Author: Lasse Rempe-Gillen, Rebecca Waldecker

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821898833

Category: Mathematics

Page: 240

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## Primality Testing for Beginners

How can you tell whether a number is prime? What if the number has hundreds or thousands of digits? This question may seem abstract or irrelevant, but in fact, primality tests are performed every time we make a secure online transaction. In 2002, Agrawal, Kayal, and Saxena answered a long-standing open question in this context by presenting a deterministic test (the AKS algorithm) with polynomial running time that checks whether a number is prime or not. What is more, their methods are essentially elementary, providing us with a unique opportunity to give a complete explanation of a current mathematical breakthrough to a wide audience. Rempe-Gillen and Waldecker introduce the aspects of number theory, algorithm theory, and cryptography that are relevant for the AKS algorithm and explain in detail why and how this test works. This book is specifically designed to make the reader familiar with the background that is necessary to appreciate the AKS algorithm and begins at a level that is suitable for secondary school students, teachers, and interested amateurs. Throughout the book, the reader becomes involved in the topic by means of numerous exercises.
## Mathematics for Computer Science

This book covers elementary discrete mathematics for computer science and engineering. It emphasizes mathematical definitions and proofs as well as applicable methods. Topics include formal logic notation, proof methods; induction, well-ordering; sets, relations; elementary graph theory; integer congruences; asymptotic notation and growth of functions; permutations and combinations, counting principles; discrete probability. Further selected topics may also be covered, such as recursive definition and structural induction; state machines and invariants; recurrences; generating functions.
## Algorithms

## Introduction to Algorithms

A new edition of the essential text and professional reference, with substantial new material on such topics as vEB trees, multithreaded algorithms, dynamic programming, and edge-based flow.
## P, NP, and NP-Completeness

The focus of this book is the P versus NP Question and the theory of NP-completeness. It also provides adequate preliminaries regarding computational problems and computational models. The P versus NP Question asks whether or not finding solutions is harder than checking the correctness of solutions. An alternative formulation asks whether or not discovering proofs is harder than verifying their correctness. It is widely believed that the answer to these equivalent formulations is positive, and this is captured by saying that P is different from NP. Although the P versus NP Question remains unresolved, the theory of NP-completeness offers evidence for the intractability of specific problems in NP by showing that they are universal for the entire class. Amazingly enough, NP-complete problems exist, and furthermore hundreds of natural computational problems arising in many different areas of mathematics and science are NP-complete.
## Explorations in Computing

An Active Learning Approach to Teaching the Main Ideas in Computing Explorations in Computing: An Introduction to Computer Science and Python Programming teaches computer science students how to use programming skills to explore fundamental concepts and computational approaches to solving problems. Tbook gives beginning students an introduction to computer science concepts and computer programming. Designed for CS0 and CS1 courses, it is very well suited for alternative lecture styles, including flipped classrooms. Prepares Students for Advanced Work in Computer Science A revised and updated version of the author’s Explorations in Computing: An Introduction to Computer Science, this text incorporates two major differences. It now uses Python, instead of Ruby, as the lab software so that students can seamlessly transition from introductory projects to more advanced studies in later courses. The book also introduces Python programming, providing students with sufficient programming skills so they can implement their own programs. Practical, Step-by-Step Projects The interactive lab projects in each chapter allow students to examine important ideas in computer science, particularly how algorithms offer computational solutions to problems. Students can type expressions, view results, and run experiments that help them understand the concepts in a hands-on way. Web Resources The Python software modules for each lab project are available on the author’s website. The modules include data files and sample Python code that students can copy and modify. In addition, the site provides a lab manual of installation instructions and tips for editing programs and running commands in a terminal emulator.
## Randomized Algorithms

For many applications a randomized algorithm is either the simplest algorithm available, or the fastest, or both. This tutorial presents the basic concepts in the design and analysis of randomized algorithms. The first part of the book presents tools from probability theory and probabilistic analysis that are recurrent in algorithmic applications. Algorithmic examples are given to illustrate the use of each tool in a concrete setting. In the second part of the book, each of the seven chapters focuses on one important area of application of randomized algorithms: data structures; geometric algorithms; graph algorithms; number theory; enumeration; parallel algorithms; and on-line algorithms. A comprehensive and representative selection of the algorithms in these areas is also given. This book should prove invaluable as a reference for researchers and professional programmers, as well as for students.
## Handbook of Applied Cryptography

Cryptography, in particular public-key cryptography, has emerged in the last 20 years as an important discipline that is not only the subject of an enormous amount of research, but provides the foundation for information security in many applications. Standards are emerging to meet the demands for cryptographic protection in most areas of data communications. Public-key cryptographic techniques are now in widespread use, especially in the financial services industry, in the public sector, and by individuals for their personal privacy, such as in electronic mail. This Handbook will serve as a valuable reference for the novice as well as for the expert who needs a wider scope of coverage within the area of cryptography. It is a necessary and timely guide for professionals who practice the art of cryptography. The Handbook of Applied Cryptography provides a treatment that is multifunctional: It serves as an introduction to the more practical aspects of both conventional and public-key cryptography It is a valuable source of the latest techniques and algorithms for the serious practitioner It provides an integrated treatment of the field, while still presenting each major topic as a self-contained unit It provides a mathematical treatment to accompany practical discussions It contains enough abstraction to be a valuable reference for theoreticians while containing enough detail to actually allow implementation of the algorithms discussed Now in its third printing, this is the definitive cryptography reference that the novice as well as experienced developers, designers, researchers, engineers, computer scientists, and mathematicians alike will use.
## Programming Challenges

There are many distinct pleasures associated with computer programming. Craftsm- ship has its quiet rewards, the satisfaction that comes from building a useful object and making it work. Excitement arrives with the ?ash of insight that cracks a previously intractable problem. The spiritual quest for elegance can turn the hacker into an artist. Therearepleasuresinparsimony,insqueezingthelastdropofperformanceoutofclever algorithms and tight coding. Thegames,puzzles,andchallengesofproblemsfrominternationalprogrammingc- petitionsareagreatwaytoexperiencethesepleasureswhileimprovingyouralgorithmic and coding skills. This book contains over 100 problems that have appeared in previous programming contests, along with discussions of the theory and ideas necessary to - tack them. Instant online grading for all of these problems is available from two WWW robot judging sites. Combining this book with a judge gives an exciting new way to challenge and improve your programming skills. This book can be used for self-study, for teaching innovative courses in algorithms and programming, and in training for international competition. To the Reader Theproblemsinthisbookhavebeenselectedfromover1,000programmingproblemsat the Universidad de Valladolid online judge, available athttp://online-judge.uva.es.The judgehasruledonwelloveronemillionsubmissionsfrom27,000registeredusersaround the world to date. We have taken only the best of the best, the most fun, exciting, and interesting problems available.
## Probability and Computing

Randomization and probabilistic techniques play an important role in modern computer science, with applications ranging from combinatorial optimization and machine learning to communication networks and secure protocols.Assuming only an elementary background in discrete mathematics, this textbook is designed to accompany a one- or two-semester course for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students in computer science and applied mathematics. It gives an excellent introduction to the probabilistic techniques and paradigms used in the development of probabilistic algorithms and analyses, including random sampling, expectations, Markov's and Chevyshev's inequalities, Chernoff bounds, balls and bins models, the probabilistic method, Markov chains, MCMC, martingales, entropy, and other topics.
## The P=NP Question and Gödel’s Lost Letter

? DoesP=NP. In just ?ve symbols Dick Karp –in 1972–captured one of the deepest and most important questions of all time. When he ?rst wrote his famous paper, I think it’s fair to say he did not know the depth and importance of his question. Now over three decades later, we know P=NP is central to our understanding of compu- tion, it is a very hard problem, and its resolution will have potentially tremendous consequences. This book is a collection of some of the most popular posts from my blog— Godel ̈ Lost Letter andP=NP—which I started in early 2009. The main thrust of the blog, especially when I started, was to explore various aspects of computational complexity around the famousP=NP question. As I published posts I branched out and covered additional material, sometimes a timely event, sometimes a fun idea, sometimes a new result, and sometimes an old result. I have always tried to make the posts readable by a wide audience, and I believe I have succeeded in doing this.
## Concrete Mathematics

This book, updated and improved, introduces the mathematics that supports advanced computer programming and the analysis of algorithms. The primary aim of its well-known authors is to provide a solid and relevant base of mathematical skills--the skills needed to solve complex problems, to evaluate horrendous-looking sums, to solve complex recurrence relations, and to discover subtle patterns in data. It is an indispensable text and reference, not only for computer scientists but for all technical professionals in virtually every discipline.
## Handbook of Combinatorial Optimization

This volume can be considered as a supplementary volume to the major three-volume Handbook of Combinatorial Optimization published by Kluwer. It can also be regarded as a stand-alone volume which presents chapters dealing with various aspects of the subject including optimization problems and algorithmic approaches for discrete problems. Audience: All those who use combinatorial optimization methods to model and solve problems.
## A Course in Number Theory and Cryptography

This is a substantially revised and updated introduction to arithmetic topics, both ancient and modern, that have been at the centre of interest in applications of number theory, particularly in cryptography. As such, no background in algebra or number theory is assumed, and the book begins with a discussion of the basic number theory that is needed. The approach taken is algorithmic, emphasising estimates of the efficiency of the techniques that arise from the theory, and one special feature is the inclusion of recent applications of the theory of elliptic curves. Extensive exercises and careful answers are an integral part all of the chapters.
## Data Structures and Algorithms in Java

The design and analysis of efficient data structures has long been recognized as a key component of the Computer Science curriculum. Goodrich, Tomassia and Goldwasser's approach to this classic topic is based on the object-oriented paradigm as the framework of choice for the design of data structures. For each ADT presented in the text, the authors provide an associated Java interface. Concrete data structures realizing the ADTs are provided as Java classes implementing the interfaces. The Java code implementing fundamental data structures in this book is organized in a single Java package, net.datastructures. This package forms a coherent library of data structures and algorithms in Java specifically designed for educational purposes in a way that is complimentary with the Java Collections Framework.
## Matlab

MatLab, Third Edition is the only book that gives a full introduction to programming in MATLAB combined with an explanation of the software’s powerful functions, enabling engineers to fully exploit its extensive capabilities in solving engineering problems. The book provides a systematic, step-by-step approach, building on concepts throughout the text, facilitating easier learning. Sections on common pitfalls and programming guidelines direct students towards best practice. The book is organized into 14 chapters, starting with programming concepts such as variables, assignments, input/output, and selection statements; moves onto loops; and then solves problems using both the ‘programming concept’ and the ‘power of MATLAB’ side-by-side. In-depth coverage is given to input/output, a topic that is fundamental to many engineering applications. Vectorized Code has been made into its own chapter, in order to emphasize the importance of using MATLAB efficiently. There are also expanded examples on low-level file input functions, Graphical User Interfaces, and use of MATLAB Version R2012b; modified and new end-of-chapter exercises; improved labeling of plots; and improved standards for variable names and documentation. This book will be a valuable resource for engineers learning to program and model in MATLAB, as well as for undergraduates in engineering and science taking a course that uses (or recommends) MATLAB. Presents programming concepts and MATLAB built-in functions side-by-side Systematic, step-by-step approach, building on concepts throughout the book, facilitating easier learning Sections on common pitfalls and programming guidelines direct students towards best practice
## Prime Numbers and Computer Methods for Factorization

From the original hard cover edition: In the modern age of almost universal computer usage, practically every individual in a technologically developed society has routine access to the most up-to-date cryptographic technology that exists, the so-called RSA public-key cryptosystem. A major component of this system is the factorization of large numbers into their primes. Thus an ancient number-theory concept now plays a crucial role in communication among millions of people who may have little or no knowledge of even elementary mathematics. Hans Riesel’s highly successful first edition of this book has now been enlarged and updated with the goal of satisfying the needs of researchers, students, practitioners of cryptography, and non-scientific readers with a mathematical inclination. It includes important advances in computational prime number theory and in factorization as well as re-computed and enlarged tables, accompanied by new tables reflecting current research by both the author and his coworkers and by independent researchers. The book treats four fundamental problems: the number of primes below a given limit, the approximate number of primes, the recognition of primes and the factorization of large numbers. The author provides explicit algorithms and computer programs, and has attempted to discuss as many of the classically important results as possible, as well as the most recent discoveries. The programs include are written in PASCAL to allow readers to translate the programs into the language of their own computers. The independent structure of each chapter of the book makes it highly readable for a wide variety of mathematicians, students of applied number theory, and others interested in both study and research in number theory and cryptography.
## Prime Numbers

Bridges the gap between theoretical and computational aspects of prime numbers Exercise sections are a goldmine of interesting examples, pointers to the literature and potential research projects Authors are well-known and highly-regarded in the field
## Algorithms

Provides in-depth coverage of traditional and current topics in sequential algorithms, and also gives a solid introduction to the theory of parallel and distributed algorithms reflecting the emergence of modern computing environments such as parallel computers, the Internet, cluster and grid computing.
## Computability and Complexity

"Neil Jones is one of the precious few computer scientists with great expertise and leadership roles in both formal methods and complexity. This makes his book especially valuable." -- Yuri Gurevich, Professor of Computer Science, University of Michigan Computability and complexity theory should be of central concern to practitioners as well as theorists. Unfortunately, however, the field is known for its impenetrability. Neil Jones's goal as an educator and author is to build a bridge between computability and complexity theory and other areas of computer science, especially programming. In a shift away from the Turing machine- and Gö del number-oriented classical approaches, Jones uses concepts familiar from programming languages to make computability and complexity more accessible to computer scientists and more applicable to practical programming problems. According to Jones, the fields of computability and complexity theory, as well as programming languages and semantics, have a great deal to offer each other. Computability and complexity theory have a breadth, depth, and generality not often seen in programming languages. The programming language community, meanwhile, has a firm grasp of algorithm design, presentation, and implementation. In addition, programming languages sometimes provide computational models that are more realistic in certain crucial aspects than traditional models. New results in the book include a proof that constant time factors do matter for its programming-oriented model of computation. (In contrast, Turing machines have a counterintuitive "constant speedup" property: that almost anyprogram can be made to run faster, by any amount. Its proof involves techniques irrelevant to practice.) Further results include simple characterizations in programming terms of the central complexity classes PTIME and LOGSPACE, and a new approach to complete problems for NLOGSPACE, PTIME, NPTIME, and PSPACE, uniformly based on Boolean programs. "Foundations of Computing series"

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Author: Lasse Rempe-Gillen, Rebecca Waldecker

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821898833

Category: Mathematics

Page: 240

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