Police Brutality, Misconduct, and Corruption

Criminological Explanations and Policy Implications

Author: James F. Albrecht

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319644386

Category: Social Science

Page: 55

View: 7424

This Brief proposes a criminological typology for understanding and addressing police misconduct. Through examination of each major type of police misconduct, the author proposes future research directions to deter and prevent misconduct. According to an examination of 50 years of police misconduct cases within the New York Police Department (NYPD) and Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), the author proposes 5 major typologies: police corruption, police criminality, excessive use of force, abuse of authority, and police misconduct. Through a systematic examination of each of these five types, the author aims to break down the nebulous topic of police misbehavior into manageable categories, with their own set of causes, and recommendations for detection and prevention. This work will be of interest for researchers in criminology and criminal justice, particularly with an interest in police studies, and related fields such as public policy and sociology. It will also be of interest for policymakers.
Posted in Social Science

Police Misconduct in Brooklyn

Documenting, Understanding and Preventing

Author: Brian A. Maule

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319668145

Category: Social Science

Page: 59

View: 6070

This Brief explores police misconduct, through the lens of a 5-year study of civil liability cases against the New York Police Department in Kings County (Brooklyn), New York. The confluence of police misconduct and civil liability is an issue of growing concern for many communities throughout the United States. One measure of the severity of these concerns is the increase in the number of lawsuits alleging police misconduct and the civil liability resulting from these lawsuits. Using Brooklyn, New York as a case study, the author of this Brief uses lawsuits that resulted in a settlement or jury award, over a five-year period, as its measure of police misconduct. Police misconduct has many tangible and intangible consequences for a community, such as violations of the law, police brutality, social consequences, and long-term public trust of the police. On a very practical level, as the author demonstrates, the up-front financial costs of prevention, training, and support to curb police misconduct are less expensive than the costs of civil liability payments for lawsuits. This perspective creates a strong argument for policymakers for enhancing police training and police misconduct prevention programs. This work will be of interest to researchers in police studies, as well sociology and public policy.
Posted in Social Science

Regulatory Theory

Foundations and applications

Author: Peter Drahos

Publisher: ANU Press

ISBN: 1760461024

Category: Law

Page: 783

View: 4263

This volume introduces readers to regulatory theory. Aimed at practitioners, postgraduate students and those interested in regulation as a cross-cutting theme in the social sciences, Regulatory Theory includes chapters on the social-psychological foundations of regulation as well as theories of regulation such as responsive regulation, smart regulation and nodal governance. It explores the key themes of compliance, legal pluralism, meta-regulation, the rule of law, risk, accountability, globalisation and regulatory capitalism. The environment, crime, health, human rights, investment, migration and tax are among the fields of regulation considered in this ground-breaking book. Each chapter introduces the reader to key concepts and ideas and contains suggestions for further reading. The contributors, who either are or have been connected to the Regulatory Institutions Network (RegNet) at The Australian National University, include John Braithwaite, Valerie Braithwaite, Peter Grabosky, Neil Gunningham, Fiona Haines, Terry Halliday, David Levi-Faur, Christine Parker, Colin Scott and Clifford Shearing.
Posted in Law

Police-Citizen Relations Across the World

Comparing sources and contexts of trust and legitimacy

Author: Dietrich Oberwittler,Sebastian Roché

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315406640

Category: Social Science

Page: 308

View: 6334

Police-citizen relations are in the public spotlight following outbursts of anger and violence. Such clashes often happen as a response to fatal police shootings, racial or ethnic discrimination, or the mishandling of mass protests. But even in such cases, citizens’ assessment of the police differs considerably across social groups. This raises the question of the sources and impediments of citizens’ trust and support for police. Why are police-citizen relations much better in some countries than in others? Are police-minority relations doomed to be strained? And which police practices and policing policies generate trust and legitimacy? Research on police legitimacy has been centred on US experiences, and relied on procedural justice as the main theoretical approach. This book questions whether this approach is suitable and sufficient to understand public attitudes towards the police across different countries and regions of the world. This volume shows that the impact of macro-level conditions, of societal cleavages, and of state and political institutions on police-citizen relations has too often been neglected in contemporary research. Building on empirical studies from around the world as well as cross-national comparisons, this volume considerably expands current perspectives on the sources of police legitimacy and citizens’ trust in the police. Combining the analysis of micro-level interactions with a perspective on the contextual framework and varying national conditions, the contributions to this book illustrate the strength of a broadened perspective and lead us to ask how specific national frameworks shape the experiences of policing.
Posted in Social Science

Community Policing

How to Get Started

Author: Bonnie Bucqueroux,Robert Trojanowicz

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1437728979

Category: Science

Page: 145

View: 5268

Community Policing
Posted in Science

Women and the Mafia

Female Roles in Organized Crime Structures

Author: Giovanni Fiandaca

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387365427

Category: Social Science

Page: 300

View: 7448

The insightful essays in this book shine a new light on the roles of women within criminal networks, roles that in reality are often less traditional than researchers used to think. The book seeks to answer questions from a wide range of academic disciplines and traces the portrait of women tied to organized crime in Italy and around the world. The book offers up accounts of mafia women, and also tales of severe abuse and violence against women.
Posted in Social Science

Producing Bias-Free Policing

A Science-Based Approach

Author: Lorie A. Fridell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319331752

Category: Social Science

Page: 117

View: 1834

This Brief provides specific recommendations for police professionals to reduce the influence of implicit bias on police practice, which will improve both effectiveness (in a shift towards evidence-based, rather than bias-based) practices and police legitimacy. The author is donating her proceeds from this book to the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund (nleomf.org).
Posted in Social Science

Biker Gangs and Transnational Organized Crime

Author: Thomas Barker

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131752411X

Category: Political Science

Page: 260

View: 4765

Biker Gangs and Transnational Organized Crime, Second Edition, describes and analyzes a rapidly expanding global problem: criminal acts committed by motorcycle gangs. Thomas Barker, one of the world’s top experts on outlaw biker gangs, offers fascinating details about the Bandidos, the Vagos, the Mongols, and other "one percenters" (criminal biker gangs, as opposed to the vast majority of motorcycle enthusiasts). He combines this data with a strengthened conceptual framework that makes sense of this complicated picture. U.S.-based motorcycle gangs like the Hells Angels have proliferated, especially in Canada and Europe, to the point where these gangs have more members in other countries than in the United States. Increasingly more often in recent years their crimes are not limited to rumbles or drug use—these gangs challenge the dominance of organized crime, leading to violent conflicts between the rivals. Germany, Scandinavia, the UK, the Netherlands, and Canada are particularly hard-hit by this rising violence. One of Barker’s unique contributions is his Criminal Organization Continuum, building on the groundbreaking network approach to organized crime proposed by Klaus von Lampe. Introduced in the first edition, Barker elaborates his continuum tool and makes it more multi-dimensional to help refine the definition of adult criminal gangs. The product of years of research, this book lays the groundwork for further study by offering students, police, and researchers the most thorough account available of outlaw motorcycle gangs.
Posted in Political Science

The International Criminal Court

An Introduction

Author: Andrew Novak

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319158325

Category: Social Science

Page: 116

View: 4387

This book is about the International Criminal Court (ICC), a new and highly distinctive criminal justice institution with the ability to prosecute the highest-level government officials, including heads of state, even in countries that have not accepted its jurisdiction. The book explores the historical development of international criminal law and the formal legal structure created by the Rome Statute, against the background of the Court’s search for objectivity in a political global environment. The book reviews the operations of the Court in practice and the Court’s position in the power politics of the international system. It discusses and clarifies all stages of an international criminal proceeding from the opening of the investigation to sentencing, reparations, and final appeals in the context of its restorative justice mission. Making appropriate comparisons and contrasts between the international criminal justice system and domestic and national systems, the book fills a gap in international criminal justice study.
Posted in Social Science

Zero Tolerance Policing

Author: Maurice Punch

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 9781847420558

Category: Political Science

Page: 53

View: 6839

What is policing about and who defines it? This book examines these key issues by exploring the notion of zero tolerance and its application in different settings. Following its introduction in New York, and the seemingly dramatic reduction in crime, zero tolerance policing was taken up in a number of other countries, including the UK and the Netherlands. This book examines that process. It argues that this policy was, in fact, nothing more than a return to old-style, crime control policing. While it did foster the swift analysis of crime patterns and more assertive policing of public places, it could lean towards repression and demonising of certain groups. Examining the EEE Examining the EEEExamining the negative response of leading police officers and the policy's debatable impact on crime, the author concludes that zero tolerance in the UK and Netherlands was more of a populist political and media creation than a coherent policy. This book is far more than an authoritative analysis of zero tolerance. It is a valuable source for entering the debate about the big picture in policing which many stakeholders now wish to see. The approachable style of this book makes it ideal for students, academics, police practitioners and the lay reader to enter that debate.
Posted in Political Science

Cybercrime Risks and Responses

Eastern and Western Perspectives

Author: Russell G. Smith,Ray Cheung,Laurie Yiu-Chung Lau

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137474165

Category: Social Science

Page: 286

View: 9622

This book examines the most recent and contentious issues in relation to cybercrime facing the world today, and how best to address them. The contributors show how Eastern and Western nations are responding to the challenges of cybercrime, and the latest trends and issues in cybercrime prevention and control.
Posted in Social Science

Statistics in Criminal Justice

Author: David Weisburd,Chester Britt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461491703

Category: Social Science

Page: 783

View: 3729

Statistics in Criminal Justice takes an approach that emphasizes the application and interpretation of statistics in research in crime and justice. This text is meant for both students and researchers who want to gain a basic understanding of common statistical methods used in this field. In general, the text relies on a building-block approach, meaning that each chapter helps to prepare the student for the chapters that follow. It also means that the level of sophistication of the text increases as the text progresses. Throughout the text there is an emphasis on comprehension and interpretation, rather than computation. However, as the statistical methods discussed become more complex and demanding to compute, there is increasing use and integration of statistical software. This approach is meant to provide the reader with an accessible, yet sophisticated understanding of statistics that can be used to examine real-life criminal justice problems with popular statistical software programs. The primary goal of the text is to give students and researchers a basic understanding of statistical concepts and methods that will leave them with the confidence and the tools for tackling more complex problems on their own. New to the 4th Edition · New chapter on experimental design and the analysis of experimental data. · New chapter on multi-level models, including growth-curve models. · New computer exercises throughout the text to illustrate the use of both SPSS and Stata. · Revision of exercises at the end of each chapter that places greater emphasis on using statistical software. · Additional resources on the text’s web site for instructors and students, including answers to selected problems, syntax for replicating text examples in SPSS and Stata, and other materials that can be used to supplement the use of the text.
Posted in Social Science

The ’Ndrangheta and Sacra Corona Unita

The History, Organization and Operations of Two Unknown Mafia Groups

Author: Nicoletta Serenata

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319049305

Category: Social Science

Page: 185

View: 5095

This book covers two lesser known but important members of the Italian Mafia: the ’Ndrangheta and the Sacra Corona Unita. Italian criminal organizations, in particular Mafia, are one of the most commonly researched organized crime groups, usually focusing on the Sicilian Mafia, Cosa Nostra, or the Neapolitan Mafia, Camorra. However, Italy has other two other Mafias, one in Apulia, Sacra Corona Unita, and the other in Calabria, ’Ndrangheta. Although an extensive literature is available on Cosa Nostra and Camorra, less is known about the other two organizations, particularly their operations in the United States. Territory is one of the most important elements in the Mafia because the criminal organization operates its signoria territoriale, controlling every illegal activity in its sphere of action. This territorial power goes beyond the Italian boundaries reaching the United States of America and other non-European countries, with the mere aim of developing their drug/weapon deals and money laundering businesses. Mafia, therefore, is not a uniquely Italian phenomenon as it might appear, but a worldwide phenomenon, affecting many societies and economies. This unique volume is its interest into a field as yet completely provides new information about the ’Ndrangheta and Sacra Corona Unita written by an interdisciplinary group of Italian scholars. It covers organizational, hierarchic, and operative aspects: that is, the role that they have in politics, in their own families, in business relations in Italy and abroad. It also highlights the particular role that Cosa Nostra and Camorra had in their development. This work will be of interest to criminology researchers studying organized crime, corruption, money laundering and trafficking, as well as researchers from related fields, such as political science, economics, and international relations.
Posted in Social Science

Administrative Assistant's and Secretary's Handbook

Author: James Stroman,Kevin Wilson,Jennifer Wauson

Publisher: AMACOM

ISBN: 0814417612

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 560

View: 2164

An administrative professional’s job requires a diverse range of abilities. From managing schedules, coordinating meetings, and fielding calls to planning events, deciphering legal documents, and creating PowerPoint presentations, today’s administrative assistants are expected to effortlessly and efficiently juggle it all. Professionals looking to improve their performance—and enhance their value to employers—should turn to the fourth edition of Administrative Assistant’s and Secretary’s Handbook. With 250 pages of new or completely revised material, the handbook provides thorough, practical instruction on: Web conferencing • Creating graphics, charts, and presentations • Microsoft Office 2010 • Business math • Managing e-mail and schedules with Outlook • Organizing computer files • Research skills • Time management • Customer service skills • Troubleshooting computer problems • Event planning • and much more. Administrative jobs are constantly changing, but with the latest edition of this best-selling guide, professionals everywhere can stay ahead of the curve.
Posted in Business & Economics

Learning from Error in Policing

A Case Study in Organizational Accident Theory

Author: Jon Shane

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319000411

Category: Social Science

Page: 91

View: 8560

​While the proximate cause of any accident is usually someone’s immediate action— or omission (failure to act)—there is often a trail of underlying latent conditions that facilitated their error: the person has, in effect, been unwittingly “set up” for failure by the organization. This Brief explores an accident in policing, as a framework for examining existing police practices. Learning from Error in Policing describes a case of wrongful arrest from the perspective of organizational accident theory, which suggests a single unsafe act—in this case a wrongful arrest—is facilitated by several underlying latent conditions that triggered the event and failed to stop the harm once in motion. The analysis demonstrates that the risk of errors committed by omission (failing to act) were significantly more likely to occur than errors committed by acts of commission. By examining this case, policy implications and directions for future research are discussed. The analysis of this case, and the underlying lessons learned from it will have important implications for researchers and practitioners in the policing field.​
Posted in Social Science

Perceptions of Female Offenders

How Stereotypes and Social Norms Affect Criminal Justice Responses

Author: Brenda Russell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461458714

Category: Social Science

Page: 198

View: 4320

​Female offenders are often perceived as victims who commit crimes as a self-defense mechanism or as criminal deviants whose actions strayed from typical ‘womanly’ behavior. Such cultural norms for violence exist in our gendered society and there has been scholarly debate about how male and female offenders are perceived and how this perception leads to differential treatment in the criminal justice system. This debate is primarily based upon theories associated with stereotypes and social norms and how these prescriptive norms can influence both public and criminal justice response. Scholars in psychology, sociology, and criminology have found that female offenders are perceived differently than male offenders and this ultimately leads to differential treatment in the criminal justice system. This interdisciplinary book provides an evidence based approach of how female offenders are perceived in society and how this translates to differential treatment within the criminal justice system and explores the ramifications of such differences. Quite often perceptions of female offenders are at odds with research findings. This book will provide a comprehensive evidence-based review of the research that is valuable to laypersons, researchers, practitioners, advocates, treatment providers, lawyers, judges, and anyone interested in equality in the criminal justice system. ​
Posted in Social Science

Challenges and Choices for Crime-Fighting Technology Federal Support of State and Local Law Enforcement

Author: William Schwabe,Lois M. Davis,Brian A. Jackson

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 0833032399

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 240

View: 880

Under the American federal system, most law is cast as state statutes and local ordinances; accordingly, most law enforcement is the responsibility of state and local agencies. Federal law and federal law enforcement come into play only where there is rationale for it, consistent with the Constitution. Within this framework, a clear role has been identified for federal support of state and local agencies. This report provides findings of a study of technology in use or needed by law enforcement agencies at the state and local level, for the purpose of informing federal policymakers as they consider technology-related support for these agencies. In addition, it seeks to characterize the obstacles that exist to technology adoption by law enforcement agencies and to characterize the perceived effects of federal assistance programs intended to facilitate the process. The study findings are based on a nationwide Law Enforcement Technology Survey and a similar Forensics Technology Survey (FTS) conducted in late spring and early summer2000, interviews conducted throughout the year, focus groups conducted in autumn 2000, and review of an extensive, largely nonacademic literature. Companion reports: Schwabe, William, Needs and Prospects for Crime-Fighting Technology: The Federal Role in Assisting State and Local Law Enforcement, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND, 1999. Davis, Lois M., William Schwabe, and Ronald Fricker, Challenges and Choices for Crime-Fighting Technology: Results from Two Nationwide Surveys, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND, 2001.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Buddy Boys

When Good Cops Turn Bad

Author: Mike McAlary

Publisher: Open Road Media

ISBN: 1504021320

Category: True Crime

Page: 278

View: 536

A shocking true story of corruption and crime in the ranks of the NYPD in the worst police scandal since the revelations of Fred Serpico In the 1970s, New York City’s 77th Precinct was known as “the Alamo.” In Bedford-Stuyvesant and Crown Heights, Brooklyn—neighborhoods notorious for drugs and violent crime—some of the worst criminals wore police uniforms and carried badges. Henry Winter was a good cop when he first entered the infamous 77th station house that was already infamous as a home to the dregs of the NYPD. Before long, he and fellow officer Anthony Magno found themselves deeply entrenched in the Alamo’s culture of extortion, lies, corruption, and crime—and they were regularly supplementing their incomes by ripping off thieves, drug dealers, junkies, and honest citizens alike. But the gravy train couldn’t stay on the rails forever. Winter and Magno were caught and faced a devastating choice: They could betray their crooked friends and colleagues by helping investigators expose the rot that festered at the Alamo’s core—or spend the next several years behind bars. In Buddy Boys, Pulitzer Prize–winning investigative journalist Mike McAlary blows the doors off 1 of the worst scandals ever to taint New York’s uniformed guardians, the men and women sworn to protect and serve the populace. Blistering, shocking, and powerful, it’s a frightening look inside the NYPD and an eye-opening exploration of the daily temptations that can seduce a good cop over to the dark side.
Posted in True Crime

High-Priority Information Technology Needs for Law Enforcement

Author: John S. Hollywood,John E. Boon, Jr.,Richard Silberglitt,Brian G. Chow,Brian A. Jackson

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: N.A

Category: Computers

Page: 94

View: 7143

This study reports on strategic planning activities supporting the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) in the area of information technology, collecting and analyzing data on law enforcement needs and identifying potential solutions through technology assessment studies, extensive outreach and liaison activities, and subject matter expert panels.
Posted in Computers

Library Analytics and Metrics

Using data to drive decisions and services

Author: Ben Showers

Publisher: Facet Publishing

ISBN: 1856049655

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 224

View: 7957

This book will inform and inspire librarians, archivists, curators and technologists to make better use of data to help inform decision-making, the development of new services and the improvement of the user experience. With the wealth of data available to library and cultural heritage institutions, analytics are the key to understanding their users and improving the systems and services they offer. Using case studies to provide real-life examples of current developments and services, and packed full of practical advice and guidance for libraries looking to realize the value of their data, this will be an essential guide for librarians and information professionals. Library Analytics and Metrics brings together a group of internationally recognized experts to explore some of the key issues in the exploitation of data analytics and metrics in the library and cultural heritage sectors, including: The role of data in helping inform collections management and strategy Approaches to collecting, analyzing and utilizing data Using analytics to develop new services and improve the user experience Using ethnographic methodologies to better understand user behaviours The opportunities of library data as ‘big data’ The role of ‘small data’ in delivering meaningful interventions for users Practical advice on managing the risks and ethics of data analytics How analytics can help uncover new types of impact and value for institutions and organizations. Readership: This book will be an invaluable resource for librarians and library directors interested in developing a data-driven approach to their service provision and decision making; students on library and information science courses; and managers and practitioners in other cultural heritage sectors such as museums, archives and galleries.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines