Poincaré and the Three Body Problem

Author: June Barrow-Green

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821803677

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

View: 441

The idea of chaos figures prominently in mathematics today. It arose in the work of one of the greatest mathematicians of the late 19th century, Henri Poincare, on a problem in celestial mechanics: the three body problem. This ancient problem - to describe the paths of three bodies in mutual gravitational interaction - is one of those which is simple to pose but impossible to solve precisely. Poincare's famous memoir on the three body problem arose from his entry in the competition celebrating the 60th birthday of King Oscar of Sweden and Norway. His essay won the prize and was set up in print as a paper in Acta Mathematica when it was found to contain a deep and critical error.In correcting this error Poincare discovered mathematical chaos, as is now clear from Barrow-Green's pioneering study of a copy of the original memoir annotated by Poincare himself, recently discovered in the Institut Mittag-Leffler in Stockholm. ""Poincare and the Three Body Problem"" opens with a discussion of the development of the three body problem itself and Poincare's related earlier work. The book also contains intriguing insights into the contemporary European mathematical community revealed by the workings of the competition. After an account of the discovery of the error and a detailed comparative study of both the original memoir and its rewritten version, the book concludes with an account of the final memoir's reception, influence and impact, and an examination of Poincare's subsequent highly influential work in celestial mechanics.
Posted in Mathematics

The Three-Body Problem and the Equations of Dynamics

Poincaré’s Foundational Work on Dynamical Systems Theory

Author: Henri Poincaré

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319528998

Category: Mathematics

Page: 248

View: 5766

Here is an accurate and readable translation of a seminal article by Henri Poincaré that is a classic in the study of dynamical systems popularly called chaos theory. In an effort to understand the stability of orbits in the solar system, Poincaré applied a Hamiltonian formulation to the equations of planetary motion and studied these differential equations in the limited case of three bodies to arrive at properties of the equations’ solutions, such as orbital resonances and horseshoe orbits. Poincaré wrote for professional mathematicians and astronomers interested in celestial mechanics and differential equations. Contemporary historians of math or science and researchers in dynamical systems and planetary motion with an interest in the origin or history of their field will find his work fascinating.
Posted in Mathematics

Linear Differential Equations and Group Theory from Riemann to Poincare

Author: Jeremy Gray

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780817647728

Category: Mathematics

Page: 338

View: 5976

This book is a study of how a particular vision of the unity of mathematics, often called geometric function theory, was created in the 19th century. The central focus is on the convergence of three mathematical topics: the hypergeometric and related linear differential equations, group theory, and on-Euclidean geometry. The text for this second edition has been greatly expanded and revised, and the existing appendices enriched. The exercises have been retained, making it possible to use the book as a companion to mathematics courses at the graduate level.
Posted in Mathematics

The Scientific Legacy of Poincaré

Author: Éric Charpentier,Etienne Ghys,Annick Lesne

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 082184718X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 391

View: 3918

Henri Poincare (1854-1912) was one of the greatest scientists of his time, perhaps the last one to have mastered and expanded almost all areas in mathematics and theoretical physics. He created new mathematical branches, such as algebraic topology, dynamical systems, and automorphic functions, and he opened the way to complex analysis with several variables and to the modern approach to asymptotic expansions. He revolutionized celestial mechanics, discovering deterministic chaos. In physics, he is one of the fathers of special relativity, and his work in the philosophy of sciences is illuminating. For this book, about twenty world experts were asked to present one part of Poincare's extraordinary work. Each chapter treats one theme, presenting Poincare's approach, and achievements, along with examples of recent applications and some current prospects. Their contributions emphasize the power and modernity of the work of Poincare, an inexhaustible source of inspiration for researchers, as illustrated by the Fields Medal awarded in 2006 to Grigori Perelman for his proof of the Poincare conjecture stated a century before. This book can be read by anyone with a master's (even a bachelor's) degree in mathematics, or physics, or more generally by anyone who likes mathematical and physical ideas. Rather than presenting detailed proofs, the main ideas are explained, and a bibliography is provided for those who wish to understand the technical details.
Posted in Mathematics

Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science

Author: Alwyn Scott

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135455570

Category: Reference

Page: 1096

View: 4975

In 438 alphabetically-arranged essays, this work provides a useful overview of the core mathematical background for nonlinear science, as well as its applications to key problems in ecology and biological systems, chemical reaction-diffusion problems, geophysics, economics, electrical and mechanical oscillations in engineering systems, lasers and nonlinear optics, fluid mechanics and turbulence, and condensed matter physics, among others.
Posted in Reference

Celestial Encounters

The Origins of Chaos and Stability

Author: Florin Diacu,Philip Holmes

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691005454

Category: Mathematics

Page: 256

View: 8001

Celestial Encounters traces the history of attempts to solve the problem of celestial mechanics first posited in Isaac Newton's Principia in 1686. More generally, the authors reflect on mathematical creativity and the roles that chance encounters, politics, and circumstance play in it. 23 halftones. 64 line illustrations.
Posted in Mathematics

Deleuze and the History of Mathematics

In Defense of the 'New'

Author: Simon Duffy

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1441113894

Category: Philosophy

Page: 208

View: 1137

Gilles Deleuze's engagements with mathematics, replete in his work, rely upon the construction of alternative lineages in the history of mathematics, which challenge some of the self imposed limits that regulate the canonical concepts of the discipline. For Deleuze, these challenges are an opportunity to reconfigure particular philosophical problems - for example, the problem of individuation - and to develop new concepts in response to them. The highly original research presented in this book explores the mathematical construction of Deleuze's philosophy, as well as addressing the undervalued and often neglected question of the mathematical thinkers who influenced his work. In the wake of Alain Badiou's recent and seemingly devastating attack on the way the relation between mathematics and philosophy is configured in Deleuze's work, Simon Duffy offers a robust defence of the structure of Deleuze's philosophy and, in particular, the adequacy of the mathematical problems used in its construction. By reconciling Badiou and Deleuze's seeming incompatible engagements with mathematics, Duffy succeeds in presenting a solid foundation for Deleuze's philosophy, rebuffing the recent challenges against it.
Posted in Philosophy

The Three-Body Problem

Author: Catherine Shaw

Publisher: Allison & Busby

ISBN: 074901444X

Category: Fiction

Page: 352

View: 8021

Cambridge, 1888. When schoolmistress Vanessa Duncan learns of a murder at St John's College, little does she know that she will become deeply entangled in the mystery. Dr Geoffrey Akers, Fellow in Pure Mathematics, has been found dead, struck down by a violent blow to the head. What could provoke such a brutal act? Vanessa, finding herself in amongst Cambridge's brightest scholarly minds, discovers that the motive may lie in mathematics itself. Drawn closer to the case by a blossoming friendship with mathematician Arthur Weatherburn, Vanessa begins to investigate. When she learns of Sir Isaac Newton's elusive 'n-body problem' and the prestigious prize offered to anyone with a solution, things begin to make sense. But with further deaths occurring and the threat of an innocent man being condemned, Vanessa must hurry with her calculations...
Posted in Fiction

Three Body Dynamics and Its Applications to Exoplanets

Author: Zdzislaw Musielak,Billy Quarles

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319582267

Category: Science

Page: 109

View: 5320

This brief book provides an overview of the gravitational orbital evolution of few-body systems, in particular those consisting of three bodies. The authors present the historical context that begins with the origin of the problem as defined by Newton, which was followed up by Euler, Lagrange, Laplace, and many others. Additionally, they consider the modern works from the 20th and 21st centuries that describe the development of powerful analytical methods by Poincare and others. The development of numerical tools, including modern symplectic methods, are presented as they pertain to the identification of short-term chaos and long term integrations of the orbits of many astronomical architectures such as stellar triples, planets in binaries, and single stars that host multiple exoplanets. The book includes some of the latest discoveries from the Kepler and now K2 missions, as well as applications to exoplanets discovered via the radial velocity method. Specifically, the authors give a unique perspective in relation to the discovery of planets in binary star systems and the current search for extrasolar moons.
Posted in Science

Henri Poincaré

A Scientific Biography

Author: Jeremy Gray

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691152713

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 592

View: 2683

Henri Poincaré (1854-1912) was not just one of the most inventive, versatile, and productive mathematicians of all time--he was also a leading physicist who almost won a Nobel Prize for physics and a prominent philosopher of science whose fresh and surprising essays are still in print a century later. The first in-depth and comprehensive look at his many accomplishments, Henri Poincaré explores all the fields that Poincaré touched, the debates sparked by his original investigations, and how his discoveries still contribute to society today. Math historian Jeremy Gray shows that Poincaré's influence was wide-ranging and permanent. His novel interpretation of non-Euclidean geometry challenged contemporary ideas about space, stirred heated discussion, and led to flourishing research. His work in topology began the modern study of the subject, recently highlighted by the successful resolution of the famous Poincaré conjecture. And Poincaré's reformulation of celestial mechanics and discovery of chaotic motion started the modern theory of dynamical systems. In physics, his insights on the Lorentz group preceded Einstein's, and he was the first to indicate that space and time might be fundamentally atomic. Poincaré the public intellectual did not shy away from scientific controversy, and he defended mathematics against the attacks of logicians such as Bertrand Russell, opposed the views of Catholic apologists, and served as an expert witness in probability for the notorious Dreyfus case that polarized France. Richly informed by letters and documents, Henri Poincaré demonstrates how one man's work revolutionized math, science, and the greater world.
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

A History in Sum

Author: Steve Nadis

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674727894

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 4666

In the twentieth century, American mathematicians began to make critical advances in a field previously dominated by Europeans. Harvard's mathematics department was at the center of these developments. A History in Sum is an inviting account of the pioneers who trailblazed a distinctly American tradition of mathematics--in algebraic geometry, complex analysis, and other esoteric subdisciplines that are rarely written about outside of journal articles or advanced textbooks. The heady mathematical concepts that emerged, and the men and women who shaped them, are described here in lively, accessible prose. The story begins in 1825, when a precocious sixteen-year-old freshman, Benjamin Peirce, arrived at the College. He would become the first American to produce original mathematics--an ambition frowned upon in an era when professors largely limited themselves to teaching. Peirce's successors transformed the math department into a world-class research center, attracting to the faculty such luminaries as George David Birkhoff. Influential figures soon flocked to Harvard, some overcoming great challenges to pursue their elected calling. A History in Sum elucidates the contributions of these extraordinary minds and makes clear why the history of the Harvard mathematics department is an essential part of the history of mathematics in America and beyond.
Posted in Mathematics

Mathematics Unbound

The Evolution of an International Mathematical Research Community, 1800-1945

Author: Karen Hunger Parshall,Adrian Clifford Rice

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821896730

Category: Mathematics

Page: 406

View: 4210

Although today's mathematical research community takes its international character very much for granted, this ''global nature'' is relatively recent, having evolved over a period of roughly 150 years-from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century. During this time, the practice of mathematics changed from being centered on a collection of disparate national communities to being characterized by an international group of scholars for whom thegoal of mathematical research and cooperation transcended national boundaries. Yet, the development of an international community was far from smooth and involved obstacles such as war, political upheaval, and national rivalries. Until now, this evolution has been largely overlooked by historians andmathematicians alike. This book addresses the issue by bringing together essays by twenty experts in the history of mathematics who have investigated the genesis of today's international mathematical community. This includes not only developments within component national mathematical communities, such as the growth of societies and journals, but also more wide-ranging political, philosophical, linguistic, and pedagogical issues. The resulting volume is essential reading for anyone interestedin the history of modern mathematics. It will be of interest to mathematicians, historians of mathematics, and historians of science in general.
Posted in Mathematics

Die drei Sonnen

Roman

Author: Cixin Liu

Publisher: Heyne Verlag

ISBN: 3641173078

Category: Fiction

Page: 592

View: 930

Die Science-Fiction-Sensation aus China China, Ende der 1960er-Jahre: Während im ganzen Land die Kulturrevolution tobt, beginnt eine kleine Gruppe von Astrophysikern, Politkommissaren und Ingenieuren ein streng geheimes Forschungsprojekt. Ihre Aufgabe: Signale ins All zu senden und noch vor allen anderen Nationen Kontakt mit Außerirdischen aufzunehmen. Fünfzig Jahre später wird diese Vision Wirklichkeit – auf eine so erschreckende, umwälzende und globale Weise, dass dieser Kontakt das Schicksal der Menschheit für immer verändern wird.
Posted in Fiction

History of Topology

Author: I.M. James

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080534077

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1056

View: 2856

Topology, for many years, has been one of the most exciting and influential fields of research in modern mathematics. Although its origins may be traced back several hundred years, it was Poincaré who "gave topology wings" in a classic series of articles published around the turn of the century. While the earlier history, sometimes called the prehistory, is also considered, this volume is mainly concerned with the more recent history of topology, from Poincaré onwards. As will be seen from the list of contents the articles cover a wide range of topics. Some are more technical than others, but the reader without a great deal of technical knowledge should still find most of the articles accessible. Some are written by professional historians of mathematics, others by historically-minded mathematicians, who tend to have a different viewpoint.
Posted in Mathematics

Zdenek Kopal's Binary Star Legacy

Author: Horst Drechsel,Miloslav Zejda

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402031311

Category: Science

Page: 488

View: 415

An international conference entitled "Zdenek Kopal's Binary Star Legacy" was held on the occasion of the late Professor Kopal's 90th birthday in his home town of Litomyšl/Czech Republic and dedicated to the memory of one of the leading astronomers of the 20th century. Professor Kopal, who devoted 60 years of his scientific life to the exploration of close binary systems, initiated a breakthrough in this field with his description of binary components as non-spherical stars deformed by gravity, with surfaces following Roche equipotentials. Such knowledge triggered the development of new branches of astrophysics dealing with the structure and evolution of close binaries and the interaction effects displayed by exciting objects such as cataclysmic variables, symbiotic stars or X-ray binaries. Contributions to this conference included praise of the achievements of a great astronomer and personal reminiscences brought forward by Kopal's former students and colleagues, and reflected the state of the art of the dynamically evolving field of binary research, which owes so much to the pioneering work of Zdenek Kopal.
Posted in Science

Henri Poincaré, 1912–2012

Poincaré Seminar 2012

Author: Bertrand Duplantier,Vincent Rivasseau

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3034808348

Category: Mathematics

Page: 233

View: 9730

This thirteenth volume of the Poincaré Seminar Series, Henri Poincaré, 1912-2012, is published on the occasion of the centennial of the death of Henri Poincaré in 1912. It presents a scholarly approach to Poincaré’s genius and creativity in mathematical physics and mathematics. Its five articles are also highly pedagogical, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience. Highlights include “Poincaré’s Light” by Olivier Darrigol, a leading historian of science, who uses light as a guiding thread through much of Poincaré ’s physics and philosophy, from the application of his superior mathematical skills and the theory of diffraction to his subsequent reflections on the foundations of electromagnetism and the electrodynamics of moving bodies; the authoritative “Poincaré and the Three-Body Problem” by Alain Chenciner, who offers an exquisitely detailed, hundred-page perspective, peppered with vivid excerpts from citations, on the monumental work of Poincaré on this subject, from the famous (King Oscar’s) 1889 memoir to the foundations of the modern theory of chaos in “Les méthodes nouvelles de la mécanique céleste.” A profoundly original and scholarly presentation of the work by Poincaré on probability theory is given by Laurent Mazliak in “Poincaré’s Odds,” from the incidental first appearance of the word “probability” in Poincaré’s famous 1890 theorem of recurrence for dynamical systems, to his later acceptance of the unavoidability of probability calculus in Science, as developed to a great extent by Emile Borel, Poincaré’s main direct disciple; the article by Francois Béguin, “Henri Poincaré and the Uniformization of Riemann Surfaces,” takes us on a fascinating journey through the six successive versions in twenty-six years of the celebrated uniformization theorem, which exemplifies the Master’s distinctive signature in the foundational fusion of mathematics and physics, on which conformal field theory, string theory and quantum gravity so much depend nowadays; the final chapter, “Harmony and Chaos, On the Figure of Henri Poincaré” by the filmmaker Philippe Worms, describes the homonymous poetical film in which eminent scientists, through mathematical scenes and physical experiments, display their emotional relationship to the often elusive scientific truth and universal “harmony and chaos” in Poincaré’s legacy. This book will be of broad general interest to physicists, mathematicians, philosophers of science and historians.
Posted in Mathematics

The Foundations of Chaos Revisited: From Poincaré to Recent Advancements

Author: Christos H. Skiadas

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319297015

Category: Science

Page: 261

View: 8644

With contributions from a number of pioneering researchers in the field, this collection is aimed not only at researchers and scientists in nonlinear dynamics but also at a broader audience interested in understanding and exploring how modern chaos theory has developed since the days of Poincaré. This book was motivated by and is an outcome of the CHAOS 2015 meeting held at the Henri Poincaré Institute in Paris, which provided a perfect opportunity to gain inspiration and discuss new perspectives on the history, development and modern aspects of chaos theory. Henri Poincaré is remembered as a great mind in mathematics, physics and astronomy. His works, well beyond their rigorous mathematical and analytical style, are known for their deep insights into science and research in general, and the philosophy of science in particular. The Poincaré conjecture (only proved in 2006) along with his work on the three-body problem are considered to be the foundation of modern chaos theory.
Posted in Science

Der Wert der Wissenschaft

Author: Henri Poincaré

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 252

View: 8995

Posted in Science

Letzte Gedanken von Henri Poincaré

Author: Henri Poincaré

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3954552159

Category: Science

Page: 268

View: 3236

Der berühmte Mathematiker Henri Poincaré erwies sich als hervorragender Philosoph, dessen Werke tiefen Einfluss auf das menschschliche Denken ausübten. In diesem Buch stellt er unter anderen die Fragen nach der Veränderlichkeit der Naturgesetze, nach der Logik des Unendlichen, nach dem Grund für die Dreidimensionalität des Raums und nach der Sittlichkeit als Gemeingut.
Posted in Science