Primate Adaptation and Evolution

Author: John G. Fleagle

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123786339

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 772

Primate Adaptation and Evolution, Third Edition, is a thorough revision of the text of choice for courses in primate evolution. The book retains its grounding in the extant primate groups as the best way to understand the fossil trail and the evolution of these modern forms. However, this coverage is now streamlined, making reference to the many new and excellent books on living primate ecology and adaptation - a field that has burgeoned since the first edition of Primate Adaptation and Evolution. By drawing out the key features of the extant families and referring to more detailed texts, the author sets the scene and also creates space for a thorough updating of the exciting developments in primate palaeontology - and the reconstruction through early hominid species - of our own human origins. This updated version covers recent developments in primate paleontology and the latest taxonomy, and includes over 200 new illustrations and revised evolutionary trees. This text is ideal for undergraduate and post-graduate students studying the evolution and functional ecology of primates and early fossil hominids. Long-awaited revision of the standard student text on primate evolution Full coverage of newly discovered fossils and the latest taxonomy Over 200 new illustrations and revised evolutionary trees
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Primate Origins: Adaptations and Evolution

Author: Matthew J. Ravosa,Marian Dagosto

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387335072

Category: Social Science

Page: 829

View: 7401

This book provides a novel focus on adaptive explanations for cranial and postcranial features and functional complexes, socioecological systems, life history patterns, etc. in early primates. It further offers a detailed rendering of the phylogenetic affinities of such basal taxa to later primate clades as well as to other early/recent mammalian orders. In addition to the strictly paleontological or systemic questions regarding Primate Origins, the editors concentrate on the adaptive significance of primate characteristics. Thus, the book provides the broadest possible perspective on early primate phylogeny and the adaptive uniqueness of the Order Primates.
Posted in Social Science

The Primate Fossil Record

Author: Walter Carl Hartwig

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521663151

Category: Science

Page: 530

View: 2431

A comprehensive treatment of primate paleontology. Profusely illustrated and up to date, it captures the complete history of the discovery and interpretation of primate fossils. The chapters range from primate origins to the advent of anatomically modern humans. Each emphasizes three key components of the record of primate evolution: history of discovery, taxonomy of the fossils, and evolution of the adaptive radiations they represent. The Primate Fossil Record summarizes objectively the many intellectual debates surrounding the fossil record and provides a foundation of reference information on the last two decades of astounding discoveries and worldwide field research for physical anthropologists, paleontologists and evolutionary biologists.
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The Evolution of Primate Societies

Author: John C. Mitani,Josep Call,Peter M. Kappeler,Ryne A. Palombit,Joan B. Silk

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226531732

Category: Science

Page: 728

View: 3086

In 1987, the University of Chicago Press published Primate Societies, the standard reference in the field of primate behavior for an entire generation of students and scientists. But in the twenty-five years since its publication, new theories and research techniques for studying the Primate order have been developed, debated, and tested, forcing scientists to revise their understanding of our closest living relatives. Intended as a sequel to Primate Societies, The Evolution of Primate Societies compiles thirty-one chapters that review the current state of knowledge regarding the behavior of nonhuman primates. Chapters are written by the leading authorities in the field and organized around four major adaptive problems primates face as they strive to grow, maintain themselves, and reproduce in the wild. The inclusion of chapters on the behavior of humans at the end of each major section represents one particularly novel aspect of the book, and it will remind readers what we can learn about ourselves through research on nonhuman primates. The final section highlights some of the innovative and cutting-edge research designed to reveal the similarities and differences between nonhuman and human primate cognition. The Evolution of Primate Societies will be every bit the landmark publication its predecessor has been.
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Postcranial Adaptation in Nonhuman Primates

Author: Daniel Lee Gebo

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780875805597

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 2681

Incorporating the latest research of leading scholars in the field, this collection of essays offers a comprehensive overview of function and adaptation in the postcranial skeleton of living and fossil nonhuman primates. Following an essay on the biomechanics of primate limbs, seven essays address major aspects of functional morphology and anatomy in primates—covering the shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist, hand, hip, thigh, foot, and vertebral column. The final four essays apply this anatomical knowledge toward interpreting positional and locomotor behavior in extinct primates preserved in the fossil record. Generously illustrated, the volume is intended for students of functional comparative anatomy, morphology, zoology, paleontology, and physical anthropology.
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Primate Comparative Anatomy

Author: Daniel L. Gebo

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421414899

Category: Medical

Page: 208

View: 9818

Why do orangutan arms closely resemble human arms? What is the advantage to primates of having long limbs? Why do primates have forward-facing eyes? Answers to questions such as these are usually revealed by comparative studies of primate anatomy. In this heavily illustrated, up-to-date textbook, primate anatomist Daniel L. Gebo provides straightforward explanations of primate anatomy that move logically through the body plan and across species. Including only what is essential in relation to soft tissues, the book relies primarily on bony structures to explain the functions and diversity of anatomy among living primates. Ideal for college and graduate courses, Gebo’s book will also appeal to researchers in the fields of mammalogy, primatology, anthropology, and paleontology. Included in this book are discussions of: • Phylogeny• Adaptation• Body size• The wet- and dry-nosed primates• Bone biology• Musculoskeletal mechanics• Strepsirhine and haplorhine heads• Primate teeth and diets• Necks, backs, and tails• The pelvis and reproduction• Locomotion• Forelimbs and hindlimbs• Hands and feet• Grasping toes
Posted in Medical

Primate Sexuality

Comparative Studies of the Prosimians, Monkeys, Apes, and Humans

Author: Alan F. Dixson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199544646

Category: Science

Page: 785

View: 315

A comprehensive synthesis of current knowledge of the evolution and physiological control of sexual behaviour in the primates - the prosimians, monkeys, apes, and humans. No other book written on the subject exhibits such comparative breadth or technical depth. The new edition incorporates advances in the field over the last decade.
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Lemurs

Ecology and Adaptation

Author: Lisa Gould,M.L. Sauther

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387345868

Category: Science

Page: 450

View: 5396

This book brings together information from recent research, and provides new insight into the study of lemur origins, and the ecology and adaptation of both extant and recently extinct lemurs. In addition, it addresses issues of primate behavioral ecology and how environment can play a major role in explaining species variation. It is the only comprehensive volume to focus on lemur ecology and adaptability, with chapters written by all the big names in the field.
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Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language

Author: Robin Dunbar

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674363366

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 230

View: 4660

What a big brain we have for all the small talk we make. It's an evolutionary riddle that at long last makes sense in this intriguing book about what gossip has done for our talkative species. Psychologist Robin Dunbar looks at gossip as an instrument of social order and cohesion--much like the endless grooming with which our primate cousins tend to their social relationships. Apes and monkeys, humanity's closest kin, differ from other animals in the intensity of these relationships. All their grooming is not so much about hygiene as it is about cementing bonds, making friends, and influencing fellow primates. But for early humans, grooming as a way to social success posed a problem: given their large social groups of 150 or so, our earliest ancestors would have had to spend almost half their time grooming one another--an impossible burden. What Dunbar suggests--and his research, whether in the realm of primatology or in that of gossip, confirms--is that humans developed language to serve the same purpose, but far more efficiently. It seems there is nothing idle about chatter, which holds together a diverse, dynamic group--whether of hunter-gatherers, soldiers, or workmates. Anthropologists have long assumed that language developed in relationships among males during activities such as hunting. Dunbar's original and extremely interesting studies suggest otherwise: that language in fact evolved in response to our need to keep up to date with friends and family. We needed conversation to stay in touch, and we still need it in ways that will not be satisfied by teleconferencing, email, or any other communication technology. As Dunbar shows, the impersonal world of cyberspace will not fulfill our primordial need for face-to-face contact. From the nit-picking of chimpanzees to our chats at coffee break, from neuroscience to paleoanthropology, Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language offers a provocative view of what makes us human, what holds us together, and what sets us apart.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

Primate Life Histories and Socioecology

Author: Peter M. Kappeler

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226424642

Category: Nature

Page: 395

View: 9046

We know a great deal about roles the environment plays in shaping survival, reproductive success, and even social systems among primates. But how do primate life histories affect social systems and vice versa? Do baboons' patterns of growth, for example, help to structure their societies? Does fission-fusion sociality interact with predator pressure to influence the timing of maturation in chimpanzees? Exploring these issues and many others, the contributors to Primate Life Histories and Socioecology provide the first systematic attempt to understand relationships among primate life histories, ecology, and social behavior conjointly. Topics covered include how primate life histories interact with rates of evolution, predator pressure, and diverse social structures; how the slow maturation of primates affects the behavior of both young and adult caregivers; and reciprocal relationships between large brains and increased social and behavioral complexity. The first collection of its kind, this book will interest a wide range of researchers, from anthropologists and evolutionary biologists to psychologists and ecologists. Contributors: Paul-Michael Agapow, Susan C. Alberts, Jeanne Altmann, Robert A. Barton, Nicholas G. Blurton Jones, Robert O. Deaner, Robin I. M. Dunbar, Jörg U. Ganzhorn, Laurie R. Godfrey, Kristen Hawkes, Nick J. B. Isaac, Charles H. Janson, Kate E. Jones, William L. Jungers, Peter M. Kappeler, Susanne Klaus, Phyllis C. Lee, Steven R. Leigh, Robert D. Martin, James F. O'Connell, Sylvia Ortmann, Michael E. Pereira, Andy Purvis, Caroline Ross, Karen E. Samonds, Jutta Schmid, Stephen C. Stearns, Michael R. Sutherland, Carel P. van Schaik, and Andrea J. Webster.
Posted in Nature

Mammal Teeth

Origin, Evolution, and Diversity

Author: Peter S. Ungar

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801899515

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 7293

His book is a must-read for paleontologists, mammalogists, and anthropologists.
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Cooperation in Primates and Humans

Mechanisms and Evolution

Author: Peter M Kappeler,Carel P. van Schaik

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540282777

Category: Science

Page: 350

View: 1854

This book examines the many facets of cooperative behavior in primates and humans as some of the world’s leading experts review and summarize the state-of-the-art of theoretical and empirical studies of cooperation. This book is the first to bridge the gap between parallel research in primatology and studies of humans. Comparative as this approach is, it highlights both common principles and aspects of human uniqueness with respect to cooperative behavior.
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Games Primates Play

An Undercover Investigation of the Evolution and Economics of Human Relationships

Author: Dario Maestripieri

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 046502078X

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 3690

A primatologist examines unspoken social customs, from jilting a lover to being competitive on the job, to explain how behavioral complexities are linked to humans' primate heritage.
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Introduction to the Primates

Author: Daris R. Swindler

Publisher: University of Washington Press

ISBN: 0295802790

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 888

Introduction to the Primates is a comprehensive but compact guide to the long evolutionary history of the world�s prosimians, monkeys, and apes, and to the much shorter history of humankind�s interactions with them, from our earliest recorded observations to the severe threats we now pose to their survival. Daris Swindler provides a detailed description of the major primate groups and their environments, from the smallest lemurs of Madagascar to the gorillas of central Africa. He compares and contrasts the primate species, looking at each with a specific anatomical focus. The range of diversity emerges as the particular characteristics of the species becomes increasingly distinct. Swindler also considers primate behavior and its close connections with environment and evolutionary differences. His account of 65 million years of successful adaptation and evolution demonstrates the drama of paleontology as evidence accrues and gaps in the history of primate evolution gradually close.
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Primate Locomotion

Author: Farish A. Jr. Jenkins

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323152023

Category: Nature

Page: 402

View: 1793

Primate Locomotion discusses researches on the concept of primate locomotion. It is organized into 11 chapters that cover biomechanical principles, which are the foundation of understanding of locomotor adaptations. This book first gives an introduction to parallels and analogs between mammalian and mechanical structures. It then describes the mechanisms of arboreal mammal locomotion, as well as the behavioral observations and locomotor patterns of tree shrew. The jumping locomotion of Galago alleni and the role of wrist specialization in the locomotor evolution of the Hominoidea are also explained. The subsequent chapter discusses the relationship between the mechanical features of the scapula and shoulder region and the characteristics of locomotor behavior. A chapter also discusses the adaptive nature of postural behavior in quadrupedal primates, represented by the New and Old World monkeys. Moreover, this book examines the morphological differences between living Insectivora, Carnivora, Primates, and the relevant known fossils of Cretaceous and Early Tertiary Eutheria. This is to evaluate the origins, evolution, and function of the Tarsus. Another chapter presents a functional analysis of most of the foot skeleton, primarily, the Lemuriformes. The concluding chapters deal with electromyographical studies on gorillas; the mechanics of knuckle-walking; the theories on hominoid phylogeny; and the locomotor adaptations in prosimians. This text is intended not only for researchers dealing with primate locomotion, but equally for students and others who share an interest in mammals and locomotor adaptations.
Posted in Nature

Comparative Primate Socioecology

Author: P. C. Lee,Phyllis C. Lee

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521004244

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 8388

Draws together exciting new and controversial findings from field research on a wide variety of primates including humans.
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Infectious Diseases in Primates

Behavior, Ecology and Evolution

Author: Charles Nunn,Sonia M. Altizer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198565844

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 4436

1. Questions, Terminology, and Underlying Principles2. Diversity and Characteristics of Primate Parasites3. Primate Socioecology and Disease Risk- Predictions and Rationale4. Host-Parasite Dynamics and Epidemiological Principles5. Host Defenses- The Immune System and Behavioral Counterstrategies6. Infectious Disease and Primate Social Systems7. Parasites and Primate Conservation8. From Nonhuman Primates to Human Health and Evolution9. Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
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The Real Planet of the Apes

A New Story of Human Origins

Author: David R. Begun

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400874270

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 4128

Was Darwin wrong when he traced our origins to Africa? The Real Planet of the Apes makes the explosive claim that it was in Europe, not Africa, where apes evolved the most important hallmarks of our human lineage—such as dexterous hands and larger brains. In this compelling and accessible book, David Begun, one of the world's leading paleoanthropologists, transports readers to an epoch in the remote past when the Earth was home to many migratory populations of ape species. Drawing on the latest astonishing discoveries in the fossil record as well as his own experiences conducting field expeditions across Europe and Asia, Begun provides a sweeping evolutionary history of great apes and humans. He tells the story of how one of the earliest members of our evolutionary group—a new kind of primate called Proconsul—evolved from lemur-like monkeys in the primeval forests of Africa. Begun vividly describes how, over the next 10 million years, these hominoids expanded into Europe and Asia and evolved climbing and hanging adaptations, longer maturation times, and larger brains, setting the stage for the emergence of humans. As the climate deteriorated in Europe around 10 million years ago, these apes either died out or migrated south, reinvading the African continent and giving rise to the lineages of the gorilla, chimpanzee, and, ultimately, the human. Presenting startling new insights about our fossil ape ancestors, The Real Planet of the Apes is a book that fundamentally alters our understanding of human origins.
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Theropithecus

The Rise and Fall of a Primate Genus

Author: Nina G. Jablonski

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521018494

Category: Science

Page: 556

View: 3172

This unique volume provides a comprehensive and up-to-date examination of all aspects of the biology of the Old World monkey genus, Theropithecus, which evolved alongside our human ancestors. This genus is represented today by only one rare species. The authors explore the fossil history and evolution of the genus, its biogeography, comparative evolutionary biology and anatomy, and the behavior and socioecology of the living and extinct representatives of the genus. The parallels between the evolution of Theropithecus and early hominids are discussed. There are also two chapters of particular significance that describe how an innovative and exciting approach to the modeling of the causes of species extinction can be used with great success. This highly multidisciplinary approach provides a rare and insightful account of the evolutionary biology of this fascinating and once highly successful group of primates.
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The Improbable Primate

How Water Shaped Human Evolution

Author: Clive Finlayson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191503789

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 2260

Taking an ecological approach to our evolution, Clive Finlayson considers the origins of modern humans within the context of a drying climate and changing landscapes. Finlayson argues that environmental change, particularly availability of water, played a critical role in shaping the direction of human evolution, contributing to our spread and success. He argues that our ancestors carved a niche for themselves by leaving the forest and forcing their way into a long-established community of carnivores in a tropical savannah as climate changes opened up the landscape. They took their chance at high noon, when most other predators were asleep. Adapting to this new lifestyle by shedding their hair and developing an active sweating system to keep cool, being close to fresh water was vital. As the climate dried, our ancestors, already bipedal, became taller and slimmer, more adept at travelling farther in search of water. The challenges of seeking water in a drying landscape moulded the minds and bodies of early humans, and directed their migrations and eventual settlements. In this fresh and provocative view of a seven-million-year evolutionary journey, Finlayson demonstrates the radical implications for the interpretation of fossils and technologies and shows that understanding humans within an ecological context provides insights into the emergence and spread of Homo sapiens sapiens worldwide.
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