Political Demography, Demographic Engineering

Author: Myron Weiner,Michael S. Teitelbaum

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781571812537

Category: Political Science

Page: 148

View: 973

"Over the past decade, the impacts of demographic trends on international security and on peaceful relations between and within states have come to the fore in ways not seen since the aftermath of World War II. An evolving and more complex set of changes in the size, distribution, and composition of populations has become the basis for a new look at the security effects of changes in the size, distribution, and composition of populations. This book is an attempt to lay out the new look, to take issue with some of the prevailing views on the political consequences of population change and to suggest where the concerns are realistic and where they are not." (From the Preface) This book not only offers a magisterial analysis of the political effects of the dramatic population changes that are taking place in countries all around the world, it also represents the testimony of one of the most distinguished scholars in the field of migration and population studies. Myron Weiner, former Professor of Political Science at MIT and Chair of the External Research Advisory Committee of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Michael S. Teitelbaum, a demographer, is Program Director at the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation in New York.
Posted in Political Science

Demographic Engineering: Population Strategies in Ethnic Conflict

Author: Paul Morland

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317152913

Category: Social Science

Page: 228

View: 7392

Demography has always mattered in conflict, but with conflict increasingly of an inter-ethnic nature, with sharper demographic differences between ethnic groups and with the spread of democracy, numbers count in conflict now more than ever. This book argues for and develops a framework for demographic engineering which provides a fresh perspective for looking at political events in countries where ethnicity matters. It asks how policies have been framed and implemented to change the demography of ethnic groups on the ground in their own interests. It also examines how successful these policies have been, focusing on the cases of Sri Lanka, Israel/Palestine, Northern Ireland and the USA. Often these policies are hidden but author Paul Morland teases them out with skill both from the statistics and documentary records and through conversations with participants. Offering a new way of thinking about demographic engineering (’hard demography’ versus ’soft demography’) and how ethnic groups in conflict deploy demographic strategies, this book will have a broad appeal to demographers, geographers and political scientists.
Posted in Social Science

Political Demography

How Population Changes Are Reshaping International Security and National Politics

Author: Jack A. Goldstone,Eric P. Kaufmann,Monica Duffy Toft

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199945969

Category: Political Science

Page: 342

View: 3845

The field of political demography - the politics of population change - is dramatically underrepresented in political science. At a time when demographic changes - aging in the rich world, youth bulges in the developing world, ethnic and religious shifts, migration, and urbanization - are waxing as never before, this neglect is especially glaring and starkly contrasts with the enormous interest coming from policymakers and the media. "Ten years ago, [demography] was hardly on the radar screen," remarks Richard Jackson and Neil Howe of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, two contributors to this volume. "Today," they continue, "it dominates almost any discussion of America's long-term fiscal, economic, or foreign-policy direction." Demography is the most predictable of the social sciences: children born in the last five years will be the new workers, voters, soldiers, and potential insurgents of 2025 and the political elites of the 2050s. Whether in the West or the developing world, political scientists urgently need to understand the tectonics of demography in order to grasp the full context of today's political developments. This book begins to fill the gap from a global and historical perspective and with the hope that scholars and policymakers will take its insights on board to develop enlightened policies for our collective future.
Posted in Political Science

Demography and National Security

Author: Myron Weiner,Sharon Stanton Russell

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781571813398

Category: History

Page: 345

View: 2766

Political scientists, demographers, legal scholars, and historians have come together in this volume, under the direction of the late Myron Weiner, one of the leading scholars in this field, to address three of the major sets of questions in the field of political demography: How changes in demographic variables - population size, growth, distribution, and composition - influence threats (real or perceived) to a country's political stability and security; how governments respond to demographic trends; and how governments attempt to change demographic variables in order to enhance national security. Myron Weinerwas Professor of Political Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Chair of the External Research Advisory Committee of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Sharon Stanton Russell, is a political scientist and Research Scholar at the MIT Center for International Studies.
Posted in History

Demography and Degeneration

Eugenics and the Declining Birthrate in Twentieth-Century Britain

Author: Richard A. Soloway

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469611198

Category: History

Page: 464

View: 3435

Richard Soloway offers a compelling and authoritative study of the relationship of the eugenics movement to the dramatic decline in the birthrate and family size in twentieth-century Britain. Working in a tradition of hereditarian determinism which held fast to the premise that "like tends to beget like," eugenicists developed and promoted a theory of biosocial engineering through selective reproduction. Soloway shows that the appeal of eugenics to the middle and upper classes of British society was closely linked to recurring concerns about the relentless drop in fertility and the rapid spread of birth control practices from the 1870s to World War II. Demography and Degeneration considers how differing scientific and pseudoscientific theories of biological inheritance became popularized and enmeshed in the prolonged, often contentious national debate about "race suicide" and "the dwindling family." Demographic statistics demonstrated that birthrates were declining among the better-educated, most successful classes while they remained high for the poorest, least-educated portion of the population. For many people steeped in the ideas of social Darwinism, eugenicist theories made this decline all the more alarming: they feared that falling birthrates among the "better" classes signfied a racial decline and degeneration that might prevent Britain from successfully negotiating the myriad competive challenges facing the nation in the twentieth century. Although the organized eugenics movement remained small and elitist throughout most of its history, this study demonstrates how pervasive eugenic assumptions were in the middle and upper reaches of British society, at least until World War II. It also traces the important role of eugenics in the emergence of the modern family planning movement and the formulation of population policies in the interwar years.
Posted in History

The Demographic Transition and Development in Africa

The Unique Case of Ethiopia

Author: Charles Teller,Assefa Hailemariam

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048189182

Category: Social Science

Page: 359

View: 1856

"The heated Malthusian-Bosrupian debates still rage over consequences of high population growth, rapid urbanization, dense rural populations and young age structures in the face of drought, poverty, food insecurity, environmental degradation, climate change, instability and the global economic crisis. However, while facile generalizations about the lack of demographic change and lack of progress in meeting the MDGs in sub-Saharan Africa are commonplace, they are often misleading and belie the socio-cultural change that is occurring among a vanguard of more educated youth. Even within Ethiopia, the second largest country at the Crossroads of Africa and the Middle East, different narratives emerge from analysis of longitudinal, micro-level analysis as to how demographic change and responses are occurring, some more rapidly than others. The book compares Ethiopia with other Africa countries, and demonstrates the uniqueness of an African-type demographic transition: a combination of poverty-related negative factors (unemployment, disease, food insecurity) along with positive education, health and higher age-of-marriage trends that are pushing this ruggedly rural and land-locked population to accelerate the demographic transition and stay on track to meet most of the MDGs. This book takes great care with the challenges of inadequate data and weak analytical capacity to research this incipient transition, trying to unravel some of the complexities in this vulnerable Horn of Africa country: A slowly declining population growth rates with rapidly declining child mortality, very high chronic under-nutrition, already low urban fertility but still very high rural fertility; and high population-resource pressure along with rapidly growing small urban places”
Posted in Social Science

Demography

The Science of Population

Author: Jay Weinstein,Vijayan K. Pillai

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1442235217

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 4405

This comprehensive, introductory text takes an applied, interdisciplinary approach. Because one author is a sociologist and the other a demographer, the text introduces perspectives from many different disciplines. The most applied book on the market, Demography: The Science of Population teaches students how to use the multitude of demographic resources available to them as consumers of data. Using case studies throughout to illustrate key concepts in a realistic and concrete manner, the authors also draw examples from recent U.S. Census data, United Nations and World Bank reports, tables from the National Center for Health Statistics, and other U.S. state- and county-level sources. New to the Second Edition This second edition is divided into four main parts; each part begins with a short introduction, and all chapters include end-of-chapter summaries. All tables, related narrative, and graphics have been updated to include data from the 2000 and 2010 census counts, more recent estimates for the United States—especially the American Community Survey—and comparable new data from international sources (e.g. World Bank, Population Research Bureau World Data Sheet). Several new figures have been added throughout the text. Part I: An Overview of Population Science, introduces the field of demography and provides a summary of its subject matter. The chapters in this part have been reorganized to reflect changes in the discipline. Chapter 1 now includes a new “the study of populations” section, a shorter Chapter 2 covers population size, and its former discussion of structure has been moved to Chapter 3. This de-emphasizes the history of population science to some extent and increases emphasis on population size as the key demographic variable. Chapter 4 presents the main principles and analytical techniques associated with the three “static” characteristics of populations: size, structure, and geographic distribution. Part II: Population Dynamics: Vital Events and Growth, reflects the wealth of data and analytical techniques now available from The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and its “Wonder” utility. The first three chapters focus on the vital events of birth, death, and migration. The final chapter in this part brings this material together in a discussion of population growth: its measurement, its history, and current related policy concerns. Part III: Population Models, introduces the principles of life table analysis, population estimation, and projection. This material has been simplified and updated. Chapter 9, The Life Table: An Introduction, has been revised to accord with the new federal alignment for vital statistics between the CDC and National Institute for Health Statistics. Life tables from non-U.S. sources are increased in number and in detailed functions. Part IV: Demography in Application, provides overviews of population policy, the environment, and demographic resources, along with a brief postscript on population in the larger scheme of things. What appeared as two appendices in the first edition, one on the history of population policy and one on tourism as a type of international migration, have been combined to create a new Chapter 14. The end-of-chapter material has been shortened and now contains a summary, key terms, and notes. A full-color enhanced eText is also available, and the second edition is accompanied by a teaching and learning package, including instructor’s manual, test bank, lecture slides, and a companion website that offers students additional resources, flashcards, and self-study quizzes.
Posted in Social Science

Germany's New Security Demographics

Military Recruitment in the Era of Population Aging

Author: Wenke Apt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400769644

Category: Social Science

Page: 217

View: 9719

Military recruitment will become more difficult in times of demographic aging. The question arises whether demographic change will constrain the capacity of aging states like Germany to conduct foreign policy and pursue their national security interests. Since contemporary military operations still display a strong human element, particular scrutiny is given to the empirical analysis of the determinants of military propensity and military service among youth. An additional human capital projection until 2030 illustrates how the decline in the youth population will interact with trends in educational attainment and adolescent health to further complicate military recruitment in the future. A concluding review of recruiting practices in other NATO countries provides insight in best-practice policy options to reduce the military’s sensitivity to demographic change. Following this approach, the book gives prominence to a topic that has thus far been under-represented in the greater discussion of demographic change today, namely the demographic impact on international affairs and strategic calculations.
Posted in Social Science

The Age Curve

How to Profit from the Coming Demographic Storm

Author: Kenneth W. GRONBACH

Publisher: AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn

ISBN: 9780814410172

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 7706

For years, marketers have held on to unwavering beliefs that have dictated how they market to their consumers. But the hard truth is that the changes we see in marketing and business are based on one undeniable factor—the size of the generations we are selling to. As each generation ages, what they buy and how much they buy will change. Each product and service has a “best customer” that sustains a business. As these customers grow up, the smartest marketers will stay ahead of them—and their money. In The Age Curve, marketing guru Kenneth Gronbach shows executives and entrepreneurs how to anticipate this wave of predictable demand and ride it to success. Gronbach reveals how our largest generations, the Baby Boomers and Generation Y, are redefining how we market and how businesses can anticipate their needs more effectively. Complete with entertaining examples of companies like Apple who have perfected their strategies for building a loyal customer base, as well as those who haven’t (Levi Strauss and Honda Motorcycle), this book will show readers: • how to determine their best customers • how successful companies are earning the loyalty of Generation Y and cultivating allegiance to their products for years to come • why Generation X is a much less valuable market than any of us have been led to believe • and much more Both shocking and compelling, The Age Curve will change the way companies look at their customers and how they market to them.
Posted in Business & Economics

Demographics

A Guide to Methods and Data Sources for Media, Business, and Government

Author: Steven H. Murdock,Chris Kelley,Jeffrey L. Jordan,Beverly Pecotte,Alvin Luedke

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317261364

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

View: 1124

Demographics has become a critical dimension of the work of many journalists, business professionals, and government analysts and managers. Yet those who are not professional demographers often find locating and effectively using demographics difficult. Written by leading authorities, Demographics provides a single-volume resource that is readily understandable by everyone. It describes and demonstrates how students and working professionals can obtain, use, and communicate demographic information effectively. Consisting of ten chapters organized into four sections on basic demographic concepts, definitions, and methods, this book includes sources of demographic and economic data as well as explanations and examples of how to effectively and accurately use them.
Posted in Social Science

The Demographics of Innovation

Why Demographics is a Key to the Innovation Race

Author: James Liang

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111940892X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 264

View: 5202

Machine generated contents note: Acknowledgments About the Author Introduction Part I: Theory and Policy Chapter 1: Global Demographic Trends Chapter 2: Demographics and Innovation Chapter 3: Demographics and the Economy Chapter 4: Resource and Environment Chapter 5: Public Policy Part II: The Race of Innovation Chapter 6: Japan Chapter 7: China Chapter 8: The United States of America Chapter 9: Europe Chapter 10: India Conclusion Epilogue: Historical Competition Among Civilizations: An Essay on Transportation Technology, Demographics and the Race of Innovation References Index
Posted in Business & Economics

Handbook of Population

Author: Dudley L. Poston,Michael Micklin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387231064

Category: Social Science

Page: 918

View: 4028

This comprehensive handbook provides an overview and update of the issues, theories, processes, and applications of the social science of population studies. The volume's 30 chapters cover the full range of conceptual, empirical, disciplinary, and applied approaches to the study of demographic phenomena. This book is the first effort to assess the entire field since Hauser and Duncan's 1959 classic, The Study of Population. The chapter authors are among the leading contributors to demographic scholarship over the past four decades. They represent a variety of disciplines and theoretical perspectives as well as interests in both basic and applied research.
Posted in Social Science

Upside

Profiting from the Profound Demographic Shifts Ahead

Author: Kenneth W. GRONBACH

Publisher: AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn

ISBN: 0814434703

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 9538

Demographics not only define who we are, where we live, and how our numbers change, but—for those who can read beyond the raw figures—they open up hidden business opportunities that lie ahead. What will happen when retiring Boomers free up jobs? How will Generation Y alter housing and transportation? Which states will have the most dynamic workforces? Will American manufacturing rebound as Asia’s population boom stalls? Upside puts this powerful yet little-understood science to work finding answers. Demographer Kenneth Gronbach synthesizes reams of data to show how generations impact markets and economies, and how to target promising trends. Lively and full of surprises, the book explains: What each age cohort is likely to buy now and in coming decades How profits dovetail with consumer numbers What sectors are likely to grow or lag How to make sense of the numbers to chart your own path And more As waves of people are born and age, fortunes and futures are determined. Whether you’re an investor, marketer executive, or entrepreneur, Upside helps you spot the potential for profits in ever-shifting demographics.
Posted in Business & Economics

Demography of Refugee and Forced Migration

Author: Graeme Hugo,Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi,Ellen Percy Kraly

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319671472

Category: Social Science

Page: 317

View: 3760

This authoritative and comprehensive edited volume presents current research on how demography can contribute to generating scientific knowledge and evidence concerning refugees and forced migration, developing evidence based policy recommendations on protection for forced migrants and reception of refugees, and revealing the determinants and consequences of migration for origin and destination regions and communities. Refugee and other forced migrations have increased substantially in scale, complexity and diversity in recent decades. These changes challenge traditional approaches in response to refugee and other forced migration situations, and protection of refugees. Demography has an important contribution to make in this analytic space. While other disciplines (especially anthropology, law, geography, political science and international relations) have made major contributions to refugee and forced migration studies, demography has been less present with most research focusing on issues of refugee mortality and morbidity. This book specifies the range of topics for which a demographic approach is highly appropriate, and identifies findings of demographic research which can contribute to ever more effective policy making in this important arena of human welfare and international policy.
Posted in Social Science

Fatal Misconception

The Struggle to Control World Population

Author: Matthew James Connelly

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674029835

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 3462

Listen to a short interview with Matthew Connelly Host: Chris Gondek - Producer: Heron & Crane "Fatal Misconception" is the disturbing story of our quest to remake humanity by policing national borders and breeding better people. As the population of the world doubled once, and then again, well-meaning people concluded that only population control could preserve the "quality of life." This movement eventually spanned the globe and carried out a series of astonishing experiments, from banning Asian immigration to paying poor people to be sterilized. Supported by affluent countries, foundations, and non-governmental organizations, the population control movement experimented with ways to limit population growth. But it had to contend with the Catholic Church's ban on contraception and nationalist leaders who warned of "race suicide." The ensuing struggle caused untold suffering for those caught in the middle--particularly women and children. It culminated in the horrors of sterilization camps in India and the one-child policy in China. Matthew Connelly offers the first global history of a movement that changed how people regard their children and ultimately the face of humankind. It was the most ambitious social engineering project of the twentieth century, one that continues to alarm the global community. Though promoted as a way to lift people out of poverty--perhaps even to save the earth--family planning became a means to plan other people's families. With its transnational scope and exhaustive research into such archives as Planned Parenthood and the newly opened Vatican Secret Archives, Connelly's withering critique uncovers the cost inflicted by a humanitarian movement gone terribly awry and urges renewed commitment to the reproductive rights of all people.
Posted in History

The Rise and Fall of Anglo-America

Author: Eric P. KAUFMANN,Eric P Kaufmann

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674039386

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 530

Posted in History

Africa's Population: In Search of a Demographic Dividend

Author: Hans Groth,John F. May

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319468898

Category: Social Science

Page: 526

View: 348

This book examines the promises as well as the challenges the demographic dividend brings to sub-Saharan Africa as fertility rates in the region fall and the labor force grows. It offers a detailed analysis of what conditions must be met in order for the region to take full economic advantage of ongoing population dynamics. As the book makes clear, the region will need to accelerate reforms to cope with its demographic transition, in particular the decline of fertility. The continent will need to foster human capital formation through renewed efforts in the areas of education, health and employment. This will entail a true vision and determination on the part of African leaders and their development partners. The book will help readers to gain solid knowledge of the demographic trends and provide insights into socioeconomic policies that eventually might lead sub-Saharan Africa into a successful future.
Posted in Social Science

Demographic Methods and Concepts

Author: Donald T. Rowland

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198752639

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 546

View: 3197

Makes accessible the most commonly needed techniques for working with population statistics. Includes concepts and practical strategies needed in the interpretation of demographic indices and data . Spreadsheet training exercises enable students to acquire the computer skills needed for demographic work.
Posted in Business & Economics

Population and Development

Author: W.T.S. Gould

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317638581

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 9537

The new edition of Population and Development offers an up-to-date perspective on one of the critical issues at the heart of the problems of development for all countries, and especially those that seek to implement major economic and social change: the reflexive relationships between a country’s population and its development. How does population size, distribution, age structure and skill base affect development patterns and prospects? How has global development been affected by regional population change? Retaining the structure of the well-received first edition, the book has been substantially revised and updated. The opening chapters of the book establish the theoretical and historical basis for examining the basic reflexive relationship, with exploration of the Malthusian perspective and its critics to examine how population change affects development, and exploration of the Demographic Transition Model and its critics to examine how, why and to what extent development drives population change. These are followed by empirically rich chapters on each of the main components of population change – mortality, fertility, internal and international migration, age structures and skill base – each elaborating key ideas with detailed and contrasting case studies from all regions of the developing world. There are concluding and more integrative discussions on population policies and global population futures. Bringing together Population Studies, Development Studies and Geography, the new edition of Population and Development is a key resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students across a range of programmes with specialist modules on population change. There is a large bibliography, with major new sections identifying a wide range of online resources for further study. Each chapter contains a reading guide with discussion questions. The text is enlivened by a number of case studies from around the world, most of which are new or have been substantially revised. Written by a leading international scholar in population, the book successfully integrates cutting-edge academic research with the focus and efforts of international development agencies.
Posted in Science

Population and Society

Author: Clare Holdsworth,Nissa Finney,Alan Marshall,Paul Norman

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 144627554X

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 3931

"An excellent introduction to the study of population and its significance for many of the key social, political, cultural and environmental issues facing the world today. It covers population growth, ageing, migration and mobility, parenting, health inequalities, and much more... The authors do not shy away from areas of continuing debate, providing both sides of an argument and encouraging readers to follow up the original sources" - Tony Champion, Emeritus Professor of Population Geography, Centre for Urban, Regional & Development Studies, Newcastle University and Vice President, British Society for Population Studies, 2011-2013 Population and Society is an undergraduate introduction to population that explains the latest trends in population studies. The text provides a detailed and completely accessible overview that: situates demographic events - fertility, mortality and migration - within the context of broader social impacts and theorisations like social inequalities, individualisation and life course analysis uses global illustrative examples to demonstrate the importance of data and data interpretation in population studies is illustrated throughout with pedagogic features, like chapter opening summaries, suggestions for further readings and case study examples. This text will be widely used as the standard and most up-to-date text on population and society for courses across the social sciences.
Posted in Science