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## Numerical Methods for Structured Markov Chains

Intersecting two large research areas - numerical analysis and applied probability/queuing theory - this book is a self-contained introduction to the numerical solution of structured Markov chains, which have a wide applicability in queuing theory and stochastic modeling and include M/G/1 and GI/M/1-type Markov chain, quasi-birth-death processes, non-skip free queues and tree-like stochastic processes. Written for applied probabilists and numerical analysts, but accessible toengineers and scientists working on telecommunications and evaluation of computer systems performances, it provides a systematic treatment of the theory and algorithms for important families of structured Markov chains and a thorough overview of the current literature.The book, consisting of nine Chapters, is presented in three parts. Part 1 covers a basic description of the fundamental concepts related to Markov chains, a systematic treatment of the structure matrix tools, including finite Toeplitz matrices, displacement operators, FFT, and the infinite block Toeplitz matrices, their relationship with matrix power series and the fundamental problems of solving matrix equations and computing canonical factorizations. Part 2 deals with the description andanalysis of structure Markov chains and includes M/G/1, quasi-birth-death processes, non-skip-free queues and tree-like processes. Part 3 covers solution algorithms where new convergence and applicability results are proved. Each chapter ends with bibliographic notes for further reading, and the bookends with an appendix collecting the main general concepts and results used in the book, a list of the main annotations and algorithms used in the book, and an extensive index.
## Markov Chains

Markov chains are a fundamental class of stochastic processes. They are widely used to solve problems in a large number of domains such as operational research, computer science, communication networks and manufacturing systems. The success of Markov chains is mainly due to their simplicity of use, the large number of available theoretical results and the quality of algorithms developed for the numerical evaluation of many metrics of interest. The author presents the theory of both discrete-time and continuous-time homogeneous Markov chains. He carefully examines the explosion phenomenon, the Kolmogorov equations, the convergence to equilibrium and the passage time distributions to a state and to a subset of states. These results are applied to birth-and-death processes. He then proposes a detailed study of the uniformization technique by means of Banach algebra. This technique is used for the transient analysis of several queuing systems. Contents 1. Discrete-Time Markov Chains 2. Continuous-Time Markov Chains 3. Birth-and-Death Processes 4. Uniformization 5. Queues About the Authors Bruno Sericola is a Senior Research Scientist at Inria Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique in France. His main research activity is in performance evaluation of computer and communication systems, dependability analysis of fault-tolerant systems and stochastic models.
## Chaînes de Markov : Théorie, algorithmes et applications

Les chaînes de Markov sont des modèles probabilistes utilisés dans des domaines variés comme la logistique, l'informatique, la fiabilité, les télécommunications, ou encore la biologie et la physique-chimie. On les retrouve également dans la finance, l’économie et les sciences sociales. Cet ouvrage présente une étude approfondie des chaînes de Markov à temps discret et à temps continu avec des applications détaillées aux processus de naissance et mort et aux files d'attente. Ces applications sont illustrées par des algorithmes généraux de calcul de probabilités d'état et de distribution de temps de passage. Le développement de ces algorithmes repose sur l'utilisation de la technique d'uniformisation des chaînes de Markov qui est présentée de manière théorique et intuitive. Ce livre s'adresse aux ingénieurs et chercheurs ayant besoin de modèles probabilistes pour évaluer et prédire le comportement des systèmes qu'ils étudient ou qu'ils développent. Il est aussi très bien adapté pour un cours de master.
## Exploiting Hidden Structure in Matrix Computations: Algorithms and Applications

Focusing on special matrices and matrices which are in some sense `near’ to structured matrices, this volume covers a broad range of topics of current interest in numerical linear algebra. Exploitation of these less obvious structural properties can be of great importance in the design of efficient numerical methods, for example algorithms for matrices with low-rank block structure, matrices with decay, and structured tensor computations. Applications range from quantum chemistry to queuing theory. Structured matrices arise frequently in applications. Examples include banded and sparse matrices, Toeplitz-type matrices, and matrices with semi-separable or quasi-separable structure, as well as Hamiltonian and symplectic matrices. The associated literature is enormous, and many efficient algorithms have been developed for solving problems involving such matrices. The text arose from a C.I.M.E. course held in Cetraro (Italy) in June 2015 which aimed to present this fast growing field to young researchers, exploiting the expertise of five leading lecturers with different theoretical and application perspectives.
## Large Truncated Toeplitz Matrices, Toeplitz Operators, and Related Topics

This book presents a collection of expository and research papers on various topics in matrix and operator theory, contributed by several experts on the occasion of Albrecht Böttcher’s 60th birthday. Albrecht Böttcher himself has made substantial contributions to the subject in the past. The book also includes a biographical essay, a complete bibliography of Albrecht Böttcher’s work and brief informal notes on personal encounters with him. The book is of interest to graduate and advanced undergraduate students majoring in mathematics, researchers in matrix and operator theory as well as engineers and applied mathematicians.
## Introduction to the Numerical Solution of Markov Chains

Markov chains; Direct methods; Iterative methods; Projection methods; Block hessenberg matrices and solution by recursion; decompositional methods; P-cyclic markov chains; Trasient solutions; Stochastic automata networks; Software; Bibliography; Index.
## Mathematical Reviews

## Numerical Analysis

This book introduces students with diverse backgrounds to various types of mathematical analysis that are commonly needed in scientific computing. The subject of numerical analysis is treated from a mathematical point of view, offering a complete analysis of methods for scientific computing with appropriate motivations and careful proofs. In an engaging and informal style, the authors demonstrate that many computational procedures and intriguing questions of computer science arise from theorems and proofs. Algorithms are presented in pseudocode, so that students can immediately write computer programs in standard languages or use interactive mathematical software packages. This book occasionally touches upon more advanced topics that are not usually contained in standard textbooks at this level.
## Numerical Analysis for Statisticians

Numerical analysis is the study of computation and its accuracy, stability and often its implementation on a computer. This book focuses on the principles of numerical analysis and is intended to equip those readers who use statistics to craft their own software and to understand the advantages and disadvantages of different numerical methods.
## Quasi-stationary Phenomena in Nonlinearly Perturbed Stochastic Systems

This book is devoted to the mathematical studies of stochastic systems with quasi-stationary phenomena which have applications to population dynamics or epidemic models. In addition to its use for the research and reference purposes, the book can also be used in special courses on the subject and as a complementary reading in general courses on stochastic processes. In this respect, it may be useful for specialists as well as doctoral and advanced undergraduate students.
## Numerical Solution of Algebraic Riccati Equations

This treatment of the basic theory of algebraic Riccati equations describes the classical as well as the more advanced algorithms for their solution in a manner that is accessible to both practitioners and scholars. It is the first book in which nonsymmetric algebraic Riccati equations are treated in a clear and systematic way. Some proofs of theoretical results have been simplified and a unified notation has been adopted. Readers will find a unified discussion of doubling algorithms, which are effective in solving algebraic Riccati equations as well as a detailed description of all classical and advanced algorithms for solving algebraic Riccati equations and their MATLAB codes. This will help the reader gain an understanding of the computational issues and provide ready-to-use implementation of the different solution techniques.
## Numerical Methods and Optimization in Finance

This book describes computational finance tools. It covers fundamental numerical analysis and computational techniques, such as option pricing, and gives special attention to simulation and optimization. Many chapters are organized as case studies around portfolio insurance and risk estimation problems. In particular, several chapters explain optimization heuristics and how to use them for portfolio selection and in calibration of estimation and option pricing models. Such practical examples allow readers to learn the steps for solving specific problems and apply these steps to others. At the same time, the applications are relevant enough to make the book a useful reference. Matlab and R sample code is provided in the text and can be downloaded from the book's website. Shows ways to build and implement tools that help test ideas Focuses on the application of heuristics; standard methods receive limited attention Presents as separate chapters problems from portfolio optimization, estimation of econometric models, and calibration of option pricing models
## Numerical Methods for Large Eigenvalue Problems

This revised edition discusses numerical methods for computing eigenvalues and eigenvectors of large sparse matrices. It provides an in-depth view of the numerical methods that are applicable for solving matrix eigenvalue problems that arise in various engineering and scientific applications. Each chapter was updated by shortening or deleting outdated topics, adding topics of more recent interest, and adapting the Notes and References section. Significant changes have been made to Chapters 6 through 8, which describe algorithms and their implementations and now include topics such as the implicit restart techniques, the Jacobi-Davidson method, and automatic multilevel substructuring.
## Finite Element Methods for Maxwell's Equations

The emphasis in on finite element methods for scattering problems that involve the solution of Maxwell's equations on infinite domains. Suitable variational formulations are developed and justified mathematically. An error analysis of edge finite element methods that are particularly well suited to Maxwell's equations is the main focus of the book.
## Computations with Markov Chains

Computations with Markov Chains presents the edited and reviewed proceedings of the Second International Workshop on the Numerical Solution of Markov Chains, held January 16--18, 1995, in Raleigh, North Carolina. New developments of particular interest include recent work on stability and conditioning, Krylov subspace-based methods for transient solutions, quadratic convergent procedures for matrix geometric problems, further analysis of the GTH algorithm, the arrival of stochastic automata networks at the forefront of modelling stratagems, and more. An authoritative overview of the field for applied probabilists, numerical analysts and systems modelers, including computer scientists and engineers.
## Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers

This inexpensive paperback edition of a groundbreaking text stresses frequency approach in coverage of algorithms, polynomial approximation, Fourier approximation, exponential approximation, and other topics. Revised and enlarged 2nd edition.
## Linear Algebra, Markov Chains, and Queueing Models

This IMA Volume in Mathematics and its Applications LINEAR ALGEBRA, MARKOV CHAINS, AND QUEUEING MODELS is based on the proceedings of a workshop which was an integral part of the 1991-92 IMA program on "Applied Linear Algebra". We thank Carl Meyer and R.J. Plemmons for editing the proceedings. We also take this opportunity to thank the National Science Founda tion, whose financial support made the workshop possible. A vner Friedman Willard Miller, Jr. xi PREFACE This volume contains some of the lectures given at the workshop Lin ear Algebra, Markov Chains, and Queueing Models held January 13-17, 1992, as part of the Year of Applied Linear Algebra at the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications. Markov chains and queueing models play an increasingly important role in the understanding of complex systems such as computer, communi cation, and transportation systems. Linear algebra is an indispensable tool in such research, and this volume collects a selection of important papers in this area. The articles contained herein are representative of the underlying purpose of the workshop, which was to bring together practitioners and re searchers from the areas of linear algebra, numerical analysis, and queueing theory who share a common interest of analyzing and solving finite state Markov chains. The papers in this volume are grouped into three major categories-perturbation theory and error analysis, iterative methods, and applications regarding queueing models.
## Numerical Methods in Matrix Computations

Matrix algorithms are at the core of scientific computing and are indispensable tools in most applications in engineering. This book offers a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of modern methods in matrix computation. It uses a unified approach to direct and iterative methods for linear systems, least squares and eigenvalue problems. A thorough analysis of the stability, accuracy, and complexity of the treated methods is given. Numerical Methods in Matrix Computations is suitable for use in courses on scientific computing and applied technical areas at advanced undergraduate and graduate level. A large bibliography is provided, which includes both historical and review papers as well as recent research papers. This makes the book useful also as a reference and guide to further study and research work.
## A Posteriori Error Estimation Techniques for Finite Element Methods

A posteriori error estimation techniques are fundamental to the efficient numerical solution of PDEs arising in physical and technical applications. This book gives a unified approach to these techniques and guides graduate students, researchers, and practitioners towards understanding, applying and developing self-adaptive discretization methods.
## Understanding Markov Chains

This book provides an undergraduate introduction to discrete and continuous-time Markov chains and their applications. A large focus is placed on the first step analysis technique and its applications to average hitting times and ruin probabilities. Classical topics such as recurrence and transience, stationary and limiting distributions, as well as branching processes, are also covered. Two major examples (gambling processes and random walks) are treated in detail from the beginning, before the general theory itself is presented in the subsequent chapters. An introduction to discrete-time martingales and their relation to ruin probabilities and mean exit times is also provided, and the book includes a chapter on spatial Poisson processes with some recent results on moment identities and deviation inequalities for Poisson stochastic integrals. The concepts presented are illustrated by examples and by 72 exercises and their complete solutions.

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