The issue of race has indelibly shaped the history of the United States. Nowhere has the drama of race relations been more powerfully staged than in the American South. This book charts the turbulent course of southern race relations from the colonial origins of the plantation system to the maturation of slavery in the nineteenth century, through the rise of a new racial order during the Civil War and Reconstruction, to the civil rights revolution of the twentieth century.While the history of race in the southern states has been shaped by a basic struggle between black and white, the authors show how other forces such as class and gender have complicated the colour line. They distinguish clearly between ideas about race, mostly written and disseminated by intellectuals and politicians, and their reception by ordinary southerners, both black and white. As a result, readers are presented with a broad, over-arching view of race in the American South throughout its chequered history.Key Features:*racial issues are the key area of interest for those who study the American South*race is the driving engine of Southern history*unique in its focus on race*broad coverage - origins of the plantation system to the situation in the South today
Author: Dr David Brown
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
Category: Political Science
In the uneasily shared history of Jews and blacks in America, the struggle for civil rights in the South may be the least understood episode. Fight against Fear is the first book to focus on Jews and African Americans in that remarkable place and time. Mindful of both communities' precarious and contradictory standings in the South, Clive Webb tells a complex story of resistance and complicity, conviction and apathy. Webb begins by ranging over the experiences of southern Jews up to the eve of the civil rights movement--from antebellum slaveowners to refugees who fled Hitler's Europe only to arrive in the Jim Crow South. He then shows how the historical burden of ambivalence between Jews and blacks weighed on such issues as school desegregation, the white massive resistance movement, and business boycotts and sit-ins. As many Jews grappled as never before with the ways they had become--and yet never could become--southerners, their empathy with African Americans translated into scattered, individual actions rather than any large-scale, organized alliance between the two groups. The reasons for this are clear, Webb says, once we get past the notion that the choices of the much larger, less conservative, and urban-centered Jewish populations of the North define those of all American Jews. To understand Jews in the South we must look at their particular circumstances: their small numbers and wide distribution, denominational rifts, and well-founded anxiety over defying racial and class customs set by the region's white Protestant majority. For better or worse, we continue to define the history of Jews and blacks in America by its flash points. By setting aside emotions and shallow perceptions, Fight against Fear takes a substantial step toward giving these two communities the more open and evenhanded consideration their shared experiences demand.
Southern Jews and Black Civil Rights
Author: Clive Webb
Publisher: University of Georgia Press
The decade following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision saw white southerners mobilize in massive resistance to racial integration. Most segregationists conceded that ultimately they could only postpone the demise of Jim Crow. Some militant whites, however, believed it possible to win the civil rights struggle. Histories of the black freedom struggle, when they mention these racist zealots at all, confine them to the margin of the story. These extremist whites are caricatured as ineffectual members of the lunatic fringe. Civil rights activists, however, saw them for what they really were: calculating, dangerous opponents prepared to use terrorism in their stand against reform. To dismiss white militants is to underestimate the challenge they posed to the movement and, in turn, the magnitude of civil rights activists' accomplishments. The extremists helped turn massive resistance into a powerful political phenomenon. While white southern elites struggled to mobilize mass opposition to racial reform, the militants led entire communities in revolt. Rabble Rousers turns traditional top-down models of massive resistance on their head by telling the story of five far-right activists--Bryant Bowles, John Kasper, Rear Admiral John Crommelin, Major General Edwin Walker, and J. B. Stoner--who led grassroots rebellions. It casts new light on such contentious issues as the role of white churches in defending segregation, the influence of anti-Semitism in southern racial politics, and the divisive impact of class on white unity. The flame of the far right burned brilliantly but briefly. In the final analysis, violent extremism weakened the cause of white southerners. Tactical and ideological tensions among massive resisters, as well as the strength and unity of civil rights activists, accelerated the destruction of Jim Crow.
The American Far Right in the Civil Rights Era
Author: Clive Webb
Publisher: University of Georgia Press
In this boldly interpretive narrative, William McKee Evans tells the story of America's paradox of democracy entangled with a centuries-old system of racial oppression. This racial system of interacting practices and ideas first justified black slavery, then, after the Civil War, other forms of coerced black labor and, today, black poverty and unemployment. At three historical moments, a crisis in the larger society opened political space for idealists to challenge the racial system: during the American Revolution, then during the "irrepressible conflict" ending in the Civil War, and, finally, during the Cold War and the colonial liberation movements. Each challenge resulted in an historic advance. But none swept clean. Many African Americans remain segregated in jobless ghettoes with dilapidated schools and dismal prospects in an increasingly polarized class society. Evans sees a new crisis looming in a convergence of environmental disaster, endless wars, and economic collapse, which may again open space for a challenge to the racial system. African Americans, with their memory of their centuries-old struggle against oppressors, appear uniquely placed to play a central role.
The Long View of Race in America
Author: William McKee Evans
Publisher: University of Illinois Press
Category: Social Science
Slavery came to North America via Virginia in the early 1600s. It would be two hundred and sixty-five years before the practice would finally come to an end. It would take another one hundred years before the basic civil rights of those former slaves and their descendants were fully established in law. During that time and thereafter, it would be a matter of attitude and acceptance by the white race. Of the years, there were a number of pivotal events that shaped the issues and the responses to slavery and civil rights. The Atlas presents a number of these events in an attempt to tell part of the history of the march for equality in America. It also includes brief biographical sketches of the lives of many of the leading figures that led the fight. This work deals with black Americans or blacks, a term that has become synonymous with the Negro race itself; their struggle out of slavery; and their quest for acceptance and equal rights under the law. The effects of slavery were all pervasive. Without an understanding of and an appreciation for slavery, segregation, and the struggle for equal rights, it is difficult if not impossible to understand the America of our history and to reach beyond where we are today to arrive at where we need to be.
An Annotated Chronicle of the Passage from Slavery and Segregation to Civil Rights and Equality Under the Law
Author: Nicholas Santoro
Die Wahl von Barack Obama im November 2008 markierte einen historischen Wendepunkt in den USA: Der erste schwarze Präsident schien für eine postrassistische Gesellschaft und den Triumph der Bürgerrechtsbewegung zu stehen. Doch die Realität in den USA ist eine andere. Obwohl die Rassentrennung, die in den sogenannten Jim-Crow-Gesetzen festgeschrieben war, im Zuge der Bürgerrechtsbewegung abgeschafft wurde, sitzt heute ein unfassbar hoher Anteil der schwarzen Bevölkerung im Gefängnis oder ist lebenslang als kriminell gebrandmarkt. Ein Status, der die Leute zu Bürgern zweiter Klasse macht, indem er sie ihrer grundsätzlichsten Rechte beraubt – ganz ähnlich den explizit rassistischen Diskriminierungen der Jim-Crow-Ära. In ihrem Buch, das in Amerika eine breite Debatte ausgelöst hat, argumentiert Michelle Alexander, dass die USA ihr rassistisches System nach der Bürgerrechtsbewegung nicht abgeschafft, sondern lediglich umgestaltet haben. Da unter dem perfiden Deckmantel des »War on Drugs« überproportional junge männliche Schwarze und ihre Communities kriminalisiert werden, funktioniert das drakonische Strafjustizsystem der USA heute wie das System rassistischer Kontrolle von gestern: ein neues Jim Crow.
Masseninhaftierung und Rassismus in den USA
Author: Michelle Alexander
Publisher: Antje Kunstmann
Category: Political Science
A Companion to the American South surveys and evaluates the most important and innovative writing on the entire sweep of the history of the southern United States. Contains 29 original essays by leading experts in American Southern history. Covers the entire sweep of Southern history, including slavery, politics, the Civil War, race relations, religion, and women's history. Surveys and evaluates the best scholarship on every important era and topic. Summarizes current debates and anticipates future concerns.
Author: John B. Boles
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
The interrelation among race, schooling, and labor market opportunities of American blacks can help us make sense of the relatively poor economic status of blacks in contemporary society. The role of these factors in slavery and the economic consequences for blacks has received much attention, but the post-slave experience of blacks in the American economy has been less studied. To deepen our understanding of that experience, Robert A. Margo mines a wealth of newly available census data and school district records. By analyzing evidence concerning occupational discrimination, educational expenditures, taxation, and teachers' salaries, he clarifies the costs for blacks of post-slave segregation. "A concise, lucid account of the bases of racial inequality in the South between Reconstruction and the Civil Rights era. . . . Deserves the careful attention of anyone concerned with historical and contemporary race stratification."—Kathryn M. Neckerman, Contemporary Sociology "Margo has produced an excellent study, which can serve as a model for aspiring cliometricians. To describe it as 'required reading' would fail to indicate just how important, indeed indispensable, the book will be to scholars interested in racial economic differences, past or present."—Robert Higgs, Journal of Economic Literature "Margo shows that history is important in understanding present domestic problems; his study has significant implications for understanding post-1950s black economic development."—Joe M. Richardson, Journal of American History
An Economic History
Author: Robert A. Margo
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Evangelicals and scholars of religious history have long recognized George Whitefield (1714–1770) as a founding father of American evangelicalism. But Jessica M. Parr argues he was much more than that. He was an enormously influential figure in Anglo-American religious culture, and his expansive missionary career can be understood in multiple ways. Whitefield began as an Anglican clergyman. Many in the Church of England perceived him as a radical. In the American South, Whitefield struggled to reconcile his disdain for the planter class with his belief that slavery was an economic necessity. Whitefield was drawn to an idealized Puritan past that was all but gone by the time of his first visit to New England in 1740. Parr draws from Whitefield’s writing and sermons and from newspapers, pamphlets, and other sources to understand Whitefield’s career and times. She offers new insights into revivalism, print culture, transatlantic cultural influences, and the relationship between religious thought and slavery. Whitefield became a religious icon shaped in the complexities of revivalism, the contest over religious toleration, and the conflicting role of Christianity for enslaved people. Proslavery Christians used Christianity as a form of social control for slaves, whereas evangelical Christianity’s emphasis on “freedom in the eyes of God” suggested a path to political freedom. Parr reveals how Whitefield’s death marked the start of a complex legacy that in many ways rendered him more powerful and influential after his death than during his long career.
Race, Revivalism, and the Making of a Religious Icon
Author: Jessica M. Parr
Publisher: Univ. Press of Mississippi
This disquieting yet important book describes the injustices, humiliations, and brutalities inflicted on African Americans in a racist culture that was created—and protected—by the forces of law and order. • Primary source documents, including Supreme Court decisions and W.E.B DuBois's 1947 "Statement on the Denial of Human Rights to Minorities in the Case of Citizens of Negro Descent in the United States of America and an Appeal to the United Nations for Redress" • A chronology of events concerning the legalization of discrimination in the era of Jim Crow, 1865–1965 • A glossary of key terms related to Jim Crow laws, court decisions, and culture • An annotated bibliography of significant books from history, sociology, psychology, and political science relating to Jim Crow
Author: Leslie V. Tischauser
A discussion of racial politics in America proposes an inclusive democracy that encompasses such positions as the re-enfranchisement of felons, state support for faith-based institutions, and a reconfiguration of racial identity.
The Meaning of Race in American Life
Author: Manning Marable
Publisher: Basic Civitas Books
Category: Political Science
Essay from the year 2011 in the subject History - America, grade: 1,3, York University, course: Race, Expansion and War, language: English, abstract: With the formal end of slavery a new phase of the American history began – the so called era of Reconstruction. This period led to radical changes for the black community. In this essay I will try to outline that Reconstruction in the end did neither ‘reconstructed’ nor ‘constructed’ a better life, respectively democracy and freedom, for black Americans in the South. In order to do so I will work with examples from the Caribbean Islands like Haiti and Jamaica, where slavery was abolished only some years before, to give a better understanding of the situation in the United States.
What did Reconstruction actually reconstruct?
Author: Martin Kersten
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
Forget everything you’ve heard about baking gluten-free bread. The revolutionary Gluten-Free on a Shoestring Bakes Bread gives you 100 recipes to satiate your crispy, crunchy, and doughy cravings, gluten-freely and on a shoestring budget. Ours is a bread-obsessed culture. Whether we’re eating it at every meal or refusing to eat it altogether, bread defines almost every diet, especially the gluten-free community that must avoid it completely. But now, thanks to Nicole Hunn, there will be no more settling for the frozen bread in natural food stores or, worse, pretending that a lettuce leaf is an acceptable alternative when making a sandwich. Readers will rejoice to finally enjoy the rolls, muffins, tortillas, naan, pita chips, scones, and breadsticks they’ve been missing—made even sweeter by the price tag.
Civil War, Civil Rights, and the Reconstruction of Southern Law
Author: Joseph A. Ranney
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
A history of African Americans focuses on their organized efforts to obtain freedom and the full benefits of their civil rights
Author: Cedric J. Robinson
Publisher: Psychology Press
Solomon Northup war ein freier Bürger, bis er von Sklavenhändlern verschleppt und an einen Plantagenbesitzer verkauft wurde. Dort lebte er zwölf Jahre als Sklave, bis er schließlich – als einer der wenigen – seine Freiheit zurückerlangen und zu seiner Familie zurückkehren konnte. Die gleichnamige Verfilmung seiner Memoiren von Regisseur Steve McQueen hat bei der Verleihung der Golden Globes den Hauptpreis als bestes Filmdrama gewonnen.
Die wahre Geschichte
Author: Solomon Northup
Publisher: Piper Verlag
Category: Biography & Autobiography
This travel guide celebrates the national monuments of America's civil rights movement, from 1954 to 1965, looking at famous and little-known landmarks, providing commentary on the significance of each, and offering suggested state and city tours of histo
Author: Jim Carrier
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Category: Political Science
From one of our most distinguished historians, a new examination of the vitally important years of Emancipation and Reconstruction during and immediately following the Civil War–a necessary reconsideration that emphasizes the era’s political and cultural meaning for today’s America. In Forever Free, Eric Foner overturns numerous assumptions growing out of the traditional understanding of the period, which is based almost exclusively on white sources and shaped by (often unconscious) racism. He presents the period as a time of determination, especially on the part of recently emancipated black Americans, to put into effect the principles of equal rights and citizenship for all. Drawing on a wide range of long-neglected documents, he places a new emphasis on the centrality of the black experience to an understanding of the era. We see African Americans as active agents in overthrowing slavery, in helping win the Civil War, and–even more actively–in shaping Reconstruction and creating a legacy long obscured and misunderstood. Foner makes clear how, by war’s end, freed slaves in the South built on networks of church and family in order to exercise their right of suffrage as well as gain access to education, land, and employment. He shows us that the birth of the Ku Klux Klan and renewed acts of racial violence were retaliation for the progress made by blacks soon after the war. He refutes lingering misconceptions about Reconstruction, including the attribution of its ills to corrupt African American politicians and “carpetbaggers,” and connects it to the movements for civil rights and racial justice. Joshua Brown’s illustrated commentary on the era’s graphic art and photographs complements the narrative. He offers a unique portrait of how Americans envisioned their world and time. Forever Free is an essential contribution to our understanding of the events that fundamentally reshaped American life after the Civil War–a persuasive reading of history that transforms our sense of the era from a time of failure and despair to a threshold of hope and achievement.
The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction
Author: Eric Foner
This volume brings together for the first time all the important primary documents in the history of civil rights in the United States. Beginning in 1619, it contains original texts on slavery, abolition, the Civil War, Reconstruction, desegregation, the NAACP, and the black power movement. A thought-provoking preface provides an overview of the developments in civil rights law and public policy to the present day. Many of the documents included were previously scattered in hard-to-find sources, not readily available to instructors and students. Civil Rights and African Americans is the first collection of all the seminal texts of the civil rights struggle, an invaluable scholarly reference and riveting reading for anyone interested in the history of racial conflict in the United States.
A Documentary History
Author: Albert P. Blaustein,Robert L. Zangrando
Publisher: Northwestern University Press
Category: Social Science