Paleopathology in Perspective

Bone Health and Disease through Time

Author: Elizabeth Weiss

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 0759124043

Category: Science

Page: 266

View: 9947

Elizabeth Weiss introduces readers to how lifestyle changes—in complex interaction with biology, genes, and environment—affect health in this distinctive tour of human osteology, past and present.
Posted in Science

IDENTIFICATION AND INTERPRETATION OF JOINT DISEASE IN PALEOPATHOLOGY AND FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY

Author: Nicole M. Burt,Dyan Semple,Kathryn Waterhouse,Nancy C. Lovell

Publisher: Charles C Thomas Publisher

ISBN: 0398087598

Category: Law

Page: 108

View: 8251

The goals of this guide to the identification and interpretation of joint disease are: (1) to identify the diagnostic criteria that are relevant to investigations of joint disease in dry and macerated bone specimens; (2) to differentiate between various disease forms; and (3) to highlight contentious issues, such as the antiquity of rheumatoid arthritis and the implications of the prevalence and severity of joint disease for reconstructing the behaviors of past peoples. The text advocates the use of unambiguous terminology and hence discusses descriptive terms and illustrates how the use of colloquial or otherwise inappropriate terms can lead to errors of interpretation. Joint disease causes proliferative and/or erosive bony lesions that preferentially, but not exclusively, affect the synovial joints of the body and this manual emphasizes those diseases. The major sections of the book review the pathogenesis, disease process, anatomical distribution, and diagnosis of osteoarthritis; multi-focal erosive arthropathies (i.e., rheumatoid arthritis and the seronegative arthropathies); the less common diseases of synovial joints, including gout, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and septic arthritis; and conditions affecting the non-synovial joints of the spine such as spinal osteophytosis, degenerative disc disease, Schmorl’s nodes, and the seronegative spondyloarthropathies. The text is greatly enhanced by exceptional illustrations and a glossary of terms completes the book.
Posted in Law

Evolving Health

The Origins of Illness and How the Modern World Is Making Us Sick

Author: Noel T. Boaz

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471212997

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 256

View: 5404

Human illnesses can be understood as damage to those adaptations that we took on at various stages in our evolution from pre-life molecules to modern Homo sapiens. Preventing these illnesses entails avoiding what causes the damage-- which too frequently are the everyday hazards of twenty-first-century life, as the chart below shows: Level of Evolution Cause of adaptive failure resulting disease or problem Pre-life Environmental poisons Certain birth defects Single cell (bacteria and amoeba-like) Viral infection Colds/flu/HIV Morula (sponge-like) Cellular stress Cancer Chordate Physical stress Back pain Fish Excess dietary salt Hypertension/heart disease Amphibian Tobacco smoke Lung cancer/emphysema Lower primate Excess dietary sugar Diabetes mellitus Higher primate Vitamin C deficiency Scurvy Ape Excess dietary protein Gout Homo sapiens Reduced dietary variety Nutritionaldiseases/food allergies
Posted in Health & Fitness

The Archaeology of Human Bones

Author: Simon Mays

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136971777

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 9482

The Archaeology of Human Bones provides an up to date account of the scientific analysis of human skeletal remains from archaeological sites. This completely revised edition reflects the latest developments in scientific techniques for studying human skeletons and the latest applications of those techniques in archaeology. In particular, the sections on ancient DNA and bone stable isotopes have been comprehensively updated, and two completely new chapters have been introduced, covering metric study of the postcranial skeleton and ethical dimensions of the study of human remains. The Archaeology of Human Bones introduces students to the anatomy of bones and teeth, utilising a large number of images. It analyzes the biasing effects of decay and incomplete recovery on burial data from archaeological sites, and discusses what we may learn about burial rites from human remains. Subsequent chapters focus on demographic analysis of earlier populations, normal skeletal variation, disease and injury, isotopic and DNA analysis of bone, the study of cremated bone and ethical aspects of working with ancient human remains. Current scientific methods are explained, alongside a critical discussion of their strengths and weaknesses. The ways in which scientific analyses of human skeletal remains can contribute to tackling major archaeological or historical issues is illustrated by means of examples drawn from studies from around the world. Technical jargon is kept to a minimum, and each chapter contains a summary of the main points that a student should grasp and a list of further reading targeted to enable students to follow up major issues covered in the book. Featuring case studies from around the world and with copious illustrations, The Archaeology of Human Bones continues to be a crucial work for students of archaeology.
Posted in Science

Sex and Gender in Paleopathological Perspective

Author: Anne L. Grauer,Patricia Stuart-Macadam

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521620901

Category: Medical

Page: 192

View: 9221

This book explores ramifications of sex and gender on ancient and modern human diseases.
Posted in Medical

Reading the Bones

Activity, Biology, and Culture

Author: Elizabeth Weiss

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780813054988

Category: Science

Page: 183

View: 7507

In this textbook designed for upper level physical anthropology/forensic anthropology courses, Weiss explains the complex relationship between biology and activity. While activity markers sometimes show aspects of lifestyle, social change, and daily prehistoric life, this text will help future researchers to be more critical of their social reconstructions by using the same comparisons of biology versus environment that are found in social anthropology courses.
Posted in Science

PHOTOGRAPHIC REGIONAL ATLAS OF BONE DISEASE

A Guide to Pathologic and Normal Variation in the Human Skeleton (3rd Ed.)

Author: Robert W. Mann,David R. Hunt

Publisher: Charles C Thomas Publisher

ISBN: 0398088276

Category: Medical

Page: 432

View: 3744

The Photographic Regional Atlas of Bone Disease is intended to serve the needs of a diverse audience including paleopathologists, physical anthropologists and other anthropologists, police, crime scene technicians, medical examiners, radiologists, anatomists, and other medical specialists, regardless of training or experience. Although originally written as a manual for physical anthropologists, it has become a reference for anyone examining skeletal remains or dealing with bone disease, especially in dry-bone specimens. Over the years it has gained in popularity as one of the few “required” manuals in most skeletal laboratories throughout the U.S. and, in fact, many countries. The purpose of the book is to bridge the gap between clinical medicine, radiology and physical anthropology by providing researchers with a single source and photographic atlas of what they might encounter in one bone or an entire skeletal collection, regardless of antiquity or origin. Unlike most texts written by clinicians for clinicians, or those that focus on one specialty, the Regional Atlas was compiled by biological anthropologists using a “dry bones” approach and simple yet precise terminology, based on examination of nearly 10,000 skeletons. The authors’ expertise and diversity in anatomy, radiology, pathology and human variation provide them with a unique perspective for distinguishing normal variation from pathological conditions. The book was written as a basic stand-alone reference for bone disease and normal variation. It contains black and white photographs and an extensive use of color plates depicting a variety of disease conditions and stages of progression that one might expect to encounter in one or many skeletons. The purpose of this text is to provide readers with sufficient information on bone disease and human variation for them to recognize, describe and interpret them. Once they have identified a disease, normal variant or other condition, they can turn to the bibliography for references and additional information. The Regional Atlas is intended to provide readers with enough information to do their own skeletal analysis. It is this “dry bones” approach, combined with the vast experiences of the authors, vivid photos and simple terminology, that sets the Regional Atlas apart from all others.
Posted in Medical

The Global History of Paleopathology

Pioneers and Prospects

Author: Jane E. Buikstra,Charlotte Roberts

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195389808

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 798

View: 1877

The first comprehensive global history of the discipline of paleopathology
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

A Companion to Paleopathology

Author: Anne L. Grauer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119111633

Category: Science

Page: 628

View: 6968

This title offers a broad overview of the field that has evolved over the last few decades into an exploration of disease processes in the human skeleton.
Posted in Science

Modern Mummies

The Preservation of the Human Body in the Twentieth Century

Author: Christine Quigley

Publisher: McFarland

ISBN: 1476613737

Category: History

Page: 271

View: 4295

For many, a mummy is an Egyptian pharaoh, wrapped in cloth, found thousands of years later in a pyramid by archaeologists. But mummies need not be ancient. Modern-day mummies can be found under glass in special tombs built in their honor, in private collections where they have come to rest after decades on the carnival circuit, in dissecting rooms of medical schools, and in the basements of funeral homes waiting for decades to be claimed by the next of kin. Stories about the famous (Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, Ho Chi Minh, Eva Peron) and the not-so-famous (Leslie Hansell wanted her body mummified to bask in the sun rather than being buried in the cold ground) mummies are told here in great detail, along with a broader look at the history and process of mummification. The book includes a comprehensive study of the successful prolonged preservation of the human body, and delves into the law and science of modern mummification.
Posted in History

Palaeopathology

Author: Tony Waldron

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139474009

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 1883

Palaeopathology is designed to help bone specialists with diagnosis of diseases in skeletal assemblages. It suggests an innovative method of arriving at a diagnosis in the skeleton by applying what are referred to as 'operational definitions'. The aim is to ensure that all those who study bones will use the same criteria for diagnosing disease, which will enable valid comparisons to be made between studies. This book is based on modern clinical knowledge and provides background information so that those who read it will understand the natural history of bone diseases, and this will enable them to draw reliable conclusions from their observations. Details of bone metabolism and the fundamentals of basic pathology are also provided, as well as a comprehensive and up-to-date bibliography. A short chapter on epidemiology provides information on how best to analyze and present the results of a study of human remains.
Posted in Social Science

Atlas of Developmental Field Anomalies of the Human Skeleton

A Paleopathology Perspective

Author: Ethne Barnes

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118430778

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 1140

Written by one of the most consulted authorities on the subject, Atlas of Developmental Field Anomalies of the Human Skeleton is the pre-eminent resource for developmental defects of the skeleton. This guide focuses on localized bone structures utilizing the morphogenetic approach that addresses the origins of variability within specific developmental fields during embryonic development. Drawings and photographs make up most of the text, forming a picture atlas with descriptive text for each group of illustrations. Each section and subdivision is accompanied by brief discussions and drawings of morphogenetic development.
Posted in Science

Children, Death and Burial

Archaeological Discourses

Author: Eileen Murphy,Mélie Le Roy

Publisher: Oxbow Books

ISBN: 1785707159

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 3302

Children, Death and Burials assembles a panorama of studies with a focus on juvenile burials; the 16 papers have a wide geographic and temporal breadth and represent a range of methodological approaches. All have a similar objective in mind, however, namely to understand how children were treated in death by different cultures in the past; to gain insights concerning the roles of children of different ages in their respective societies and to find evidence of the nature of past adult–child relationships and interactions across the life course. The contextualisation and integration of the data collected, both in the field and in the laboratory, enables more nuanced understandings to be gained in relation to the experiences of the young in the past. A broad range of issues are addressed within the volume, including the inclusion/exclusion of children in particular burial environments and the impact of age in relation to the place of children in society. Child burials clearly embody identity and ‘the domestic child’, ‘the vulnerable child’, ‘the high status child’, ‘the cherished child’, ‘the potential child’, ‘the ritual child’ and the ‘political child’, and combinations thereof, are evident throughout the narratives. Investigation of the burial practices afforded to children is pivotal to enlightenment in relation to key facets of past life, including the emotional responses shown towards children during life and in death, as well as an understanding of their place within the social strata and ritual activities of their societies. An important new collection of papers by leading researchers in funerary archaeology, examining the particular treatment of juvenile burials in the past. In particular focuses on the expression of varying status and identity of children in the funerary archaeological record as a key to understanding the place of children in different societies.
Posted in Social Science

Archaeology of Disease

Author: Charlotte Roberts,Keith Manchester

Publisher: The History Press

ISBN: 075249497X

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 4491

The Archaeology of Disease shows how the latest scientific and archaeological techniques can be used to identify the common illnesses and injuries that humans suffered from in antiquity.In order to give a vivid picture of ancient disease and trauma the authors present the results of the latest scientific research and incorporate information gathered from documents, from other areas of archaeology and from art and ethnography.This comprehensive approach to the subject throws fresh light on the health of our ancestors and on the conditions in which they lived, and it gives us an intriguing insight into the ways in which they coped with the pain and discomfort of their existence.
Posted in Social Science

The Bioarchaeology of Metabolic Bone Disease

Author: Megan Brickley,Rachel Ives

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080557915

Category: Social Science

Page: 350

View: 6592

The Bioarchaeology of Metabolic Bone Disease provides a comprehensive and invaluable source of information on this important group of diseases. It is an essential guide for those engaged in either basic recording or in-depth research on human remains from archaeological sites. The range of potential tools for investigating metabolic diseases of bone are far greater than for many other conditions, and building on clinical investigations, this book will consider gross, surface features visible using microscopic examination, histological and radiological features of bone, that can be used to help investigate metabolic bone diseases. Clear photographs and line drawings illustrate gross, histological and radiological features associated with each of the conditions Covers a range of issues pertinent to the study of metabolic bone disease in archaeological skeletal material, including the problems that frequent co-existence of these conditions in individuals living in the past raises, the preservation of human bone and the impact this has on the ability to suggest a diagnosis of a condition Includes a range of conditions that can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis, including previous investigations of these conditions in archaeological bone
Posted in Social Science

Bioarchaeology

Author: Clark Spencer Larsen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 052183869X

Category: History

Page: 656

View: 2992

A synthetic treatment of the study of human remains from archaeological contexts for current and future generations of bioarchaeologists.
Posted in History

The Backbone of History

Health and Nutrition in the Western Hemisphere

Author: Richard H. Steckel,Jerome C. Rose

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521801676

Category: History

Page: 633

View: 9377

For the same reasons that explorers of the early twentieth century strove to reach the poles, and their modern counterparts journey to outer space, most people want to visualize the contours of the human experience - the peaks of adaptive success that led to the expansion of civilization, and the troughs in which human presence ebbed. The Backbone of History defines the emerging field of macrobioarchaeology by gathering skeletal evidence on seven basic indicators of health to assess chronic conditions that affected individuals who lived in the Western Hemisphere from 5000 BC to the late nineteenth century. Signs of biological stress in childhood and of degeneration in joints and in teeth increased in the several millennia before the arrival of Columbus as populations moved into less healthy ecological environments. Thus, pre-Colombian Native Americans were among the healthiest and the least healthy groups to live in the Western Hemisphere before the twentieth century.
Posted in History

Bodies and Lives in Ancient America

Health Before Columbus

Author: Debra L. Martin,Anna J. Osterholtz

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317446011

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 1115

Bodies and Lives in Ancient America offers a broad overview of what it was like to live and die throughout North America before European contact. Using a unique life history approach, the book moves from pregnancy and birth through to senescence. Drawing on biological data gathered from human remains, as well as cultural and environmental data derived from archaeological investigations, the authors provide students with a wealth of information on health and other aspects of life that leave changes on the skeletal system. Rich case studies throughout demonstrate the temporal, cultural and environmental variability across the continent prior to colonial times. The authors also examine how different groups faced a variety of challenges in their lives, including climate change and violence, and the effects this had on their health. The book concludes by considering the relevance of what ancient bones reveal for people today. Written in an engaging style, with complex paleopathology data synthesized and clearly presented, Bodies and Lives in Ancient America is an accessible introduction to the state of health across prehistoric North America.
Posted in Social Science

Human Diet and Nutrition in Biocultural Perspective

Past Meets Present

Author: Tina Moffat,Tracy Prowse

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1845459814

Category: Medical

Page: 282

View: 7876

There are not many areas that are more rooted in both the biological and social-cultural aspects of humankind than diet and nutrition. Throughout human history nutrition has been shaped by political, economic, and cultural forces, and in turn, access to food and nutrition has altered the course and direction of human societies. Using a biocultural approach, the contributors to this volume investigate the ways in which food is both an essential resource fundamental to human health and an expression of human culture and society. The chapters deal with aspects of diet and human nutrition through space and time and span prehistoric, historic, and contemporary societies spread over various geographical regions, including Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia to highlight how biology and culture are inextricably linked.
Posted in Medical

Beyond the Bones

Engaging with Disparate Datasets

Author: Madeleine Mant,Alyson Holland

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128046686

Category: Law

Page: 168

View: 700

Interdisciplinary research is a rewarding enterprise, but there are inherent challenges, especially in current anthropological study. Anthropologists investigate questions concerning health, disease, and the life course in past and contemporary societies, necessitating interdisciplinary collaboration. Tackling these ‘big picture’ questions related to human health-states requires understanding and integrating social, historical, environmental, and biological contexts and uniting qualitative and quantitative data from divergent sources and technologies. The crucial interplay between new technologies and traditional approaches to anthropology necessitates innovative approaches that promote the emergence of new and alternate views. Beyond the Bones: Engaging with Disparate Datasets fills an emerging niche, providing a forum in which anthropology students and scholars wrestle with the fundamental possibilities and limitations in uniting multiple lines of evidence. This text demonstrates the importance of a multi-faceted approach to research design and data collection and provides concrete examples of research questions, designs, and results that are produced through the integration of different methods, providing guidance for future researchers and fostering the creation of constructive discourse. Contributions from various experts in the field highlight lines of evidence as varied as skeletal remains, cemetery reports, hospital records, digital radiographs, ancient DNA, clinical datasets, linguistic models, and nutritional interviews, including discussions of the problems, limitations, and benefits of drawing upon and comparing datasets, while illuminating the many ways in which anthropologists are using multiple data sources to unravel larger conceptual questions in anthropology. Examines how disparate datasets are combined using case studies from current research. Draws on multiple sub-disciplines of anthropological research to produce a holistic overview that speaks to anthropology as a discipline. Explores examples drawn from qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research to illustrate the breadth of anthropological work.
Posted in Law