*The First Step into Impredicativity*

Author: Wolfram Pohlers

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540693192

Category: Mathematics

Page: 374

View: 4210

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## Proof Theory

The kernel of this book consists of a series of lectures on in?nitary proof theory which I gave during my time at the Westfalische ̈ Wilhelms–Universitat ̈ in Munster ̈ . It was planned as a successor of Springer Lecture Notes in Mathematics 1407. H- ever, when preparing it, I decided to also include material which has not been treated in SLN 1407. Since the appearance of SLN 1407 many innovations in the area of - dinal analysis have taken place. Just to mention those of them which are addressed in this book: Buchholz simpli?ed local predicativity by the invention of operator controlled derivations (cf. Chapter 9, Chapter 11); Weiermann detected applications of methods of impredicative proof theory to the characterization of the provable recursive functions of predicative theories (cf. Chapter 10); Beckmann improved Gentzen’s boundedness theorem (which appears as Stage Theorem (Theorem 6. 6. 1) in this book) to Theorem 6. 6. 9, a theorem which is very satisfying in itself - though its real importance lies in the ordinal analysis of systems, weaker than those treated here. Besides these innovations I also decided to include the analysis of the theory (? –REF) as an example of a subtheory of set theory whose ordinal analysis only 2 0 requires a ?rst step into impredicativity. The ordinal analysis of(? –FXP) of non- 0 1 0 monotone? –de?nable inductive de?nitions in Chapter 13 is an application of the 1 analysis of(? –REF).
## Proof And Computation: Digitization In Mathematics, Computer Science And Philosophy

This book is for graduate students and researchers, introducing modern foundational research in mathematics, computer science, and philosophy from an interdisciplinary point of view. Its scope includes Predicative Foundations, Constructive Mathematics and Type Theory, Computation in Higher Types, Extraction of Programs from Proofs, and Algorithmic Aspects in Financial Mathematics. By filling the gap between (under-)graduate level textbooks and advanced research papers, the book gives a scholarly account of recent developments and emerging branches of the aforementioned fields. Contents: Proof and Computation (K Mainzer) Constructive Convex Programming (J Berger and G Svindland) Exploring Predicativity (L Crosilla) Constructive Functional Analysis: An Introduction (H Ishihara) Program Extraction (K Miyamoto) The Data Structures of the Lambda Terms (M Sato) Provable (and Unprovable) Computability (S Wainer) Introduction to Minlog (F Wiesnet) Readership: Graduate students, researchers, and professionals in Mathematics and Computer Science. Keywords: Proof Theory;Computability Theory;Program Extraction;Constructive Analysis;PredicativityReview: Key Features: This book gathers recent contributions of distinguished experts It makes emerging fields accessible to a wider audience, appealing to a broad readership with diverse backgrounds It fills a gap between (under-)graduate level textbooks and state-of-the-art research papers
## Logic, Construction, Computation

Over the last few decades the interest of logicians and mathematicians in constructive and computational aspects of their subjects has been steadily growing, and researchers from disparate areas realized that they can benefit enormously from the mutual exchange of techniques concerned with those aspects. A key figure in this exciting development is the logician and mathematician Helmut Schwichtenberg to whom this volume is dedicated on the occasion of his 70th birthday and his turning emeritus. The volume contains 20 articles from leading experts about recent developments in Constructive set theory, Provably recursive functions, Program extraction, Theories of truth, Constructive mathematics, Classical vs. intuitionistic logic, Inductive definitions, and Continuous functionals and domains.
## From a Flexible Type System to Metapredicative Wellordering Proofs

## Concepts of Proof in Mathematics, Philosophy, and Computer Science

This book provides the reader with research arising from the Humboldt-Kolleg ‘Proof’ held in Bern in fall 2013, which gathered leading experts actively involved with the concept ‘proof’ in philosophy, mathematics and computer science. This volume aims to do justice to the breadth and depth of the subject and presents relevant current conceptions and technical advances featuring ‘proof’ in those fields.
## Subsystems of Second Order Arithmetic

This volume examines appropriate axioms for mathematics to prove particular theorems in core areas.
## A Short Introduction to Intuitionistic Logic

Intuitionistic logic is presented here as part of familiar classical logic which allows mechanical extraction of programs from proofs. to make the material more accessible, basic techniques are presented first for propositional logic; Part II contains extensions to predicate logic. This material provides an introduction and a safe background for reading research literature in logic and computer science as well as advanced monographs. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic notions of first order logic. One device for making this book short was inventing new proofs of several theorems. The presentation is based on natural deduction. The topics include programming interpretation of intuitionistic logic by simply typed lambda-calculus (Curry-Howard isomorphism), negative translation of classical into intuitionistic logic, normalization of natural deductions, applications to category theory, Kripke models, algebraic and topological semantics, proof-search methods, interpolation theorem. The text developed from materal for several courses taught at Stanford University in 1992-1999.
## Applied Graph Theory in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

This book presents novel graph-theoretic methods for complex computer vision and pattern recognition tasks. It presents the application of graph theory to low-level processing of digital images, presents graph-theoretic learning algorithms for high-level computer vision and pattern recognition applications, and provides detailed descriptions of several applications of graph-based methods to real-world pattern recognition tasks.
## Visualization, Explanation and Reasoning Styles in Mathematics

In the 20th century philosophy of mathematics has to a great extent been dominated by views developed during the so-called foundational crisis in the beginning of that century. These views have primarily focused on questions pertaining to the logical structure of mathematics and questions regarding the justi?cation and consistency of mathematics. Paradigmatic in this - spect is Hilbert’s program which inherits from Frege and Russell the project to formalize all areas of ordinary mathematics and then adds the requi- ment of a proof, by epistemically privileged means (?nitistic reasoning), of the consistency of such formalized theories. While interest in modi?ed v- sions of the original foundational programs is still thriving, in the second part of the twentieth century several philosophers and historians of mat- matics have questioned whether such foundational programs could exhaust the realm of important philosophical problems to be raised about the nature of mathematics. Some have done so in open confrontation (and hostility) to the logically based analysis of mathematics which characterized the cl- sical foundational programs, while others (and many of the contributors to this book belong to this tradition) have only called for an extension of the range of questions and problems that should be raised in connection with an understanding of mathematics. The focus has turned thus to a consideration of what mathematicians are actually doing when they produce mathematics. Questions concerning concept-formation, understanding, heuristics, changes instyle of reasoning, the role of analogies and diagrams etc.
## Mathematica for Theoretical Physics

Class-tested textbook that shows readers how to solve physical problems and deal with their underlying theoretical concepts while using Mathematica® to derive numeric and symbolic solutions. Delivers dozens of fully interactive examples for learning and implementation, constants and formulae can readily be altered and adapted for the user’s purposes. New edition offers enlarged two-volume format suitable to courses in mechanics and electrodynamics, while offering dozens of new examples and a more rewarding interactive learning environment. Notebooks for problem solving and learning.
## Proof Theory

Although this is an introductory text on proof theory, most of its contents is not found in a unified form elsewhere in the literature, except at a very advanced level. The heart of the book is the ordinal analysis of axiom systems, with particular emphasis on that of the impredicative theory of elementary inductive definitions on the natural numbers. The "constructive" consequences of ordinal analysis are sketched out in the epilogue. The book provides a self-contained treatment assuming no prior knowledge of proof theory and almost none of logic. The author has, moreover, endeavoured not to use the "cabal language" of proof theory, but only a language familiar to most readers.
## Probabilistic Behavior of Harmonic Functions

Harmonic analysis and probability have long enjoyed a mutually beneficial relationship that has been rich and fruitful. This monograph, aimed at researchers and students in these fields, explores several aspects of this relationship. The primary focus of the text is the nontangential maximal function and the area function of a harmonic function and their probabilistic analogues in martingale theory. The text first gives the requisite background material from harmonic analysis and discusses known results concerning the nontangential maximal function and area function, as well as the central and essential role these have played in the development of the field.The book next discusses further refinements of traditional results: among these are sharp good-lambda inequalities and laws of the iterated logarithm involving nontangential maximal functions and area functions. Many applications of these results are given. Throughout, the constant interplay between probability and harmonic analysis is emphasized and explained. The text contains some new and many recent results combined in a coherent presentation.
## Invitation to Discrete Mathematics

Invitation to Discrete Mathematics is an introduction and a thoroughly comprehensive text at the same time. A lively and entertaining style with mathematical precision and maturity uniquely combine into an intellectual happening and should delight the interested reader. A master example of teaching contemporary discrete mathematics, and of teaching science in general.
## Metamathematical Investigation of Intuitionistic Arithmetic and Analysis

## Points and Lines

The classical geometries of points and lines include not only the projective and polar spaces, but similar truncations of geometries naturally arising from the groups of Lie type. Virtually all of these geometries (or homomorphic images of them) are characterized in this book by simple local axioms on points and lines. Simple point-line characterizations of Lie incidence geometries allow one to recognize Lie incidence geometries and their automorphism groups. These tools could be useful in shortening the enormously lengthy classification of finite simple groups. Similarly, recognizing ruled manifolds by axioms on light trajectories offers a way for a physicist to recognize the action of a Lie group in a context where it is not clear what Hamiltonians or Casimir operators are involved. The presentation is self-contained in the sense that proofs proceed step-by-step from elementary first principals without further appeal to outside results. Several chapters have new heretofore unpublished research results. On the other hand, certain groups of chapters would make good graduate courses. All but one chapter provide exercises for either use in such a course, or to elicit new research directions.
## Proof Theory

## Plane and Solid Geometry

This is a book on Euclidean geometry that covers the standard material in a completely new way, while also introducing a number of new topics that would be suitable as a junior-senior level undergraduate textbook. The author does not begin in the traditional manner with abstract geometric axioms. Instead, he assumes the real numbers, and begins his treatment by introducing such modern concepts as a metric space, vector space notation, and groups, and thus lays a rigorous basis for geometry while at the same time giving the student tools that will be useful in other courses.
## Algebraic Geometry and Commutative Algebra

Algebraic geometry is a fascinating branch of mathematics that combines methods from both, algebra and geometry. It transcends the limited scope of pure algebra by means of geometric construction principles. Moreover, Grothendieck’s schemes invented in the late 1950s allowed the application of algebraic-geometric methods in fields that formerly seemed to be far away from geometry, like algebraic number theory. The new techniques paved the way to spectacular progress such as the proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem by Wiles and Taylor. The scheme-theoretic approach to algebraic geometry is explained for non-experts. More advanced readers can use the book to broaden their view on the subject. A separate part deals with the necessary prerequisites from commutative algebra. On a whole, the book provides a very accessible and self-contained introduction to algebraic geometry, up to a quite advanced level. Every chapter of the book is preceded by a motivating introduction with an informal discussion of the contents. Typical examples and an abundance of exercises illustrate each section. This way the book is an excellent solution for learning by yourself or for complementing knowledge that is already present. It can equally be used as a convenient source for courses and seminars or as supplemental literature.
## The Cancer Degradome

This book covers recent knowledge of the composition of the Degradome, how it can be studied using modern approaches such as transcriptomics and mass spectrometry; and many other relevant subjects, including new approaches to targeting proteolysis for therapy.
## Feferman on Foundations

This volume honours the life and work of Solomon Feferman, one of the most prominent mathematical logicians of the latter half of the 20th century. In the collection of essays presented here, researchers examine Feferman’s work on mathematical as well as specific methodological and philosophical issues that tie into mathematics. Feferman’s work was largely based in mathematical logic (namely model theory, set theory, proof theory and computability theory), but also branched out into methodological and philosophical issues, making it well known beyond the borders of the mathematics community. With regard to methodological issues, Feferman supported concrete projects. On the one hand, these projects calibrate the proof theoretic strength of subsystems of analysis and set theory and provide ways of overcoming the limitations imposed by Gödel’s incompleteness theorems through appropriate conceptual expansions. On the other, they seek to identify novel axiomatic foundations for mathematical practice, truth theories, and category theory. In his philosophical research, Feferman explored questions such as “What is logic?” and proposed particular positions regarding the foundations of mathematics including, for example, his “conceptual structuralism.” The contributing authors of the volume examine all of the above issues. Their papers are accompanied by an autobiography presented by Feferman that reflects on the evolution and intellectual contexts of his work. The contributing authors critically examine Feferman’s work and, in part, actively expand on his concrete mathematical projects. The volume illuminates Feferman’s distinctive work and, in the process, provides an enlightening perspective on the foundations of mathematics and logic.

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Author: Wolfram Pohlers

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540693192

Category: Mathematics

Page: 374

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