Current demographic trends raise new questions, challenges and controversies. Comparing demographic trends in Europe and the NAME-region (North Africa and the Middle East), this book demonstrates how population change interacts with changing economic landscapes, social distinctions and political realities. A variety of drivers contribute to demographic change in the various regions and countries considered, such as family policies, economic realities, the impact of educational differentials and the attitudes towards marriage. On the macro-level the new trends are restructuring the age composition of populations and are reshaping the life courses of individuals and families. In turn, the impact demographic forces have on the organisation of labour markets, on fiscal policies, on the care of the elderly, on migration flows and on political changes can be quite radical. The volume provides food for thought for those who are looking for a nuanced perspective on the background and future perspectives of demographic developments in Europe, for a discussion of recent demographic and political realities in the NAME countries, and for those who analyse the effects of contrasting demographic regimes on migration flows to and migration politics in Europe. Chapter 1 of this book is freely available as a downloadable Open Access PDF at http://www.tandfebooks.com/page/openaccess. It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license.
Beyond the Demographic Divide
Author: Koenraad Matthijs,Karel Neels,Christiane Timmerman,Jacques Haers
Category: Social Science
Current demographic trends raise new questions, challenges and controversies. Comparing demographic trends in Europe and the NAME-region (North Africa and the Middle East), this book demonstrates how population change interacts with changing economic landscapes, social distinctions and political realities. A variety of drivers contribute to demographic change in the various regions and countries considered, such as family policies, economic realities, the impact of educational differentials and the attitudes towards marriage. On the macro-level the new trends are restructuring the age composition of populations and are reshaping the life courses of individuals and families. In turn, the impact demographic forces have on the organisation of labour markets, on fiscal policies, on the care of the elderly, on migration flows and on political changes can be quite radical. The volume provides food for thought for those who are looking for a nuanced perspective on the background and future perspectives of demographic developments in Europe, for a discussion of recent demographic and political realities in the NAME countries, and for those who analyse the effects of contrasting demographic regimes on migration flows to and migration politics in Europe.
Beyond the Demographic Divide
Author: Dr Christiane Timmerman,Dr Karel Neels,Ms Sara Mels,Prof Dr Jacques Haers,Professor Koenraad Matthijs
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Category: Social Science
Comparing demographic trends in Europe and the NAME-region (North Africa and the Middle East), this book demonstrates how population change interacts with changing economic landscapes, social distinctions and political realities. It also provides food for thought for those who are looking for a nuanced perspective on the background and future perspectives of demographic developments in Europe, for a discussion of recent demographic and political realities in the NAME countries, and for those who analyse the effects of contrasting demographic regimes on migration flows to and migration politics in Europe.
Author: Koenraad Matthijs,Karel Neels,Christiane Timmerman,Jacques Haers,Sara Mels
Publisher: Lund Humphries Publishers
Category: Social Science
One of the most important challenges facing the European Union over the next few decades is demographic: as birthrates continue to decline and the population ages, immigration will be needed to sustain a sufficient working-age population. This volume takes that fact as a point of departure for analyzing patterns and prospects of immigration from the Middle East and North Africa to Europe, taking into account existing migration links and current EU migration policies as well as demographic, economic, and political developments in the Middle East and North Africa.
Past Developments, Current Status and Future Potentials
Author: Michael Bommes,Heinz Fassmann,Wiebke Sievers
Publisher: IMISCOE Research
Category: Social Science
Since the start of the conflict in Syria in 2011, Syrian refugee children have withstood violence, uncertainty, fear, trauma and loss. This book follows their journeys by bringing together scholars and practitioners to reflect on how to make their situation better and to get this knowledge to as many front liners - across European and neighbouring countries in the Middle East - as possible. The book is premised on the underlying conception of refugee children as not merely a vulnerable contingent of the displaced Syrian population, but one that possesses a certain agency for change and progress. In this vein, the various contributions aim to not just de-securitize the 'conversation' on migration that frequently centres on the presumed insecurity that refugees personify. They also de-securitize the figure and image of the refugee. Through the stories of the youngest and most vulnerable, they demonstrate that refugee children are not mere opaque figures on who we project our insecurities. Instead, they embody potentials and opportunities for progress that we need to nurture, as young refugees find themselves compelled to both negotiate the practical realities of a life in exile, and situate themselves in changing and unfamiliar sociocultural contexts. Drawing on extensive field research, this edited volume points in the direction of a new rights based framework which will safeguard the future of these children and their well-being. Offering a comparative lens between approaches to tackling refugees in the Middle East and Europe, this book will appeal to students and scholars of refugees and migration studies, human rights, as well as anyone with an interest in the Middle East or Europe.
Integrating the Young and Exiled
Author: Michelle Pace,Somdeep Sen
Publisher: Routledge Studies in Middle Eastern Society
Category: Refugee children
The chapters in this book reflect on the work of seminal Australian geographer, the late Professor Graeme Hugo. Graeme Hugo was widely respected because of his impressive contributions to scholarship and policy in the fields of migration, population and development, which spanned several decades. This collection of works contains contributions from authors whose own research has been influenced by Hugo and includes numerous authors who worked closely with Hugo throughout his career. The collection provides an opportunity to reflect on Hugo�s legacy, and also to foreground contemporary scholarship in his key areas of research focus. The chapters are organised into two thematic threads. Part 1 contains works relating to �Population, Migration and Settlement in Australia�, while Part 2 focuses on �Labour and Environmental Migration in the Asia-Pacific�. Together, these two thematic threads provide broad coverage of Graeme Hugo�s key areas of research focus. The chapters also serve as a reminder of Hugo�s steadfast concern with producing careful scholarship for the public good, and seek to prompt continued work in this vein. The chapters originally published in special issues in Australian Geographer.
In Memory of Graeme Hugo
Author: Natascha Klocker,Olivia Dun
Governance in the Middle East is topic of interest to scholars, activists and policy makers. The currently proposed book is intended to present the first comprehensive framework of the question of governance in the Middle East in its various forms and manifestations: political, economic, and government performance. This study will supply the context that is missing in the existing literature on, perhaps, the last bastion of authoritarianism in the world. Proposed Contents This book will be structured into two parts: Part I (Chapters 1-11) provides some theoretical background and analyzes the patterns and challenges of governance in the Middle East, providing some global context; Part II (12-Conclusion) will examine specific cases in selected countries and regions in the Middle East. Part I: Theory and Context Chapter 1 will be an introduction describing the main aspects of the book and highlighting the main points made by the contributors. Chapter 2 will present the theoretical dimensions of governance and review the "state of the discipline" and the latest trends in the literature on governance. The author of this chapter will be an authority in the subject of governance, but does not have to be necessarily a Middle East scholar. Chapter 3 will examine the general political trends in the Middle East and provide a historical background: nation-state formation, colonial and postcolonial experiences in the Middle East and the nature of the Middle Eastern political environment at the present time. Chapter 4 will look into the economic aspects of governance in the Middle East and contextualize the economic challenges and deficiencies affecting the region. Chapter 5 will examine the areas of success and failure in government performance in the region and the aspects of human development. Chapter 6 will look into the role of religion in shaping the governance in the Middle East. After all, most Middle Eastern governments declare Islam as the State religion, while a few consider Islam the source of governance and legislation (e.g. Saudi Arabia and Iran). Chapter 7 will shed light on the sectarian division among Muslims (Shi‘a vs. Sunnis) and the significance of this division for the governance, particularly in countries where the ruling groups belong to a different sect than the governed, such as Bahrain, Saudi, Kuwait and Lebanon. Chapter 8 will examine relation between the state of governance in the Middle East and the progress of human rights, or lack thereof. The Middle East remains one of the most troubling regions on human rights and the respect for human dignity. All of the region’s governments are heavily implicated in very serious violations of the most basic in human rights. Chapter 9 will focus on the status of women in the Middle East and the governmental performance in the region in relevance to women rights and status. The recent years have witnessed many positive changes in this regard, but there remains a lot of work to be done, which is going to be outlined in this chapter. Chapter 10 will look into the role of oil and other natural sources in shaping the economic and political performance of Middle Eastern governments. Also, it will shed light on the various ways these governments distribute the revenues (rents) from these resources and how they use them, or don’t, in the development of their countries or, in most cases, on the military and state oppressive machine. Chapter 11 will examine the role of international organizations and trade agreements on the performance of governments and whether or not such factors influence or shape governance in the region. It is well-known that Turkey has changed many of its laws and social policies in response to the demands of EU members and in hopes of being admitted into the EU. The chapter will elaborate on this and similar cases throughout the region. Part II: Case Studies Chapter 12 will examine the case of Iraq. The country is experiencing perhaps the most dramatic scenarios of governance in the region. This chapter will shed light on the unfolding political process and the struggle of Iraqis to forge a path toward democracy in a region determined to resist any political change within its boundaries. Key issues: Power-sharing, pluralism, federalism, ethnic and sectarian conflict, trust-building, corruption and political violence. Chapter 13 will examine the case of Iran. Thirty years after the Islamic Revolution, Iran is entering into a soul-searching phase in its history. The ongoing battle between the reformers and the hardliners is only a sign on the larger problem of governance. A majority of Iranians have no personal recollection of the problems that led to the Revolution. It is vitally important that the government changes its claims to legitimacy from being the force that toppled the Shah to being the provider of prosperity and development of the country and its young population. Key issues: Political reform, human rights, reconciliation with the West, allocation of resources and services. Chapter 14 will examine the case of Egypt. The country is facing an unknown future with President Mubarak reaching advanced age. The debate over his succession is dividing the country in a dramatic way. Egypt is also a country with depleted infrastructure and an ever-shrinking middle class. If the country falls into a violent cycle after the looming departure of Mubarak, the entire region could fall into the abyss. Key issues: Succession of Mubarak, economic performance, services, religious extremism (Muslim Brotherhood) and Nationalism. Chapter 15 will examine the case of Israel. While politically different from its neighbors, Israel is sinking fast into the same problems that plague the Middle East. The country suffers political corruption and many leadership crises. The government is trying to redefine the identity of the state, which is going to create a showdown with the fast-growing non-Jewish Israeli population, and there is the problem of the government’s inability to conclude peace with Israel’s neighbors. Key issues: corruption, violence and security. Chapter 16 will examine the case of Saudi Arabia. The country is perhaps the most authoritarian regime in the world. The lack of individual liberties and abuses of human rights are the main problems. The government’s treatment of its Shia subjects (approx. 12% of the population) as second-class residents is extremely troubling. The country does not have a meaningful public participation and the Royals who run the government have no accountability to anyone. Key issues: human rights, religious freedom, political reform, public participation. Chapter 17 will examine the case of Bahrain. This small country in the Persian Gulf is facing many challenges. Like Iraq before 2003, it is a country with a clear Shia majority ruled by a small Sunni minority. The Shia are excluded from the government (they were allowed to run for the parliament in the last election for the first time), the military and many other important arenas. The government uses the naturalization of Sunnis as a political tool to change the demographic balance in the country. Key issues: political reform, popular participation, naturalization, human rights. Chapter 18 will examine the case of Yemen. The current struggle over government performance and fairness toward the South has given rise to the calls for separation of the two parts of Yemen. Also, there is the issue of religious freedom, which cases the ongoing war with the Houthi faction that accuses the government of making alliance with the Saudi government and the Sunni extremists in the country to form an existential threat to Shi’ism. Yemen is also a country with many ungoverned spaces and the governance in the "governed" areas is abysmal. Key issues: political violence, human and religious rights, terrorism, tribalism and poverty. Chapter 19 will examine the case of Turkey and its impressive rise as a model for a strong Muslim nation which tries to reconcile Islam and democracy. Turkey’s longstanding problems with social rights, especially of its 12 million Kurds, have always been a formidable challenge to the image of the nation. However, the country’s bid to join the EU has forced many changes that inadvertently helped the government’s international standing. Chapter 20 will examine the case of Syria and the influence of the Arab nationalist ideology on keeping the country as one of the most oppressive regimes in the region. Also examined will be the affect of Syrian-Israeli conflict on the country’s governance. Chapter 21 examines the case of Lebanon. This country which witnessed more governance challenges than any other in the region makes a very interesting case study. The country’s sectarian politics and the client-patron relations and loyalties among the various Muslim and Christian elements of society have undermined the country’s potential to become a fully democratic state. Chapter 22 will focus on the case of Sudan. This country has been in the center of world attention because of the internal conflict and the accusations of serious violations of human rights and the rise of separatist movements that receive much foreign sympathy and support. The country has missed many opportunities to attain social and political reconciliation, but it should not be considered a lost cause. There is a lot of potential in the country, especially when we consider the vibrant politics of government and opposition. Chapter 23 will examine the case of Jordan and the role of the uniqueness of the regime in creating relative social and political stability. Unlike the most of the governments in the region, the Jordanian Monarchy keeps the government as a convenient buffer between the Royals and the people. When popular sentiments turn very negative, the King, acting as the good cop, dismisses the government and orders the formation of a new one. Also, Jordan has achieved some good success in absorbing the Islamist groups into the political system, but not without challenges. The chapter will also focus on the Palestinian factor – Palestinians make more than half of the Jordanian population. Chapters 24, 25 & 26 will examine the Maghreb states (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia). These states face many challenges in their governance: separatism, terrorism and the government oppressive history in Morocco; the Islamism challenge, internal war in the tribal areas and ethnic conflict in Algeria; and the stifling of personal freedom and liberties in Tunisia in the name of secularism and the war on extremism are all challenges that need to be highlighted in a chapter about each country. Chapter 27 will focus on governance in Libya. Having ruled the country for forty-seven years, the Libyan president is the dean of Middle Eastern dictators. He has taken his country though all kinds of political adventures. The rule through popular committees is a unique system that gives Col. Mu‘ammar Qadhafi the opportunity to oppress through popular participation and acquiescence. Chapter 28 will focus on the governance in the United Arab Emirates. This confederation of seven emirates has witnessed some excellent success in the economic and infrastructural development, especially in Dubai, which competes with the richest cities in the world, thanks to the energy and vision of its Emir, Muhammad b. Rashid. While it is generally considered much better than its fellow Gulf States, the UAE has its own challenges, especially in light of the absence of unified system of governance, because each emirate has the autonomy to shape its internal affairs. Chapter 29 will examine the governance and, in certain cases, lack thereof in the countries that form the Horn of Africa, i.e. Somalia, Eritrea and Djibouti. These countries face some tremendous challenges in the areas of refugees, resources, stability and ethnic & conflict. The failure of these states, as seen in the case of Somalia, can make the problems of security in the whole region much worse than it is now. Famine and anarchy have already led to wars, piracy and the flood of refugees, not to say much about the humanitarian catastrophes in the region. This chapter will highlight the problems of governance in these often forgotten countries. Chapter 30 will be a conclusion and final remarks on the general framework of the regional governance and the way forward. This book is aimed at a wide variety of audience. Policy makers, policy analysts, as well as journalists will benefit from the history and analysis that will be presented in the book. Also, academics will find in the book important materials for research and class work. Professors teaching courses on US Foreign policy, Middle East, International Relations, Comparative Politics and many related fields will find the book a very suitable choice for their students to read. Given the media and general public’s interest in the Middle East and the Middle East, the book will also appeal to a wide range of educated readers in the United States, the United Kingdom and many other countries world-wide.
Author: Abbas Kadhim
Category: Political Science
Toward a New Social Contract
Author: World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Category: Electronic books
The economic history of the Middle East and North Africa is quite extraordinary. This is an axiomatic statement, but the very nature of the economic changes that have stemmed directly from the effects of oil resources in these areas has tended to obscure longterm patterns of economic change and the fundamental transformation of Middle Eastern and North African economies and societies over the past two hundred years. In this study Professor Issawi examines and explains the development of these economies since 1800, focusing particularly on the challenge posed by the use and subsequent decline of Western economic and political domination and the Middle Eastern response to it. The book beg ins with an analysis of the effects of foreign intervention in the area: the expansion of trade, the development of transport networks, the influx of foreign capital and resulting integration into international commercial and financial networks. It goes on to examine the local response to these external forces: migration within, to and from the region, population growth, urbanization and changes in living standards, shifts in agricultural production and land tenure and the development of an industrial sector. Professor Issawi discusses the crucial effects of the growth of oil and oil-related industries in a separate chapter, and finally assesses the likely gains and losses in this long period for both the countries in the area and the Western powers. He has drawn on long experience and an immense amount of material in surveying the period, and provides a clear and penetrating survey of an extraordinarily complex area.
Author: Issawi Charles,Charles Issawi
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Category: Business & Economics
There is long-standing debate on how population growth affects national economies. A new report from Population Matters examines the history of this debate and synthesizes current research on the topic. The authors, led by Harvard economist David Bloom, conclude that population age structure, more than size or growth per se, affects economic development, and that reducing high fertility can create opportunities for economic growth if the right kinds of educational, health, and labor-market policies are in place. The report also examines specific regions of the world and how their differing policy environments have affected the relationship between population change and economic development.
A New Perspective on the Economic Consequences of Population Change
Author: David Bloom,David Canning,Jaypee Sevilla
Publisher: Rand Corporation
Category: Social Science
Recent events such as ‘Iran’s Green Revolution’ and the ‘Arab Uprisings’ have exploded notions that human rights are irrelevant to Middle Eastern and North African politics. Increasingly seen as a global concern, human rights are at the fulcrum of the region’s on-the-ground politics, transnational intellectual debates, and global political intersections. The Routledge Handbook on Human Rights and the Middle East and North Africa: emphasises the need to consider human rights in all their dimensions, rather than solely focusing on the political dimension, in order to understand the structural reasons behind the persistence of human rights violations; explores the various frameworks in which to consider human rights—conceptual, political and transnational/international; discusses issue areas subject to particularly intense debate—gender, religion, sexuality, transitions and accountability; contains contributions from perspectives that span from global theory to grassroots reflections, emphasising the need for academic work on human rights to seriously engage with the thoughts and practices of those working on the ground. A multidisciplinary approach from scholars with a wide range of expertise allows the book to capture the complex dynamics by which human rights have had, or could have, an impact on Middle Eastern and North African politics. This book will therefore be a key resource for students and scholars of Middle Eastern and North African politics and society, as well as anyone with a concern for Human Rights across the globe.
Author: Anthony Tirado Chase
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Category: Social Science
Author: Koenraad Matthijs
The ties that bind Central Asia to the Middle East have increased dramatically in recent years, as political emancipation from Soviet rule has spurred the restoration of material culture shared by Turkic and Iranian peoples. Political institutions and farming practices, however, are still based on the Soviet model, with centralised large-scale agricultural production serving Russian rather than local needs. The contributors to this volume examine land reform and agricultural development in Russia, Central Asia, North Africa, and the Middle East. Their studies bring into question the evolutionary view of agricultural development, from small-scale subsistence to large-scale commercialised agricultural systems, and emphasise the need to understand the specific political, historical, and geographic contexts of rural development and land reform. This volume is a must for regional specialists, historians, economists, and those working on rural development issues throughout Eurasia.
Land Reform, Demographic Change, and Environmental Constraints
Author: Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies. Russian, East European, and Central Asian Studies Center
Publisher: University of Washington Press
Fourteen specialists from across the European Union discuss current issues regarding Middle Eastern and North African immigrants in Europe, focusing on topics such as immigration legislation, assimilation, integration, multiculturalism, community formation, citizenship, political participation, and religious and cultural identities. This book was previously published as a special issue of the journal Immigrants and Minorities.
Current Impact; Local and National Responses
Author: Dr. Ahmed Al-Shahi,Richard Lawless
The Costs of Inaction
Author: Carol Lynn Jenkins,David A. Robalino,World Bank,World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean,Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Category: AIDS (Disease)
This report examines geopolitical changes in the Eastern Mediterranean and offers a new prioritization of U.S. objectives in the region in two priority areas: Syria and Turkey.
Author: Jon B. Alterman,Heather A. Conley,Haim Malka,Donatienne Ruy
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
Category: Political Science
Written by some of the top researchers and clinicians in the field, Communication Disorders in Multicultural Populations, 4th Edition offers an in-depth look at the major cultural groups in the U.S. and the issues concerning their communication development, common disorders, and treatment options. This fourth edition features a wealth of updates and new features — including the latest research and added coverage of communication issues in countries such as Australia, China, Canada, and Brazil — to give speech-language pathology students and speech-language pathologists a balanced and global perspective on the most topical multicultural communication issues of today. Comprehensive coverage focuses on a wide variety of cultural and age populations. Cutting-edge research and data offer up-to-date discussions based on the latest studies in multiculturalism as it relates to the SLP and AuD professions. Diverse panel of expert authors include some of the top researchers and clinicians in the field. Additional resources provide a focused listing of print and electronic sources at the end of each chapter to support more in-depth study of a particular subject. Chapter on international perspectives tackles issues in countries such as Australia, Canada, China, and Brazil to give you a more global understanding of communication disorders. The latest statistics from the 2010 U.S. Census report offers the most current data available. Increased content on older adults covers the multicultural issues, voice disorders, and neurogenic disorders particular to this important demographic. Case studies give you practice solving realistic clinical problems. Chapter overview and conclusion outline the key information in each chapter and serve as a checklist for content mastery.
Author: Dolores E. Battle
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Freshwater is the most precious and valuable natural resource essential for all kind of life on the land surface. Especially man depend on the availability and quality of the water, it is vital for the socio-economic growth of societies and nations as well as for the sustainability of the environment. Freshwater resources are not distrib uted in an equal way over the continents. Regions with surplus facing areas with shortage or even lack of water. From their nature arid and semi-arid areas are char acterized by scarcity of water with all the affiliated unfavourable attributes. In the Middle East this lack of sufficient water coupled with the high growth rates of pop ulation constitutes serious water problems which has become e real political issue. The German-Arabic Society for Environmental Studies, Frankfurt, in co-opera tion with the Centre for Environmental Studies at the University Frankfurt has raised up this problems for a scientific discussion. With the Symposium on "Water of the Middle East and North Africa: Resources, Protection and Management" in Frankfurt on November 25 and 26, 2002 a platform was created, which enabled participants - scientists and politicians - from twelve countries to discuss the water problems facing the region. It was the intension of the organisers to deepen the knowledge about the hydrologic regimes, to increase our understanding of the complex integrated processes and to draw the necessary conclusions with regard to an integrated sustainable water management.
Resources, Protection and Management
Author: Fathi Zereini
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Business & Economics