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## New Foundations for Classical Mechanics

(revised) This is a textbook on classical mechanics at the intermediate level, but its main purpose is to serve as an introduction to a new mathematical language for physics called geometric algebra. Mechanics is most commonly formulated today in terms of the vector algebra developed by the American physicist J. Willard Gibbs, but for some applications of mechanics the algebra of complex numbers is more efficient than vector algebra, while in other applications matrix algebra works better. Geometric algebra integrates all these algebraic systems into a coherent mathematical language which not only retains the advantages of each special algebra but possesses powerful new capabilities. This book covers the fairly standard material for a course on the mechanics of particles and rigid bodies. However, it will be seen that geometric algebra brings new insights into the treatment of nearly every topic and produces simplifications that move the subject quickly to advanced levels. That has made it possible in this book to carry the treatment of two major topics in mechanics well beyond the level of other textbooks. A few words are in order about the unique treatment of these two topics, namely, rotational dynamics and celestial mechanics.
## New Foundations for Classical Mechanics

This is a textbook on classical mechanics at the intermediate level, but its main purpose is to serve as an introduction to a new mathematical language for physics called geometric algebra. Mechanics is most commonly formulated today in terms of the vector algebra developed by the American physicist J. Willard Gibbs, but for some applications of mechanics the algebra of complex numbers is more efficient than vector algebra, while in other applica tions matrix algebra works better. Geometric algebra integrates all these algebraic systems into a coherent mathematical language which not only retains the advantages of each special algebra but possesses powerful new capabilities. This book covers the fairly standard material for a course on the mechanics of particles and rigid bodies. However, it will be seen that geometric algebra brings new insights into the treatment of nearly every topic and produces simplifications that move the subject quickly to advanced levels. That has made it possible in this book to carry the treatment of two major topics in mechanics well beyond the level of other textbooks. A few words are in order about the unique treatment of these two topics, namely, rotational dynamics and celestial mechanics.
## New Foundations for Classical Mechanics

This book provides an introduction to geometric algebra as a unified language for physics and mathematics. It contains extensive applications to classical mechanics in a textbook format suitable for courses at an intermediate level. The text is supported by more than 200 diagrams to help develop geometrical and physical intuition. Besides covering the standard material for a course on the mechanics of particles and rigid bodies, the book introduces new, coordinate-free methods for rotational dynamics and orbital mechanics, developing these subjects to a level well beyond that of other textbooks. These methods have been widely applied in recent years to biomechanics and robotics, to computer vision and geometric design, to orbital mechanics in government and industrial space programs, as well as to other branches of physics. The book applies them to the major perturbations in the solar system, including the planetary perturbations of Mercury's perihelion. Geometric algebra integrates conventional vector algebra (along with its established notations) into a system with all the advantages of quaternions and spinors. Thus, it increases the power of the mathematical language of classical mechanics while bringing it closer to the language of quantum mechanics. This book systematically develops purely mathematical applications of geometric algebra useful in physics, including extensive applications to linear algebra and transformation groups. It contains sufficient material for a course on mathematical topics alone. The second edition has been expanded by nearly a hundred pages on relativistic mechanics. The treatment is unique in its exclusive use of geometric algebra and in its detailed treatment of spacetime maps, collisions, motion in uniform fields and relativistic precession. It conforms with Einstein's view that the Special Theory of Relativity is the culmination of developments in classical mechanics.
## Clifford Algebra to Geometric Calculus

Matrix algebra has been called "the arithmetic of higher mathematics" [Be]. We think the basis for a better arithmetic has long been available, but its versatility has hardly been appreciated, and it has not yet been integrated into the mainstream of mathematics. We refer to the system commonly called 'Clifford Algebra', though we prefer the name 'Geometric Algebm' suggested by Clifford himself. Many distinct algebraic systems have been adapted or developed to express geometric relations and describe geometric structures. Especially notable are those algebras which have been used for this purpose in physics, in particular, the system of complex numbers, the quatemions, matrix algebra, vector, tensor and spinor algebras and the algebra of differential forms. Each of these geometric algebras has some significant advantage over the others in certain applications, so no one of them provides an adequate algebraic structure for all purposes of geometry and physics. At the same time, the algebras overlap considerably, so they provide several different mathematical representations for individual geometrical or physical ideas.
## Foundations of Quantum Theory

This book studies the foundations of quantum theory through its relationship to classical physics. This idea goes back to the Copenhagen Interpretation (in the original version due to Bohr and Heisenberg), which the author relates to the mathematical formalism of operator algebras originally created by von Neumann. The book therefore includes comprehensive appendices on functional analysis and C*-algebras, as well as a briefer one on logic, category theory, and topos theory. Matters of foundational as well as mathematical interest that are covered in detail include symmetry (and its "spontaneous" breaking), the measurement problem, the Kochen-Specker, Free Will, and Bell Theorems, the Kadison-Singer conjecture, quantization, indistinguishable particles, the quantum theory of large systems, and quantum logic, the latter in connection with the topos approach to quantum theory. This book is Open Access under a CC BY licence.
## The Structure of Physics

The book is a newly arranged and revised English version of "Aufbau der Physik" by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker. Some original chapters and sections have been deleted, and a new chapter about further insights and results of ur-theoretic research of the late 1980’s and 1990’s has been included. Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker combines the perspectives of science, philosophy, religion and politics with a view towards the challenges as well as the responsibilities of our time.
## Classical Mechanics

Classical Mechanics presents an updated treatment of the dynamics of particles and particle systems suitable for students preparing for advanced study of physics and closely related fields, such as astronomy and the applied engineering sciences. Compared to older books on this subject, the mathematical treatment has been updated for the study of more advanced topics in quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and nonlinear and orbital mechanics. The text begins with a review of the principles of classical Newtonian dynamics of particles and particle systems and proceeds to show how these principles are modified and extended by developments in the field. The text ends with the unification of space and time given by the Special Theory of Relativity. In addition, Hamiltonian dynamics and the concept of phase space are introduced early on. This allows integration of the concepts of chaos and other nonlinear effects into the main flow of the text. The role of symmetries and the underlying geometric structure of space-time is a key theme. In the latter chapters, the connection between classical and quantum mechanics is examined in some detail.
## Foundations of Mechanics

Undoubtedly [the book] will be for years the standard reference on symplectic geometry, analytical mechanics and symplectic methods in mathematical physics. --Zentralblatt fur Mathematik For many years, this book has been viewed as a classic treatment of geometric mechanics. It is known for its broad exposition of the subject, with many features that cannot be found elsewhere. The book is recommended as a textbook and as a basic reference work for the foundations of differentiable and Hamiltonian dynamics.
## Quantum Theory: Concepts and Methods

There are many excellent books on quantum theory from which one can learn to compute energy levels, transition rates, cross sections, etc. The theoretical rules given in these books are routinely used by physicists to compute observable quantities. Their predictions can then be compared with experimental data. There is no fundamental disagreement among physicists on how to use the theory for these practical purposes. However, there are profound differences in their opinions on the ontological meaning of quantum theory. The purpose of this book is to clarify the conceptual meaning of quantum theory, and to explain some of the mathematical methods which it utilizes. This text is not concerned with specialized topics such as atomic structure, or strong or weak interactions, but with the very foundations of the theory. This is not, however, a book on the philosophy of science. The approach is pragmatic and strictly instrumentalist. This attitude will undoubtedly antagonize some readers, but it has its own logic: quantum phenomena do not occur in a Hilbert space, they occur in a laboratory.
## Space-Time Algebra

This small book started a profound revolution in the development of mathematical physics, one which has reached many working physicists already, and which stands poised to bring about far-reaching change in the future. At its heart is the use of Clifford algebra to unify otherwise disparate mathematical languages, particularly those of spinors, quaternions, tensors and differential forms. It provides a unified approach covering all these areas and thus leads to a very efficient ‘toolkit’ for use in physical problems including quantum mechanics, classical mechanics, electromagnetism and relativity (both special and general) – only one mathematical system needs to be learned and understood, and one can use it at levels which extend right through to current research topics in each of these areas. These same techniques, in the form of the ‘Geometric Algebra’, can be applied in many areas of engineering, robotics and computer science, with no changes necessary – it is the same underlying mathematics, and enables physicists to understand topics in engineering, and engineers to understand topics in physics (including aspects in frontier areas), in a way which no other single mathematical system could hope to make possible. There is another aspect to Geometric Algebra, which is less tangible, and goes beyond questions of mathematical power and range. This is the remarkable insight it gives to physical problems, and the way it constantly suggests new features of the physics itself, not just the mathematics. Examples of this are peppered throughout ‘Space-Time Algebra’, despite its short length, and some of them are effectively still research topics for the future. From the Foreward by Anthony Lasenby
## The Cellular Automaton Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

This book presents the deterministic view of quantum mechanics developed by Nobel Laureate Gerard 't Hooft. Dissatisfied with the uncomfortable gaps in the way conventional quantum mechanics meshes with the classical world, 't Hooft has revived the old hidden variable ideas, but now in a much more systematic way than usual. In this, quantum mechanics is viewed as a tool rather than a theory. The author gives examples of models that are classical in essence, but can be analysed by the use of quantum techniques, and argues that even the Standard Model, together with gravitational interactions, might be viewed as a quantum mechanical approach to analysing a system that could be classical at its core. He shows how this approach, even though it is based on hidden variables, can be plausibly reconciled with Bell's theorem, and how the usual objections voiced against the idea of ‘superdeterminism' can be overcome, at least in principle. This framework elegantly explains - and automatically cures - the problems of the wave function collapse and the measurement problem. Even the existence of an “arrow of time" can perhaps be explained in a more elegant way than usual. As well as reviewing the author’s earlier work in the field, the book also contains many new observations and calculations. It provides stimulating reading for all physicists working on the foundations of quantum theory.
## Mathematical Methods of Classical Mechanics

This book constructs the mathematical apparatus of classical mechanics from the beginning, examining basic problems in dynamics like the theory of oscillations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The author emphasizes geometrical considerations and includes phase spaces and flows, vector fields, and Lie groups. Discussion includes qualitative methods of the theory of dynamical systems and of asymptotic methods like averaging and adiabatic invariance.
## Understanding Geometric Algebra for Electromagnetic Theory

"This book covers all of the information needed to design LEDs into end-products. It is a practical guide, primarily explaning how things are done by practicing engineers. Equations are used only for practical calculations, and are kept to the level of high-school algebra. There are numerous drawings and schematics showing how things such as measurements are actually made, and showing curcuits that actually work. There are practical notes and examples embedded in the text that give pointers and how-to guides on many of the book's topics"--Provided by publisher.
## Mathematics of Classical and Quantum Physics

Graduate-level text offers unified treatment of mathematics applicable to many branches of physics. Theory of vector spaces, analytic function theory, theory of integral equations, group theory, and more. Many problems. Bibliography.
## Quantum Theory: Informational Foundations and Foils

This book provides the first unified overview of the burgeoning research area at the interface between Quantum Foundations and Quantum Information. Topics include: operational alternatives to quantum theory, information-theoretic reconstructions of the quantum formalism, mathematical frameworks for operational theories, and device-independent features of the set of quantum correlations. Powered by the injection of fresh ideas from the field of Quantum Information and Computation, the foundations of Quantum Mechanics are in the midst of a renaissance. The last two decades have seen an explosion of new results and research directions, attracting broad interest in the scientific community. The variety and number of different approaches, however, makes it challenging for a newcomer to obtain a big picture of the field and of its high-level goals. Here, fourteen original contributions from leading experts in the field cover some of the most promising research directions that have emerged in the new wave of quantum foundations. The book is directed at researchers in physics, computer science, and mathematics and would be appropriate as the basis of a graduate course in Quantum Foundations.
## Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

Authored by an acclaimed teacher of quantum physics and philosophy, this textbook pays special attention to the aspects that many courses sweep under the carpet. Traditional courses in quantum mechanics teach students how to use the quantum formalism to make calculations. But even the best students - indeed, especially the best students - emerge rather confused about what, exactly, the theory says is going on, physically, in microscopic systems. This supplementary textbook is designed to help such students understand that they are not alone in their confusions (luminaries such as Albert Einstein, Erwin Schroedinger, and John Stewart Bell having shared them), to sharpen their understanding of the most important difficulties associated with interpreting quantum theory in a realistic manner, and to introduce them to the most promising attempts to formulate the theory in a way that is physically clear and coherent. The text is accessible to students with at least one semester of prior exposure to quantum (or "modern") physics and includes over a hundred engaging end-of-chapter "Projects" that make the book suitable for either a traditional classroom or for self-study.
## Fundamental Principles of Classical Mechanics

This book is written with the belief that classical mechanics, as a theoretical discipline, possesses an inherent beauty, depth, and richness that far transcends its immediate applications in mechanical systems. These properties are manifested, by and large, through the coherence and elegance of the mathematical structure underlying the discipline, and are eminently worthy of being communicated to physics students at the earliest stage possible. This volume is therefore addressed mainly to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate physics students who are interested in the application of modern mathematical methods in classical mechanics, in particular, those derived from the fields of topology and differential geometry, and also to the occasional mathematics student who is interested in important physics applications of these areas of mathematics. Its main purpose is to offer an introductory and broad glimpse of the majestic edifice of the mathematical theory of classical dynamics, not only in the time-honored analytical tradition of Newton, Laplace, Lagrange, Hamilton, Jacobi, and Whittaker, but also the more topological/geometrical one established by Poincare, and enriched by Birkhoff, Lyapunov, Smale, Siegel, Kolmogorov, Arnold, and Moser (as well as many others).
## Fundamental Problems in Quantum Physics

For many physicists quantum theory contains strong conceptual difficulties, while for others the apparent conclusions about the reality of our physical world and the ways in which we discover that reality remain philosophically unacceptable. This book focuses on recent theoretical and experimental developments in the foundations of quantum physics, including topics such as the puzzles and paradoxes which appear when general relativity and quantum mechanics are combined; the emergence of classical properties from quantum mechanics; stochastic electrodynamics; EPR experiments and Bell's Theorem; the consistent histories approach and the problem of datum uniqueness in quantum mechanics; non-local measurements and teleportation of quantum states; quantum non-demolition measurements in optics and matter wave properties observed by neutron, electron and atomic interferometry. Audience: This volume is intended for graduate students of physics and those interested in the foundations of quantum theory.
## Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

This graduate-level text introduces fundamentals of classical mechanics; surveys basics of quantum mechanics; and concludes with a look at group theory and quantum mechanics of the atom. 1963 edition.
## Clifford (Geometric) Algebras

This volume is an outgrowth of the 1995 Summer School on Theoretical Physics of the Canadian Association of Physicists (CAP), held in Banff, Alberta, in the Canadian Rockies, from July 30 to August 12,1995. The chapters, based on lectures given at the School, are designed to be tutorial in nature, and many include exercises to assist the learning process. Most lecturers gave three or four fifty-minute lectures aimed at relative novices in the field. More emphasis is therefore placed on pedagogy and establishing comprehension than on erudition and superior scholarship. Of course, new and exciting results are presented in applications of Clifford algebras, but in a coherent and user-friendly way to the nonspecialist. The subject area of the volume is Clifford algebra and its applications. Through the geometric language of the Clifford-algebra approach, many concepts in physics are clarified, united, and extended in new and sometimes surprising directions. In particular, the approach eliminates the formal gaps that traditionally separate clas sical, quantum, and relativistic physics. It thereby makes the study of physics more efficient and the research more penetrating, and it suggests resolutions to a major physics problem of the twentieth century, namely how to unite quantum theory and gravity. The term "geometric algebra" was used by Clifford himself, and David Hestenes has suggested its use in order to emphasize its wide applicability, and b& cause the developments by Clifford were themselves based heavily on previous work by Grassmann, Hamilton, Rodrigues, Gauss, and others.

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