Quantum Gases

Finite Temperature and Non-Equilibrium Dynamics

Author: Nick Proukakis

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1848168128

Category: Science

Page: 554

View: 8487

This volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton-polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics.
Posted in Science

Functional Renormalization and Ultracold Quantum Gases

Author: Stefan Flörchinger

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642141133

Category: Science

Page: 202

View: 1215

Modern techniques from quantum field theory are applied in this work to the description of ultracold quantum gases. This leads to a unified description of many phenomena including superfluidity for bosons and fermions, classical and quantum phase transitions, different dimensions, thermodynamic properties and few-body phenomena as bound state formation or the Efimov effect. The non-perturbative treatment with renormalization group flow equations can account for all known limiting cases by solving one single equation. It improves previous results quantitatively and brings qualitatively new insights. As an example, new quantum phase transitions are found for fermions with three spin states. Ultracold atomic gases can be seen as an interesting model for features of high energy physics and for condensed matter theory. The research reported in this thesis helps to solve the difficult complexity problem in modern theoretical physics.
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Numerical methods for atomic quantum gases

Author: Anna Minguzzi,Sauro Succi,Federico Toschi,Mario Tosi,Patrizia Vignolo

Publisher: Edizioni della Normale

ISBN: 9788876421303

Category: Science

Page: 174

View: 3564

The achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in ultra-cold vapours of alkali atoms has given enormous impulse to the study of dilute atomic gases in condensed quantum states inside magnetic traps and optical lattices. High purity and easy optical access make them ideal candidates to investigate fundamental issues on interacting quantum systems. This review presents some theoretical issues which have been addressed in this area and the numerical techniques which have been developed and used to describe them, from mean-field models to classical and quantum simulations for equilibrium and dynamical properties. The attention given in this article to methods beyond standard mean-field approaches should make it a useful reference point for future advances in these areas.
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Phase Space Methods for Degenerate Quantum Gases

Author: Bryan J. Dalton,John Jeffers,Stephen M. Barnett

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199562741

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 3355

This is a text and reference book on phase space theory for post-graduate students and researchers in the fields of condensed matter, cold quantum gases, and quantum optics who already have a basic understanding of quantum theory. The aim of the book is to provide a theoretical framework for understanding the physics of degenerate quantum gases, which occur in all these fields. The phase space theory is outlined both in terms of a treatment involving separatesingle particle states or modes and in terms of a treatment involving quantum fields. The book contains detailed derivations of all the key results, includes chapters covering necessary backgroundmathematics, with many exercises being provided for readers who wish to check their understanding.
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Many-Body Physics with Ultracold Gases

Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 94, July 2010

Author: Christophe Salomon,Georgy V. Shlyapnikov,Leticia F. Cugliandolo

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019966188X

Category: Science

Page: 345

View: 9384

This book provides authoritative tutorials on the most recent achievements in the field of quantum gases at the interface between atomic physics and quantum optics, condensed matter physics, nuclear and high-energy physics, non-linear physics, and quantum information.
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A Primer on Quantum Fluids

Author: Carlo F. Barenghi,Nick G. Parker

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319424769

Category: Science

Page: 119

View: 3116

The aim of this primer is to cover the essential theoretical information, quickly and concisely, in order to enable senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students to tackle projects in topical research areas of quantum fluids, for example, solitons, vortices and collective modes. The selection of the material, both regarding the content and level of presentation, draws on the authors analysis of the success of relevant research projects with newcomers to the field, as well as of the students feedback from many taught and self-study courses on the subject matter. Starting with a brief historical overview, this text covers particle statistics, weakly interacting condensates and their dynamics and finally superfluid helium and quantum turbulence. At the end of each chapter (apart from the first) there will be some exercises. Detailed solutions can be made available to instructors upon request to the authors.
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Quantum Gas Experiments: Exploring Many-body States

Author: Torma Paivi,Sengstock Klaus

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1783264772

Category: Science

Page: 340

View: 6528

Quantum phenomena of many-particle systems are fascinating in their complexity and are consequently not fully understood and largely untapped in terms of practical applications. Ultracold gases provide a unique platform to build up model systems of quantum many-body physics with highly controlled microscopic constituents. In this way, many-body quantum phenomena can be investigated with an unprecedented level of precision, and control and models that cannot be solved with present day computers may be studied using ultracold gases as a quantum simulator.This book addresses the need for a comprehensive description of the most important advanced experimental methods and techniques that have been developed along with the theoretical framework in a clear and applicable format. The focus is on methods that are especially crucial in probing and understanding the many-body nature of the quantum phenomena in ultracold gases and most topics are covered both from a theoretical and experimental viewpoint, with interrelated chapters written by experts from both sides of research.Graduate students and post-doctoral researches working on ultracold gases will benefit from this book, as well as researchers from other fields who wish to gain an overview of the recent fascinating developments in this very dynamically evolving field. Sufficient level of both detailed high level research and a pedagogical approach is maintained throughout the book so as to be of value to those entering the field as well as advanced researchers. Furthermore, both experimentalists and theorists will benefit from the book; close collaboration between the two are continuously driving the field to a very high level and will be strengthened to continue the important progress yet to be made in the field.
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Heteronuclear Efimov Scenario in Ultracold Quantum Gases

Universality in Systems with Large Mass Imbalance

Author: Juris Ulmanis

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319518623

Category: Science

Page: 125

View: 1026

This thesis represents a decisive breakthrough in our understanding of the physics of universal quantum-mechanical three-body systems. The Efimov scenario is a prime example of how fundamental few-body physics features universally across seemingly disparate fields of modern quantum physics. Initially postulated for nuclear physics more than 40 years ago, the Efimov effect has now become a new research paradigm not only in ultracold atomic gases but also in molecular, biological and condensed matter systems. Despite a lot of effort since its first observations, the scaling behavior, which is a hallmark property and often referred to as the “holy grail” of Efimov physics, remained hidden until recently. In this work, the author demonstrates this behavior for the first time for a heteronuclear mixture of ultracold Li and Cs atoms, and pioneers the experimental understanding of microscopic, non-universal properties in such systems. Based on the application of Born-Oppenheimer approximation, well known from molecular physics textbooks, an exceptionally clear and intuitive picture of heteronuclear Efimov physics is revealed.
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Quantum Gases in Low Dimensions

Author: Ludovic Pricoupenko,Hélène Perrin,Maxim Olshanii

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Quantum theory

Page: 288

View: 1319

Posted in Quantum theory

Quantum Gas Experiments

Exploring Many-body States

Author: Päivi Törmä,Klaus Sengstock

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781783264742

Category: Science

Page: 332

View: 6316

Quantum phenomena of many-particle systems are fascinating in their complexity and are consequently not fully understood and largely untapped in terms of practical applications. Ultracold gases provide a unique platform to build up model systems of quantum many-body physics with highly controlled microscopic constituents. In this way, many-body quantum phenomena can be investigated with an unprecedented level of precision, and control and models that cannot be solved with present day computers may be studied using ultracold gases as a quantum simulator. This book addresses the need for a comprehensive description of the most important advanced experimental methods and techniques that have been developed along with the theoretical framework in a clear and applicable format. The focus is on methods that are especially crucial in probing and understanding the many-body nature of the quantum phenomena in ultracold gases and most topics are covered both from a theoretical and experimental viewpoint, with interrelated chapters written by experts from both sides of research. Graduate students and post-doctoral researches working on ultracold gases will benefit from this book, as well as researchers from other fields who wish to gain an overview of the recent fascinating developments in this very dynamically evolving field. Sufficient level of both detailed high level research and a pedagogical approach is maintained throughout the book so as to be of value to those entering the field as well as advanced researchers. Furthermore, both experimentalists and theorists will benefit from the book; close collaboration between the two are continuously driving the field to a very high level and will be strengthened to continue the important progress yet to be made in the field.
Posted in Science

Physics on Ultracold Quantum Gases

Author: Yongjian Han,Wei Zhang,Wei Yi

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9789813270756

Category: Science

Page: 285

View: 3438

This book derives from the content of graduate courses on cold atomic gases, taught at the Renmin University of China and at the University of Science and Technology of China. It provides a brief review on the history and current research frontiers in the field of ultracold atomic gases, as well as basic theoretical description of few- and many-body physics in the system. Starting from the basics such as atomic structure, atom-light interaction, laser cooling and trapping, the book then moves on to focus on the treatment of ultracold Fermi gases, before turning to topics in quantum simulation using cold atoms in optical lattices. The book would be ideal not only for professionals and researchers, but also for familiarizing junior graduate students with the subject and aiding them in their preparation for future study and research in the field.
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Bose-Einstein Condensation in Dilute Gases

Author: C. J. Pethick,H. Smith

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521665803

Category: Science

Page: 402

View: 7799

In 1925 Einstein predicted that at low temperatures particles in a gas could all reside in the same quantum state. This gaseous state, a Bose–Einstein condensate, was produced in the laboratory for the first time in 1995 and investigating such condensates has become one of the most active areas in contemporary physics. The study of Bose–Einstein condensates in dilute gases encompasses a number of different subfields of physics, including atomic, condensed matter, and nuclear physics. The authors of this graduate-level textbook explain this exciting new subject in terms of basic physical principles, without assuming detailed knowledge of any of these subfields. Chapters cover the statistical physics of trapped gases, atomic properties, cooling and trapping atoms, interatomic interactions, structure of trapped condensates, collective modes, rotating condensates, superfluidity, interference phenomena, and trapped Fermi gases. Problem sets are also included in each chapter.
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Ultracold Quantum Fields

Author: Henk T. C. Stoof,Dennis B. M. Dickerscheid,Koos Gubbels

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402087632

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 485

View: 942

On June 19th 1999, the European Ministers of Education signed the Bologna Dec laration, with which they agreed that the European university education should be uniformized throughout Europe and based on the two cycle bachelor master’s sys tem. The Institute for Theoretical Physics at Utrecht University quickly responded to this new challenge and created an international master’s programme in Theoret ical Physics which started running in the summer of 2000. At present, the master’s programme is a so called prestige master at Utrecht University, and it aims at train ing motivated students to become sophisticated researchers in theoretical physics. The programme is built on the philosophy that modern theoretical physics is guided by universal principles that can be applied to any sub?eld of physics. As a result, the basis of the master’s programme consists of the obligatory courses Statistical Field Theory and Quantum Field Theory. These focus in particular on the general concepts of quantum ?eld theory, rather than on the wide variety of possible applica tions. These applications are left to optional courses that build upon the ?rm concep tual basis given in the obligatory courses. The subjects of these optional courses in clude, for instance, Strongly Correlated Electrons, Spintronics, Bose Einstein Con densation, The Standard Model, Cosmology, and String Theory.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Ultracold Quantum Fields

Author: Henk T. C. Stoof,Dennis B. M. Dickerscheid,Koos Gubbels

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402087632

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 485

View: 2296

On June 19th 1999, the European Ministers of Education signed the Bologna Dec laration, with which they agreed that the European university education should be uniformized throughout Europe and based on the two cycle bachelor master’s sys tem. The Institute for Theoretical Physics at Utrecht University quickly responded to this new challenge and created an international master’s programme in Theoret ical Physics which started running in the summer of 2000. At present, the master’s programme is a so called prestige master at Utrecht University, and it aims at train ing motivated students to become sophisticated researchers in theoretical physics. The programme is built on the philosophy that modern theoretical physics is guided by universal principles that can be applied to any sub?eld of physics. As a result, the basis of the master’s programme consists of the obligatory courses Statistical Field Theory and Quantum Field Theory. These focus in particular on the general concepts of quantum ?eld theory, rather than on the wide variety of possible applica tions. These applications are left to optional courses that build upon the ?rm concep tual basis given in the obligatory courses. The subjects of these optional courses in clude, for instance, Strongly Correlated Electrons, Spintronics, Bose Einstein Con densation, The Standard Model, Cosmology, and String Theory.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Ultracold Bosonic and Fermionic Gases

Author: Kathy Levin,Alexander Fetter,Dan Stamper-Kurn

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444538623

Category: Science

Page: 260

View: 6167

The rapidly developing topic of ultracold atoms has many actual and potential applications for condensed-matter science, and the contributions to this book emphasize these connections. Ultracold Bose and Fermi quantum gases are introduced at a level appropriate for first-year graduate students and non-specialists such as more mature general physicists. The reader will find answers to questions like: how are experiments conducted and how are the results interpreted? What are the advantages and limitations of ultracold atoms in studying many-body physics? How do experiments on ultracold atoms facilitate novel scientific opportunities relevant to the condensed-matted community? This volume seeks to be comprehensible rather than comprehensive; it aims at the level of a colloquium, accessible to outside readers, containing only minimal equations and limited references. In large part, it relies on many beautiful experiments from the past fifteen years and their very fruitful interplay with basic theoretical ideas. In this particular context, phenomena most relevant to condensed-matter science have been emphasized. Introduces ultracold Bose and Fermi quantum gases at a level appropriate for non-specialists Discusses landmark experiments and their fruitful interplay with basic theoretical ideas Comprehensible rather than comprehensive, containing only minimal equations
Posted in Science