*Finite Temperature and Non-Equilibrium Dynamics*

Author: Nick Proukakis

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1848168128

Category: Science

Page: 554

View: 9018

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Search Results for: quantum-gases

## Quantum Gases

This volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton-polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics.
## Functional Renormalization and Ultracold Quantum Gases

Modern techniques from quantum field theory are applied in this work to the description of ultracold quantum gases. This leads to a unified description of many phenomena including superfluidity for bosons and fermions, classical and quantum phase transitions, different dimensions, thermodynamic properties and few-body phenomena as bound state formation or the Efimov effect. The non-perturbative treatment with renormalization group flow equations can account for all known limiting cases by solving one single equation. It improves previous results quantitatively and brings qualitatively new insights. As an example, new quantum phase transitions are found for fermions with three spin states. Ultracold atomic gases can be seen as an interesting model for features of high energy physics and for condensed matter theory. The research reported in this thesis helps to solve the difficult complexity problem in modern theoretical physics.
## Quantum Gases in Low Dimensions

## Phase Space Methods for Degenerate Quantum Gases

This is a text and reference book on phase space theory for post-graduate students and researchers in the fields of condensed matter, cold quantum gases, and quantum optics who already have a basic understanding of quantum theory. The aim of the book is to provide a theoretical framework for understanding the physics of degenerate quantum gases, which occur in all these fields. The phase space theory is outlined both in terms of a treatment involving separatesingle particle states or modes and in terms of a treatment involving quantum fields. The book contains detailed derivations of all the key results, includes chapters covering necessary backgroundmathematics, with many exercises being provided for readers who wish to check their understanding.
## Quantum Gas Experiments: Exploring Many-body States

Quantum phenomena of many-particle systems are fascinating in their complexity and are consequently not fully understood and largely untapped in terms of practical applications. Ultracold gases provide a unique platform to build up model systems of quantum many-body physics with highly controlled microscopic constituents. In this way, many-body quantum phenomena can be investigated with an unprecedented level of precision, and control and models that cannot be solved with present day computers may be studied using ultracold gases as a quantum simulator.This book addresses the need for a comprehensive description of the most important advanced experimental methods and techniques that have been developed along with the theoretical framework in a clear and applicable format. The focus is on methods that are especially crucial in probing and understanding the many-body nature of the quantum phenomena in ultracold gases and most topics are covered both from a theoretical and experimental viewpoint, with interrelated chapters written by experts from both sides of research.Graduate students and post-doctoral researches working on ultracold gases will benefit from this book, as well as researchers from other fields who wish to gain an overview of the recent fascinating developments in this very dynamically evolving field. Sufficient level of both detailed high level research and a pedagogical approach is maintained throughout the book so as to be of value to those entering the field as well as advanced researchers. Furthermore, both experimentalists and theorists will benefit from the book; close collaboration between the two are continuously driving the field to a very high level and will be strengthened to continue the important progress yet to be made in the field.
## Correlations in Low-Dimensional Quantum Gases

The book addresses several aspects of thermodynamics and correlations in the strongly-interacting regime of one-dimensional bosons, a topic at the forefront of current theoretical and experimental studies. Strongly correlated systems of one-dimensional bosons have a long history of theoretical study. Their experimental realisation in ultracold atom experiments is the subject of current research, which took off in the early 2000s. Yet these experiments raise new theoretical questions, just begging to be answered. Correlation functions are readily available for experimental measurements. In this book, they are tackled by means of sophisticated theoretical methods developed in condensed matter physics and mathematical physics, such as bosonization, the Bethe Ansatz and conformal field theory. Readers are introduced to these techniques, which are subsequently used to investigate many-body static and dynamical correlation functions.
## Many-Body Physics with Ultracold Gases

This book provides authoritative tutorials on the most recent achievements in the field of quantum gases at the interface between atomic physics and quantum optics, condensed matter physics, nuclear and high-energy physics, non-linear physics, and quantum information.
## Physics on Ultracold Quantum Gases

This book derives from the content of graduate courses on cold atomic gases, taught at the Renmin University of China and at the University of Science and Technology of China. It provides a brief review on the history and current research frontiers in the field of ultracold atomic gases, as well as basic theoretical description of few- and many-body physics in the system. Starting from the basics such as atomic structure, atom-light interaction, laser cooling and trapping, the book then moves on to focus on the treatment of ultracold Fermi gases, before turning to topics in quantum simulation using cold atoms in optical lattices. The book would be ideal not only for professionals and researchers, but also for familiarizing junior graduate students with the subject and aiding them in their preparation for future study and research in the field.
## Numerical methods for atomic quantum gases

The achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in ultra-cold vapours of alkali atoms has given enormous impulse to the study of dilute atomic gases in condensed quantum states inside magnetic traps and optical lattices. High purity and easy optical access make them ideal candidates to investigate fundamental issues on interacting quantum systems. This review presents some theoretical issues which have been addressed in this area and the numerical techniques which have been developed and used to describe them, from mean-field models to classical and quantum simulations for equilibrium and dynamical properties. The attention given in this article to methods beyond standard mean-field approaches should make it a useful reference point for future advances in these areas.
## Ultracold Quantum Fields

On June 19th 1999, the European Ministers of Education signed the Bologna Dec laration, with which they agreed that the European university education should be uniformized throughout Europe and based on the two cycle bachelor master’s sys tem. The Institute for Theoretical Physics at Utrecht University quickly responded to this new challenge and created an international master’s programme in Theoret ical Physics which started running in the summer of 2000. At present, the master’s programme is a so called prestige master at Utrecht University, and it aims at train ing motivated students to become sophisticated researchers in theoretical physics. The programme is built on the philosophy that modern theoretical physics is guided by universal principles that can be applied to any sub?eld of physics. As a result, the basis of the master’s programme consists of the obligatory courses Statistical Field Theory and Quantum Field Theory. These focus in particular on the general concepts of quantum ?eld theory, rather than on the wide variety of possible applica tions. These applications are left to optional courses that build upon the ?rm concep tual basis given in the obligatory courses. The subjects of these optional courses in clude, for instance, Strongly Correlated Electrons, Spintronics, Bose Einstein Con densation, The Standard Model, Cosmology, and String Theory.
## Bragg Spectroscopy of Quantum Gases: Exploring Physics in One Dimension

## Heteronuclear Efimov Scenario in Ultracold Quantum Gases

This thesis represents a decisive breakthrough in our understanding of the physics of universal quantum-mechanical three-body systems. The Efimov scenario is a prime example of how fundamental few-body physics features universally across seemingly disparate fields of modern quantum physics. Initially postulated for nuclear physics more than 40 years ago, the Efimov effect has now become a new research paradigm not only in ultracold atomic gases but also in molecular, biological and condensed matter systems. Despite a lot of effort since its first observations, the scaling behavior, which is a hallmark property and often referred to as the "holy grail" of Efimov physics, remained hidden until recently. In this work, the author demonstrates this behavior for the first time for a heteronuclear mixture of ultracold Li and Cs atoms, and pioneers the experimental understanding of microscopic, non-universal properties in such systems. Based on the application of Born-Oppenheimer approximation, well known from molecular physics textbooks, an exceptionally clear and intuitive picture of heteronuclear Efimov physics is revealed.
## Ultra-cold Fermi Gases

The field of cold atomic gases faced a revolution in 1995 when Bose-Einstein condensation was achieved. Since then, there has been an impressive progress, both experimental and theoretical. The quest for ultra-cold Fermi gases started shortly after the 1995 discovery, and quantum degeneracy in a gas of fermionic atoms was obtained in 1999. The Pauli exclusion principle plays a crucial role in many aspects of ultra-cold Fermi gases, including inhibited interactions with applications to precision measurements, and strong correlations. The path towards strong interactions and pairing of fermions opened up with the discovery in 2003 that molecules formed by fermions near a Feshbach resonance were surprisingly stable against inelastic decay, but featured strong elastic interactions. This remarkable combination was explained by the Pauli exclusion principle and the fact that only inelastic collisions require three fermions to come close to each other. The unexpected stability of strongly interacting fermions and fermion pairs triggered most of the research which was presented at this summer school. It is remarkable foresight (or good luck) that the first steps to organize this summer school were already taken before this discovery. It speaks for the dynamics of the field how dramatically it can change course when new insight is obtained. The contributions in this volume provide a detailed coverage of the experimental techniques for the creation and study of Fermi quantum gases, as well as the theoretical foundation for understanding the properties of these novel systems.
## Probing Correlated Quantum Many-Body Systems at the Single-Particle Level

How much knowledge can we gain about a physical system and to what degree can we control it? In quantum optical systems, such as ion traps or neutral atoms in cavities, single particles and their correlations can now be probed in a way that is fundamentally limited only by the laws of quantum mechanics. In contrast, quantum many-body systems pose entirely new challenges due to the enormous number of microscopic parameters and their small length- and short time-scales. This thesis describes a new approach to probing quantum many-body systems at the level of individual particles: Using high-resolution, single-particle-resolved imaging and manipulation of strongly correlated atoms, single atoms can be detected and manipulated due to the large length and time-scales and the precise control of internal degrees of freedom. Such techniques lay stepping stones for the experimental exploration of new quantum many-body phenomena and applications thereof, such as quantum simulation and quantum information, through the design of systems at the microscopic scale and the measurement of previously inaccessible observables.
## Helium Cryogenics

At least 10 years have elapsed since a comprehensive monograph concer ned with the broad subject of cryogenics has been published. During this time a considerable quantity of research and development has been carried out in the field of cryogenics. Furthermore, there has been a certain degree of redirection of effort within the field, mostly driven by the variety of new applications, ranging from superconductive magnet systems to micro electronics. Greater emphasis is now being placed on low-temperature cryogenics, particularly that of liquid helium. Until now cryogenic books have provided a broad survey of materials and fluid properties over the entire cryogenic regime, T ::5 150 K. This approach does not allow sufficient detail in any particular area to bring the reader to the current level of understanding in the subject. In addition, the behavior of helium has been lumped with that of other cryogenic fluids, although the properties of helium are quite unique. As a result, a clear relationship has not been established between the fundamental understanding of helium fluids and their potential applications. The present book has been written to fill this void. The approach is to survey the field of cryogenics, specifically as it pertains to helium fluids. This approach is more specialized than that contained in previous cryogenics books. Furthermore, the level of treatment is more advanced and a certain knowledge of fundamental engineering and physics principles has been assumed.
## From Atom Optics to Quantum Simulation

This thesis explores ultracold quantum gases of bosonic and fermionic atoms in optical lattices. The highly controllable experimental setting discussed in this work, has opened the door to new insights into static and dynamical properties of ultracold quantum matter. One of the highlights reported here is the development and application of a novel time-resolved spectroscopy technique for quantum many-body systems. By following the dynamical evolution of a many-body system after a quantum quench, the author shows how the important energy scales of the underlying Hamiltonian can be measured with high precision. This achievement, its application, and many other exciting results make this thesis of interest to a broad audience ranging from quantum optics to condensed matter physics. A lucid style of writing accompanied by a series of excellent figures make the work accessible to readers outside the rapidly growing research field of ultracold atoms.

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*Finite Temperature and Non-Equilibrium Dynamics*

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