Science o/Photobiology (1989) without experiments; anticipating the comple tion of the ASP laboratory manual. Unfortunately, the initial ASP efforts met with limited success, and several years were to pass before a photobiology laboratory manual became a reality. One of the major stumbling blocks to production of an accurate and reliable laboratory manual was the requirement that the experiments be tested, not just by the author who is familiar with the techniques, but by students who may be quite new to photobiology. How could this be accomplished with limited resources? Many ideas were considered and discarded, before a workable solution was found. The catalyst that enabled the careful screening of all experiments in this book was a NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) devoted entirely to this purpose.
Posted in Science

Scattered and Filtered Solar UV Measurements

Author: Alfio V. Parisi,Jeff Sabburg,Michael G. Kimlin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401512469

Category: Science

Page: 197

View: 3353

This textbook provides a comprehensive understanding of the scattered and filtered solar UV environment, the techniques to measure this radiation and the resulting UV exposures to humans. As is well known, the incidence of skin cancer and sun-related eye disorders can be reduced by minimization exposure to UV radiation. The book aims to quantify, understand and provide information on the effects of filtered and scattered UV light.
Posted in Science

Singlet Oxygen, UV-A and Ozone

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080496768

Category: Science

Page: 682

View: 5357

Recent advances in understanding the biological role of singlet oxygen in the pathways of cellular responses to ultraviolet-A radiation: its key position in photodynamical effects, and its generation by photochemical (dark) reactions, e.g. by cells of the immune system such as eosinophils and macrophages, are the focus of this volume. The new methods and techniques responsible for the rapid progress in this area are presented. The critically acclaimed laboratory standard for more than forty years, Methods in Enzymology is one of the most highly respected publications in the field of biochemistry. Since 1955, each volume has been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. Now with more than 300 volumes (all of them still in print), the series contains much material still relevant today--truly an essential publication for researchers in all fields of life sciences.
Posted in Science

Environmental UV Photobiology

Author: Lars Olof Björn,J. Moan,W. Nultsch,A.R. Young

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 148992406X

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 8648

In response to the overwhelming concern for possible acute and long-term effects of ozone depletion on terrestrial and aquatic life, this volume presents a comprehensive collection of review articles from an internationally acknowledged group of experts.
Posted in Science

Ultraviolet Radiation in Medicine,

Author: B. L. Diffey

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Phototherapy

Page: 172

View: 1312

A concise introduction to the medical uses and biological effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) emphasising the practical nature of the subject. The text explains the physical principles of UVR production and dosimetry and should be particularly useful as a handbook of measurement techniques. Intended primarily for medical physicists, but should also be of interest to dermatologists, physiotherapists, photobiologists, biophysicists and to some workers in cosmetics industry.
Posted in Phototherapy

Principles and Measurements in Environmental Biology

Author: F I Woodward,J E Sheehy

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 148316294X

Category: Science

Page: 274

View: 5757

Principles and Measurements in Environmental Biology aims to provide an understanding of some important physical principles and their application in biology. The book also aims to describe how instruments utilizing these principles can be used to measure biological and environmental processes and their interactions. This book covers the effects of the environment on biological organisms; the application of theories of radiation, kinetic theory, gas laws, and diffusion in biology; and water and its properties. The relation of plants with atmosphere near the ground is also discussed. This book also presents sampling techniques; the computation of errors used in the interpretation of data; the use of different devices; and data gathering and its practical applications. This text is for students, researchers, and professionals and experts in biology who wish to understand the mentioned principles in physics, its mathematical aspects, and their applications in the field.
Posted in Science

Practical Skills in Biology

Author: Allan M. Jones,Robert H. Reed,Jonathan Weyers,Jonathan D. B. Weyers

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 9780131755093

Category: Science

Page: 473

View: 3080

Practical Skills in Biology is an indispensable book for undergraduate students in the life sciences. The book provides useful support at all stages of a degree course and underpins any practical course in biology. It is also a valuable resource for teachers of biology in colleges and secondary schools. Laboratory and field studies are essential components of undergraduate training in biology. Practical work must be fully understood and effectively presented, but many students under-perform because they lack basic laboratory skills. This book, now in its fourth edition, continues to provide students with easy-to-use guidance for laboratory and field studies, but in addition it now covers broader transferable skills. As a result the new edition provides guidance and support over the entire range of a typical undergraduate course in biology.
Posted in Science

Concepts in Radiation Cell Biology

Author: Gary Whitson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323157165

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 311

Concepts in Radiation Cell Biology summarizes current concepts related to the effects of radiation on cell biology, with emphasis on the underlying macromolecular basis for cellular changes in irradiated cells. It explores the effects of non-ionizing radiation, such as ultraviolet and visible light; the use of laser light in cellular studies; and the biological effects of ionizing radiation on cells. Results of ultraviolet studies implicating DNA as the main target macromolecule responsible for radiation injury, such as division delays, lethality, and delayed DNA replication, are presented. Divided into eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of ultraviolet irradiation of DNA as well as the physical and biological properties of irradiated DNA. It then discusses methods used in the photoinactivation of viruses; the effects of ultraviolet radiation on bacteria; radiation-induced biochemical changes in protozoa; and techniques for the analysis of radiation-induced mitotic delay in synchronously dividing sea urchin eggs. The book also covers the effects of radiation on mammalian cells; the effects of ionizing radiation on higher plants; and the photodynamic effects of laser light on cells. This book is a valuable resource for cell biologists, as well as students and investigators who are seeking the necessary information for further experimentation in radiation cell biology.
Posted in Science

General Photobiology

Author: Donat-Peter Hader

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 148328638X

Category: Science

Page: 342

View: 6214

Photobiology is an interdisciplinary science which has undergone a dramatic development in the past few years. This comprehensive new textbook brings together all the information required by workers and students in the field, from the atomic to the organismal level. The initial chapters comprise a comprehensive introduction to the terminology and include a detailed description of the photochemical reactions involved. The main part of the book covers all the classical photochemical topics and whilst not trying to be encyclopedic in coverage, does present numerous relevant examples. By bringing together the wide breadth of knowledge involved in the understanding of photobiology, this book will be of immense use to all those involved.
Posted in Science

Recent Progress in Photobiology

Author: E Bowen

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323151655

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 6201

Recent Progress in Photobiology contains the proceedings of the Fourth International Photobiology Congress, held in Oxford on July 26-30, 1964 and organized by a committee set up by the British Photobiology Group. Contributors explore the developments in photobiology, particularly with respect to biological structures, chemical changes, and molecular energy. This volume is organized into 10 sections encompassing 33 chapters and begins with an overview of basic photochemical processes that have direct implications on photobiology. The next chapters discuss the photochemistry of nucleic acids and their derivatives, with some reference to their biological significance. The book also studies the visual processes in humans and animals; the structure, pigment chemistry, and function of photoreceptor systems of plant and animal cells; and receptor mechanisms in human vision. The natural photoenvironment and its influence on life and development is also explained, emphasizing how light shapes the ultimate fate of an organism in its habitat. The remaining chapters focus on energy conversion and photosynthesis; micro-irradiation of cells; photochemistry and photobiology of space research; light and melanin pigmentation of the skin; and the effect of light on plant and animal cells. This book will be of interest to biologists and physiologists, as well as to anyone engaged in photobiological research.
Posted in Science

Comparative Effects of Radiation

Report of a Conference Held in San Juan at the University of Puerto Rico, February 15-19, 1960, Sponsored by National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council

Author: National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Photobiology

Publisher: National Academies

ISBN: N.A

Category: Infrared radiation

Page: 426

View: 1545

List of invited participants
Posted in Infrared radiation

CRC Handbook of Organic Photochemistry and Photobiology, Volumes 1 & 2, Second Edition

Author: William M. Horspool,Francesco Lenci

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203495902

Category: Science

Page: 2904

View: 3990

The second edition of this best-selling handbook is bigger, more comprehensive, and now completely current. In addition to thorough updates to the discussions featured in the first edition, this edition includes 66 new chapters that reflect recent developments, new applications, and emerging areas of interest. Within the handbook's 145 critically reviewed chapters, leading experts from around the world present fundamental concepts, cutting-edge research, and up-to-date tables of physical data. The CRC Handbook of Organic Photochemistry and Photobiology, Second Edition is simply the most authoritative and complete resource available for these fields. New or updated topics in the Second Edition include: Photosensory Biology Phochemotherapy Photodynamic Therapy Photoecology Photosynthesis Photomovements Phototropism Photomorphogenesis Optobioelectronics Biomolecular Photonics Spectroscopy
Posted in Science

Photobiology

The Science and Its Applications

Author: Emanuel Riklis

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780306438301

Category: Medical

Page: 1083

View: 9701

These proceedings comprise over 100 papers grouped in sections as follows: the history of photobiology; ultraviolet and ionizing radiations from molecules to cells; UV light and DNA damage repair and mutagenesis; photochemistry and photophysics; photosynthesis; phytocrome; rhodopsins; circadian rhyt
Posted in Medical

Dermatotoxicology Methods

The Laboratory Worker's Ready Reference

Author: Francis N. Marzulli,Howard I. Maibach

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439805879

Category: Medical

Page: 390

View: 4908

This work presents and evaluates methods employed to identify the potential of certain types of chemicals to adversely affect the skin. A variety of test methods are included such as tests for skin penetration, metabolism, irritation, the skin immune system, photo effects, skin cancer, and topical effects of retinoids and depigmenting chemicals. Tests for chemicals that affect the reproductive and nervous system are also included. Both animal and human tests that have been standardised and tests that are under development and employ animal alternatives are addressed in this book. Besides different testing methods, a rationale for accepting non-animal models and a review of some regulatory agency discussions about animal alternative tests are included.
Posted in Medical

Terrestrial Photosynthesis in a Changing Environment

A Molecular, Physiological, and Ecological Approach

Author: Jaume Flexas,Francesco Loreto,Hipólito Medrano

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107377676

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 395

Understanding how photosynthesis responds to the environment is crucial for improving plant production and maintaining biodiversity in the context of global change. Covering all aspects of photosynthesis, from basic concepts to methodologies, from the organelle to whole ecosystem levels, this is an integrated guide to photosynthesis in an environmentally dynamic context. Focusing on the ecophysiology of photosynthesis – how photosynthesis varies in time and space, responds and adapts to environmental conditions and differs among species within an evolutionary context – the book features contributions from leaders in the field. The approach is interdisciplinary and the topics covered have applications for ecology, environmental sciences, agronomy, forestry and meteorology. It also addresses applied fields such as climate change, biomass and biofuel production and genetic engineering, making a valuable contribution to our understanding of the impacts of climate change on the primary productivity of the globe and on ecosystem stability.
Posted in Science

Fundamentals for the Assessment of Risks from Environmental Radiation

Author: Christa Baumstark-Khan,Stanlislav Kozubek,Gerda Horneck

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792356677

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 537

View: 9292

Human health as well as aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are threatened from increa sing levels of environmental radiation of various sources, many of them of anthropoge nic causality: large areas of the former Soviet Union suffer from radioactive pollution, in particular after the Chemobyl accident; the increase in the incidence of UVB radiati on at the Earth's surface as a result of a progressive depletion of stratospheric ozone is a global problem that requires international concerted actions; in areas of former uranium mining the natural radiation level is substantially increased due to elevated radon levels; a growing portion of the population involved in air traffic is exposed to increased levels of natural radiation; and with the International Space Station an increasing number of astronauts will be exposed to the complex field of cosmic radiation. To estimate the corresponding risks, a better knowledge of the underlying radiobiological mechanisms at the molecular, cellular and system level is required. This book is the result of a multidisciplinary effort to discuss the current state of knowledge of the fundamental processes that result from interactions of environmental radiation -ionizing as well as UV radiation -with living matter and the existing radiati on protection concepts, and then to define future research work needed as fundamental information for the assessment of risks from increased levels of environmental radiation to human health and ecosystem balance. It comprises the key lectures and statements presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

The Role of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Marine Ecosystems

Author: John Calkins

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468481339

Category: Science

Page: 724

View: 8437

The inspiration for this monograph derived from the realization that human technical capacity has become so great that we can, even without malice, substantially modify and damage the gigantic and remote outer limit of our planet, the stratosphere. Above the atmosphere of our ordinary experience, the stratosphere is a tenuous layer of gas, blocked from rapid exchange with the troposphere, some twenty kilometers above the surface of the earth, seldom reached by humans, and yet a fragile shell which shields life on earth from a band of solar radiation of demonstrable injurious potential. It is immediately obvious that if stratospheric ozone were reduced and consequently the intensity of solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface were increased, then human skin cancer, known to be related to solar ultraviolet exposure, would also be increased. But how does one even begin to estimate the impact of changed solar ultraviolet radiation on such a diverse. interacting, and complex ecosystem as the oceans? Studies which I conducted in Iceland focused on this question and were noted to the Marine Sciences Panel of the Scientific Affairs Committee of NATO by Professor Unnsteinn Stefansson, leading to a request to investigate the possibility of organizing a NATO sponsored Advanced Research Institute on this topic.
Posted in Science