Philosophical Concepts in Physics

The Historical Relation between Philosophy and Scientific Theories

Author: James T. Cushing

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521578233

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 5924

This book examines a selection of philosophical issues in the context of specific episodes in the development of physical theories and presents scientific advances within their historical and philosophical contexts. Philosophical considerations have played an essential and ineliminable role in the actual practice of science. The book begins with some necessary introduction to the history of ancient and early modern science, but emphasizes the two great watersheds of twentieth-century physics: relativity and quantum mechanics. At times the term "construction" may seem more appropriate than "discovery" for the way theories have developed and, especially in later chapters, the discussion focuses on the influence of historical, philosophical and even social factors on the form and content of scientific theories.
Posted in Science

Platons Raumbegriff

Studien zur Metaphysik und Naturphilosophie im "Timaios"

Author: Kyung Jik Lee

Publisher: Königshausen & Neumann

ISBN: 9783826018220

Category: Cosmology

Page: 192

View: 7726

Posted in Cosmology

Chemistry Education and Contributions from History and Philosophy of Science

Author: Mansoor Niaz

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319262483

Category: Science

Page: 250

View: 6731

This book explores the relationship between the content of chemistry education and the history and philosophy of science (HPS) framework that underlies such education. It discusses the need to present an image that reflects how chemistry developed and progresses. It proposes that chemistry should be taught the way it is practiced by chemists: as a human enterprise, at the interface of scientific practice and HPS. Finally, it sets out to convince teachers to go beyond the traditional classroom practice and explore new teaching strategies. The importance of HPS has been recognized for the science curriculum since the middle of the 20th century. The need for teaching chemistry within a historical context is not difficult to understand as HPS is not far below the surface in any science classroom. A review of the literature shows that the traditional chemistry classroom, curricula, and textbooks while dealing with concepts such as law, theory, model, explanation, hypothesis, observation, evidence and idealization, generally ignore elements of the history and philosophy of science. This book proposes that the conceptual understanding of chemistry requires knowledge and understanding of the history and philosophy of science. “Professor Niaz’s book is most welcome, coming at a time when there is an urgently felt need to upgrade the teaching of science. The book is a huge aid for adding to the usual way - presenting science as a series of mere facts - also the necessary mandate: to show how science is done, and how science, through its history and philosophy, is part of the cultural development of humanity.” Gerald Holton, Mallinckrodt Professor of Physics & Professor of History of Science, Harvard University “In this stimulating and sophisticated blend of history of chemistry, philosophy of science, and science pedagogy, Professor Mansoor Niaz has succeeded in offering a promising new approach to the teaching of fundamental ideas in chemistry. Historians and philosophers of chemistry --- and above all, chemistry teachers --- will find this book full of valuable and highly usable new ideas” Alan Rocke, Case Western Reserve University “This book artfully connects chemistry and chemistry education to the human context in which chemical science is practiced and the historical and philosophical background that illuminates that practice. Mansoor Niaz deftly weaves together historical episodes in the quest for scientific knowledge with the psychology of learning and philosophical reflections on the nature of scientific knowledge and method. The result is a compelling case for historically and philosophically informed science education. Highly recommended!” Harvey Siegel, University of Miami “Books that analyze the philosophy and history of science in Chemistry are quite rare. ‘Chemistry Education and Contributions from History and Philosophy of Science’ by Mansoor Niaz is one of the rare books on the history and philosophy of chemistry and their importance in teaching this science. The book goes through all the main concepts of chemistry, and analyzes the historical and philosophical developments as well as their reflections in textbooks. Closest to my heart is Chapter 6, which is devoted to the chemical bond, the glue that holds together all matter in our earth. The chapter emphasizes the revolutionary impact of the concept of the ‘covalent bond’ on the chemical community and the great novelty of the idea that was conceived 11 years before quantum mechanics was able to offer the mechanism of electron pairing and covalent bonding. The author goes then to describe the emergence of two rival theories that explained the nature of the chemical bond in terms of quantum mechanics; these are valence bond (VB) and molecular orbital (MO) theories. He emphasizes the importance of having rival theories and interpretations in science and its advancement. He further argues that this VB-MO rivalry is still alive and together the two conceptual frames serve as the tool kit for thinking and doing chemistry in creative manners. The author surveys chemistry textbooks in the light of the how the books preserve or not the balance between the two theories in describing various chemical phenomena. This Talmudic approach of conceptual tension is a universal characteristic of any branch of evolving wisdom. As such, Mansoor’s book would be of great utility for chemistry teachers to examine how can they become more effective teachers by recognizing the importance of conceptual tension”. Sason Shaik Saeree K. and Louis P. Fiedler Chair in Chemistry Director, The Lise Meitner-Minerva Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, ISRAEL
Posted in Science

Philosophies of the Sciences

A Guide

Author: Fritz Allhoff

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119144817

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 6065

A collection of essays discussing a wide range of sciences and the central philosophical issues associated with them, presenting the sciences collectively to encourage a greater understanding of their associative theoretical foundations, as well as their relationships to each other. Offers a new and unique approach to studying and comparing the philosophies of a variety of scientific disciplines Explores a wide variety of individual sciences, including mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, psychology, sociology and economics The essays are written by leading scholars in a highly accessible style for the student audience Complements more traditional studies of philosophy of science
Posted in Science

Shakespeare's Possible Worlds

Author: Simon Palfrey

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107058279

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 392

View: 1711

Simon Palfrey offers a new way of understanding Shakespeare's playworlds, with piercingly original readings of language, scenes, and characters.
Posted in Juvenile Nonfiction

Physics, the Human Adventure

From Copernicus to Einstein and Beyond

Author: Gerald James Holton,Stephen G. Brush

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 9780813529080

Category: Science

Page: 582

View: 2830

Of Some Trigonometric Relations -- Vector Algebra.
Posted in Science

The Quantum Vacuum

A Scientific and Philosophical Concept, from Electrodynamics to String Theory and the Geometry of the Microscopic World

Author: Luciano Boi

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421402475

Category: Science

Page: 222

View: 8209

A vacuum, classically understood, contains nothing. The quantum vacuum, on the other hand, is a seething cauldron of nothingness: particle pairs going in and out of existence continuously and rapidly while exerting influence over an enormous range of scales. Acclaimed mathematical physicist and natural philosopher Luciano Boi expounds the quantum vacuum, exploring the meaning of nothingness and its relationship with physical reality. Boi first provides a deep analysis of the interaction between geometry and physics at the quantum level. He next describes the relationship between the microscopic and macroscopic structures of the world. In so doing, Boi sheds light on the very nature of the universe, stressing in an original and profound way the relationship between quantum geometry and the internal symmetries underlying the behavior of matter and the interactions of forces. Beyond the physics and mathematics of the quantum vacuum, Boi offers a profoundly philosophical interpretation of the concept. Plato and Aristotle did not believe a vacuum was possible. How could nothing be something, they asked? Boi traces the evolution of the quantum vacuum from an abstract concept in ancient Greece to its fundamental role in quantum field theory and string theory in modern times. The quantum vacuum is a complex entity, one essential to understanding some of the most intriguing issues in twentieth-century physics, including cosmic singularity, dark matter and energy, and the existence of the Higgs boson particle. Boi explains with simple clarity the relevant theories and fundamental concepts of the quantum vacuum. Theoretical, mathematical, and particle physicists, as well as researchers and students of the history and philosophy of physics, will find The Quantum Vacuum to be a stimulating and engaging primer on the topic.
Posted in Science

The Behavior Analyst

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Behaviorism (Psychology)

Page: N.A

View: 5133

Posted in Behaviorism (Psychology)

Der seltsame Fall von Dr. Jekyll und Mr. Hyde

Author: Robert Louis Stevenson

Publisher: SEVERUS Verlag

ISBN: 3863477030

Category: Fiction

Page: 112

View: 2729

„... nun aber war ich Freiwild für jeden, gejagt, obdachlos, ein weithin bekannter Mörder, dem Galgen geweiht.“ Die Schauernovelle des schottischen Schriftstellers Robert Louis Stevenson („Die Schatzinsel“) zählt zu den berühmtesten Adaptionen des Doppelgängermotivs in der Weltliteratur. In ihrer Vielschichtigkeit bis heute faszinierend, wurde sie prägend für das moderne Horrorgenre. Vollständig neu übersetzt von Susanne Mussehl.
Posted in Fiction

American Scientist

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Greek letter societies

Page: N.A

View: 8779

Posted in Greek letter societies

Quantum Mechanics

Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action

Author: Robert J. Russell

Publisher: University of Notre Dame Press

ISBN: 9780268039783

Category: Science

Page: 345

View: 5561

Quantum Mechanics, a collection of fifteen essays, explores the creative interaction among quantum physics, philosophy, and theology. This fine collection presents the results of the fifth international research conference co-sponsored by the Vatican Observatory, Rome, and the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences, Berkeley. The overarching goal of these conferences is to support the engagement of constructive theology with the natural sciences and to investigate the philosophical and theological elements in ongoing theoretical research in the natural sciences. In the first section of this collection, contributors examine scientific and historical context. Section two features essays covering a wide range of philosophical interpretations of quantum mechanics. The final set of essays explores the theological implications of quantum theory. Abner Shimony, Raymond Y. Chiao, Michael Berry, Ernan McMullin, William R. Stoeger, S.J., James T. Cushing, Jeremy Butterfield, Michael Redhead, Chris Clarke, John Polkinghorne, Michael Heller, Philip Clayton, Thomas F. Tracy, George F.R. Ellis, and Robert John Russell all contributed essays to this volume.
Posted in Science

Einstein

Sein Leben und seine Zeit

Author: Philipp Frank

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322990117

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 468

View: 7899

Das Manuskript zu diesem Buch ist unter merkwürdigen Um ständen entstanden. Ich begann die Niederschrift 1939 in New York, setzte sie 1940 in Chicago fort und beendete den größten Teil 1941 in Boston. Das Manuskript war in deutscher Sprache geschrieben, aber begreiflicherweise unter der damaligen Reichs regierung nicht für eine Veröffentlichung in deutscher Sprache bestimmt; 'es sollte ins Englische übersetzt und in Amerika ver öffentlicht werden. Bevor die übersetzung beendet war, wurde die Einsteinsche Relativitätstheorie, die oft als eine spekulative Hypothese an gesehen und unterschätzt wurde, die Grundlage einer ganz neuen Wendung in der technischen Entwicklung der Menschheit: Die Kernenergie des Atoms wurde die Energiequelle der Zukunft, und all die trüben Prophezeiungen über ein Versagen der Energie quellen konnten zum alten Gerümpel geworfen werden. Jm Jahre 1945 fügte ich eine Darstellung dieser Wendung in englischer Sprache hinzu, und dieser Teil ist der einzige im Buch, der aus dem Englischen übersetzt ist. Die amerikanische Ausgabe erschien 1947; große Teile der deutschen Fassung wurden nicht aufgenom men. Daher ist das vorliegende Buch die erste vollständige Wieder gabe meines Manuskriptes.
Posted in Juvenile Nonfiction

Mathematical Reviews

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 6285

Posted in Mathematics

Frontiers of Science and Philosophy

Author: Robert G. Colodny

Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre

ISBN: 0822975602

Category: Philosophy

Page: 296

View: 4668

Six essays by noted philosophers of science include the following topics: explanation in science and in history; philosophy and the scientific image of man; psychoanalysis and parapsychology; the conceptual basis of the biological sciences; the nature of time; and problems of microphysics.
Posted in Philosophy

Physics, Philosophy, and the Scientific Community

Essays in the philosophy and history of the natural sciences and mathematics In honor of Robert S. Cohen

Author: K. Gavroglu,John Stachel,Marx W. Wartofsky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401726582

Category: Science

Page: 388

View: 1761

In three volumes, a distinguished group of scholars from a variety of disciplines in the natural and social sciences, the humanities and the arts contribute essays in honor of Robert S. Cohen, on the occasion of his 70th birthday. The range of the essays, as well as their originality, and their critical and historical depth, pay tribute to the extraordinary scope of Professor Cohen's intellectual interests, as a scientist-philosopher and a humanist, and also to his engagement in the world of social and political practice. The essays presented in Physics, Philosophy, and the Scientific Community (Volume I of Essays in Honor of Robert S. Cohen) focus on philosophical and historical issues in contemporary physics: on the origins and conceptual foundations of quantum mechanics, on the reception and understanding of Bohr's and Einstein's work, on the emergence of quantum electrodynamics, and on some of the sharp philosophical and scientific issues that arise in current scientific practice (e.g. in superconductivity research). In addition, several essays deal with critical issues within the philosophy of science, both historical and contemporary: e.g. with Cartesian notions of mechanism in the philosophy of biology; with the language and logic of science - e.g. with new insights concerning the issue of a `physicalistic' language in the arguments of Neurath, Carnap and Wittgenstein; with the notion of `elementary logic'; and with rational and non-rational elements in the history of science. Two original contributions to the history of mathematics and some studies in the comparative sociology of science round off this outstanding collection.
Posted in Science

Ziel und Struktur der physikalischen Theorien

Author: Pierre Duhem,Lothar Schäfer,E Mach

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 3787332146

Category: Philosophy

Page: 374

View: 6264

Pierre Duhem (1861-1916) gehörte zu jenen Wissenschaftlern, die im ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert an der Umbildung der Physik im großen Stil arbeiteten und damit an der Vorbereitung der wissenschaftlichen Revolution beteiligt waren, die durch Planck und Einstein herbeigeführt wurde. Duhems klassisches Werk der modernen Wissenschaftstheorie hat auf die Entwicklung des logischen Empirismus nachhaltigen Einfluß ausgeübt. Das von Duhem beigezogene reichhaltige Material und seine konzisen Fallstudien stellen eine Fundgrube für jeden dar, der sich ernsthaft mit Wissenschaftstheorie beschäftigt.
Posted in Philosophy

Der dunkle Wald

Roman

Author: Cixin Liu

Publisher: Heyne Verlag

ISBN: 3641174589

Category: Fiction

Page: 816

View: 3991

Invasion Der erste Kontakt mit einer außerirdischen Spezies hat die Menschheit in eine Krise gestürzt, denn die fremde Zivilisation hat sich Zugang zu jeglicher menschlicher Informationstechnologie verschafft. Der einzige Informationsspeicher, der noch vor den Aliens geschützt ist, ist das menschliche Gehirn, weshalb das Wallfacer- Projekt ins Leben gerufen wird: Vier Wissenschaftler sollen die ultimative Verteidigungsstrategie gegen die Aliens ausarbeiten - doch können sie einander trauen?
Posted in Fiction