Principles of Mathematical Logic

Author: David Hilbert,Wilhelm Ackermann,Robert E. Luce

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821820249

Category: Mathematics

Page: 172

View: 3748

David Hilbert was particularly interested in the foundations of mathematics. Among many other things, he is famous for his attempt to axiomatize mathematics. This now classic text is his treatment of symbolic logic. This translation is based on the second German edition and has been modified according to the criticisms of Church and Quine. In particular, the authors' original formulation of Godel's completeness proof for the predicate calculus has been updated. In the first half of the twentieth century, an important debate on the foundations of mathematics took place. Principles of Mathematical Logic represents one of Hilbert's important contributions to that debate. Although symbolic logic has grown considerably in the subsequent decades, this book remains a classic.
Posted in Mathematics

The History of Philosophical and Formal Logic

From Aristotle to Tarski

Author: Alex Malpass,Marianna Antonutti Marfori

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472505255

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 1426

The History of Philosophical and Formal Logic introduces ideas and thinkers central to the development of philosophical and formal logic. From its Aristotelian origins to the present-day arguments, logic is broken down into four main time periods: Antiquity and the Middle Ages (Aristotle and The Stoics) The early modern period (Bolzano, Boole) High modern period (Frege, Peano & Russell and Hilbert) Early 20th century (Godel and Tarski) Each new time frame begins with an introductory overview highlighting themes and points of importance. Chapters discuss the significance and reception of influential works and look at historical arguments in the context of contemporary debates. To support independent study, comprehensive lists of primary and secondary reading are included at the end of chapters, along with exercises and discussion questions. By clearly presenting and explaining the changes to logic across the history of philosophy, The History of Philosophical and Formal Logic constructs an easy-to-follow narrative. This is an ideal starting point for students looking to understand the historical development of logic.
Posted in Philosophy

Set Theory and Metric Spaces

Author: Irving Kaplansky

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821826948

Category: Mathematics

Page: 140

View: 2616

This is a book that could profitably be read by many graduate students or by seniors in strong major programs ... has a number of good features. There are many informal comments scattered between the formal development of theorems and these are done in a light and pleasant style. ... There is a complete proof of the equivalence of the axiom of choice, Zorn's Lemma, and well-ordering, as well as a discussion of the use of these concepts. There is also an interesting discussion of the continuum problem ... The presentation of metric spaces before topological spaces ... should be welcomed by most students, since metric spaces are much closer to the ideas of Euclidean spaces with which they are already familiar. --Canadian Mathematical Bulletin Kaplansky has a well-deserved reputation for his expository talents. The selection of topics is excellent. -- Lance Small, UC San Diego This book is based on notes from a course on set theory and metric spaces taught by Edwin Spanier, and also incorporates with his permission numerous exercises from those notes. The volume includes an Appendix that helps bridge the gap between metric and topological spaces, a Selected Bibliography, and an Index.
Posted in Mathematics

Mathematical Grammar of Biology

Author: Michel Eduardo Beleza Yamagishi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319626892

Category: Mathematics

Page: 82

View: 4624

This seminal, multidisciplinary book shows how mathematics can be used to study the first principles of DNA. Most importantly, it enriches the so-called “Chargaff’s grammar of biology” by providing the conceptual theoretical framework necessary to generalize Chargaff’s rules. Starting with a simple example of DNA mathematical modeling where human nucleotide frequencies are associated to the Fibonacci sequence and the Golden Ratio through an optimization problem, its breakthrough is showing that the reverse, complement and reverse-complement operators defined over oligonucleotides induce a natural set partition of DNA words of fixed-size. These equivalence classes, when organized into a matrix form, reveal hidden patterns within the DNA sequence of every living organism. Intended for undergraduate and graduate students both in mathematics and in life sciences, it is also a valuable resource for researchers interested in studying invariant genomic properties.
Posted in Mathematics

Geometry and the Imagination

Author: David Hilbert,Stephan Cohn-Vossen

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821819984

Category: Mathematics

Page: 357

View: 2448

This remarkable book endures as a true masterpiece of mathematical exposition. The book is overflowing with mathematical ideas, which are always explained clearly and elegantly, and above all, with penetrating insight. It is a joy to read, both for beginners and experienced mathematicians. Geometry and the Imagination is full of interesting facts, many of which you wish you had known before. The book begins with examples of the simplest curves and surfaces, including thread constructions of certain quadrics and other surfaces. The chapter on regular systems of points leads to the crystallographic groups and the regular polyhedra in $\mathbb{R}^3$. In this chapter, they also discuss plane lattices. By considering unit lattices, and throwing in a small amount of number theory when necessary, they effortlessly derive Leibniz's series: $\pi/4 = 1 - 1/3 + 1/5 - 1/7 + - \ldots$. In the section on lattices in three and more dimensions, the authors consider sphere-packing problems, including the famous Kepler problem. One of the most remarkable chapters is ``Projective Configurations''. In a short introductory section, Hilbert and Cohn-Vossen give perhaps the most concise and lucid description of why a general geometer would care about projective geometry and why such an ostensibly plain setup is truly rich in structure and ideas. The chapter on kinematics includes a nice discussion of linkages and the geometry of configurations of points and rods that are connected and, perhaps, constrained in some way. This topic in geometry has become increasingly important in recent times, especially in applications to robotics. This is another example of a simple situation that leads to a rich geometry. It would be hard to overestimate the continuing influence Hilbert-Cohn-Vossen's book has had on mathematicians of this century. It surely belongs in the "pantheon" of great mathematics books.
Posted in Mathematics

Lebesgue's Theory of Integration

Its Origins and Development

Author: Thomas Hawkins

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821829639

Category: Mathematics

Page: 227

View: 6068

In this book, Hawkins elegantly places Lebesgue's early work on integration theory within in proper historical context by relating it to the developments during the nineteenth century that motivated it and gave it significance and also to the contributions made in this field by Lebesgue's contemporaries. Hawkins was awarded the 1997 MAA Chauvenet Prize and the 2001 AMS Albert Leon Whiteman Memorial Prize for notable exposition and exceptional scholarship in the history of mathematics.
Posted in Mathematics

The Mathematical Theory of Huygens' Principle

Author: Bevan B. Baker,E. T. Copson

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821834789

Category: Mathematics

Page: 193

View: 7439

Baker and Copson originally set themselves the task of writing a definitive text on partial differential equations in mathematical physics. However, at the time, the subject was changing rapidly and greatly, particularly via the developments coming from quantum mechanics. Instead, the authors chose to focus on a particular area of the broad theory, producing a monograph complete in itself. The resulting book deals with Huygens' principle in optics and its application to the theory of diffraction. Baker and Copson concern themselves with the general theory of the solution of the PDEs governing the propagation of light. Extensive use is made of Green's method. A chapter is dedicated to Sommerfeld's theory of diffraction, including diffraction of polarized light by a perfectly reflecting half-plane and by a black half-plane. New material was added for subsequent editions, notably Rayleigh's method of integral equations to the problem of diffraction by a planar screen. Some of the simpler diffraction problems are discussed as examples. Baker and Copson's book quickly became the standard reference on the subject of Huygens' principle. It remains so today.
Posted in Mathematics

Combinatorial Problems and Exercises

Author: L. Lovász

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080933092

Category: Mathematics

Page: 636

View: 4458

The aim of this book is to introduce a range of combinatorial methods for those who want to apply these methods in the solution of practical and theoretical problems. Various tricks and techniques are taught by means of exercises. Hints are given in a separate section and a third section contains all solutions in detail. A dictionary section gives definitions of the combinatorial notions occurring in the book. Combinatorial Problems and Exercises was first published in 1979. This revised edition has the same basic structure but has been brought up to date with a series of exercises on random walks on graphs and their relations to eigenvalues, expansion properties and electrical resistance. In various chapters the author found lines of thought that have been extended in a natural and significant way in recent years. About 60 new exercises (more counting sub-problems) have been added and several solutions have been simplified.
Posted in Mathematics

The Foundations of Geometry

Author: David Hilbert

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Geometry

Page: 143

View: 9735

Posted in Geometry

A Companion to Analysis

A Second First and First Second Course in Analysis

Author: Thomas William Körner

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821834479

Category: Mathematics

Page: 590

View: 5122

This book not only provides a lot of solid information about real analysis, it also answers those questions which students want to ask but cannot figure how to formulate. To read this book is to spend time with one of the modern masters in the subject. --Steven G. Krantz, Washington University, St. Louis One of the major assets of the book is Korner's very personal writing style. By keeping his own engagement with the material continually in view, he invites the reader to a similarly high level of involvement. And the witty and erudite asides that are sprinkled throughout the book are a real pleasure. --Gerald Folland, University of Washingtion, Seattle Many students acquire knowledge of a large number of theorems and methods of calculus without being able to say how they hang together. This book provides such students with the coherent account that they need. A Companion to Analysis explains the problems which must be resolved in order to obtain a rigorous development of the calculus and shows the student how those problems are dealt with. Starting with the real line, it moves on to finite dimensional spaces and then to metric spaces. Readers who work through this text will be ready for such courses as measure theory, functional analysis, complex analysis and differential geometry. Moreover, they will be well on the road which leads from mathematics student to mathematician. Able and hard working students can use this book for independent study, or it can be used as the basis for an advanced undergraduate or elementary graduate course. An appendix contains a large number of accessible but non-routine problems to improve knowledge and technique.
Posted in Mathematics

The Principles of Inductive Logic

Author: John Venn

Publisher: Taylor & Francis US

ISBN: 9780828402651

Category: Mathematics

Page: 604

View: 2252

Venn, best known for his diagrams for set theory, primarily studied logic and probability theory. The present book is a study of the principles of logic, with special emphasis on inference and induction. From the Preface to the First Edition (1889): ``As many readers will probably perceive, the main original guiding influence with me--as with most of those of the middle generation, and especially with most of those who approached logic with previous mathematical or scientific training--was that of Mill ... I still continue to regard the general attitude towards phenomena, which Mill took up as a logician, to be the soundest and most useful for scientific study ... '' From the Preface to the Second Edition (1907): ``Though thus leaving the main outlines unaltered I have done what I could to improve the work, and to try to bring it up to date ... A number of paragraphs have been altered, others have been re-written, and many hundreds of minor alterations, additions and corrections inserted ... ''
Posted in Mathematics

Hausdorff on Ordered Sets

Author: Felix Hausdorff

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821837885

Category: Mathematics

Page: 322

View: 2031

Georg Cantor, the founder of set theory, published his last paper on sets in 1897. In 1900, David Hilbert made Cantor's Continuum Problem and the challenge of well-ordering the real numbers the first problem in his famous Paris lecture. It was time for the appearance of the second generation of Cantorians. They emerged in the decade 1900-1909, and foremost among them were Ernst Zermelo and Felix Hausdorff. Zermelo isolated the Choice Principle, proved that every set could be well-ordered, and axiomatized the concept of set. He became the father of abstract set theory. Hausdorff eschewed foundations and pursued set theory as part of the mathematical arsenal. He was recognized as the era's leading Cantorian. From 1901-1909, Hausdorff published seven articles in which he created a representation theory for ordered sets and investigated sets of real sequences partially ordered by eventual dominance, together with their maximally ordered subsets. These papers are translated and appear in this volume. Each is accompanied by an introductory essay. These highly accessible works are of historical significance, not only for set theory, but also for model theory, analysis and algebra.
Posted in Mathematics

A Computable Universe

Understanding and Exploring Nature as Computation

Author: Hector Zenil

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814374296

Category: Mathematics

Page: 810

View: 5494

This volume discusses the foundations of computation in relation to nature. It focuses on two main questions: What is computation? and How does nature compute?
Posted in Mathematics

Symbolic Logic

Author: John Venn

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821841990

Category: Mathematics

Page: 540

View: 3876

Venn's style is to take his readers very much into his confidence: as he builds the theory, he carefully points out the alternative paths he might have taken, the alternative definitions he might have used, he shows what the implications of these alternatives are, and justifies his choice on the broadest possible grounds. What is distinctive about this work may be given in part in Venn's own words: ``The thorough examination of symbolic logic as a whole, that is, in its relation to ordinary logic and ordinary thought and language; the establishment of every general symbolic expression and rule on purely logical principles, instead of looking mainly to its formal justification; and the invention and employment of a scheme of diagrammatic notation which shall be in true harmony with our generalizations.''
Posted in Mathematics

Levels of Infinity

Selected Writings on Mathematics and Philosophy

Author: Hermann Weyl,Peter Pesic

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486489035

Category: Mathematics

Page: 240

View: 9566

This original anthology collects 10 of Weyl's less-technical writings that address the broader scope and implications of mathematics. Most have been long unavailable or not previously published in book form. Subjects include logic, topology, abstract algebra, relativity theory, and reflections on the work of Weyl's mentor, David Hilbert. 2012 edition.
Posted in Mathematics

Non-Euclidean Geometry

Author: H. S. M. Coxeter

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780883855225

Category: Mathematics

Page: 336

View: 9894

A reissue of Professor Coxeter's classic text on non-Euclidean geometry. It surveys real projective geometry, and elliptic geometry. After this the Euclidean and hyperbolic geometries are built up axiomatically as special cases. This is essential reading for anybody with an interest in geometry.
Posted in Mathematics

Foundations of Analysis

Author: Edmund Landau

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 082182693X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 136

View: 2000

Certainly no clearer treatment of the foundations of the number system can be offered ... one can only be thankful to the author for this fundamental piece of exposition, which is alive with his vitality and genius. --American Mathematical Monthly Why does $2 \times 2 = 4$? What are fractions? Imaginary numbers? Why do the laws of algebra hold? And how do we prove these laws? What are the properties of the numbers on which the Differential and Integral Calculus is based? In other words, what are numbers? And why do they have the properties we attribute to them? Thanks to the genius of Dedekind, Cantor, Peano, Frege, and Russell, such questions can now be given a satisfactory answer. This English translation of Landau's famous Grundlagen der Analysis answers these important questions.
Posted in Mathematics

From Peirce to Skolem

A Neglected Chapter in the History of Logic

Author: Geraldine Brady

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080532028

Category: Computers

Page: 480

View: 9470

This book is an account of the important influence on the development of mathematical logic of Charles S. Peirce and his student O.H. Mitchell, through the work of Ernst Schröder, Leopold Löwenheim, and Thoralf Skolem. As far as we know, this book is the first work delineating this line of influence on modern mathematical logic.
Posted in Computers

A Profile of Mathematical Logic

Author: Howard DeLong

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486139158

Category: Mathematics

Page: 320

View: 9761

This introduction to mathematical logic explores philosophical issues and Gödel's Theorem. Its widespread influence extends to the author of Gödel, Escher, Bach, whose Pulitzer Prize–winning book was inspired by this work.
Posted in Mathematics

Essentials of Symbolic Logic - Third Edition

Author: R.L. Simpson

Publisher: Broadview Press

ISBN: 1770484957

Category: Philosophy

Page: 296

View: 2192

The third edition of Essentials of Symbolic Logic is a concise and clearly written introduction to the topic. Based on years of use in colleges and universities, the book provides an accessible and thorough grounding in sentence logic and predicate logic. While technical jargon is kept to a minimum, all necessary logical concepts and vocabulary are explained clearly. A standard system of natural deduction is developed, and readers are given suggestions for developing strategies for creating derivations (proofs) in this system. An instructor’s website is available with solutions to all the exercises in the text, including the many new exercises which have been added to this new edition.
Posted in Philosophy