Neutrons in Soft Matter

Author: Toyoko Imae,Toshiji Kanaya,Michihiro Furusaka,Naoya Torikai

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118002186

Category: Science

Page: 664

View: 2383

Neutron and synchrotron facilities, which are beyond the scale of the laboratory, and supported on a national level in countries throughout the world. These tools for probing micro- and nano-structure research and on fast dynamics research of atomic location in materials have been key in the development of new polymer-based materials. Different from several existing professional books on neutron science, this book focuses on theory, instrumentation, an applications. The book is divided into five parts: Part 1 describes the underlying theory of neutron scattering. Part 2 describes the various instruments that exist and the various techniques used to achieve neutron scattering or bombardment. Part 3 discusses data treatment and simulation methods as well as how to assess the environment of the sample (temperature, pressure, shear, and external fields). Part 4 addresses the myriad applications of small and large molecules, biomolecules, and gels. Part 5 describes the various global neutron sources that exist and provides an overview of the different reactors.
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Neutron Scattering – Applications in Biology, Chemistry, and Materials Science

Author: Felix Fernandez-Alonso,David L Price

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128092300

Category: Science

Page: 782

View: 6939

Neutron Scattering: Applications in Chemistry, Materials Science and Biology, Volume 49, provides an in-depth overview of the applications of neutron scattering in the fields of physics, materials science, chemistry, biology, the earth sciences, and engineering. The book describes the tremendous advances in instrumental, experimental, and computational techniques over the past quarter-century. Examples include the coming-of-age of neutron reflectivity and spin-echo spectroscopy, the advent of brighter accelerator-based neutron facilities and associated techniques in the United States and Japan over the past decade, and current efforts in Europe to develop long-pulse, ultra-intense spallation neutron sources. It acts as a complement to two earlier volumes in the Experimental Methods in the Physical Science series, Neutron Scattering: Fundamentals(Elsevier 2013) and Neutron Scattering: Magnetic and Quantum Phenomena (Elsevier 2015). As a whole, the set enables researchers to identify aspects of their work where neutron scattering techniques might contribute, conceive the important experiments to be done, assess what is required, write a successful proposal for one of the major facilities around the globe, and perform the experiments under the guidance of the appropriate instrument scientist. Completes a three-volume set, providing extensive coverage on emerging and highly topical applications of neutron scattering Addresses the increasing use of neutrons by chemists, life scientists, material scientists, and condensed-matter physicists Presents up-to-date reviews of recent results, enabling readers to identify new opportunities and plan neutron scattering experiments in their own field
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Neutron Scattering in Condensed Matter Physics

Author: Albert Furrer,Joël Mesot,Thierry Strässle

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9813102500

Category:

Page: 316

View: 9760

Neutron scattering has become a key technique for investigating the properties of materials on an atomic scale. The uniqueness of this method is based on the fact that the wavelength and energy of thermal neutrons ideally match interatomic distances and excitation energies in condensed matter, and thus neutron scattering is able to directly examine the static and dynamic properties of the material. In addition, neutrons carry a magnetic moment, which makes them a unique probe for detecting magnetic phenomena. In this important book, an introduction to the basic principles and instrumental aspects of neutron scattering is provided, and the most important phenomena and materials properties in condensed matter physics are described and exemplified by typical neutron scattering experiments, with emphasis on explaining how the relevant information can be extracted from the measurements.
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Soft-Matter Characterization

Author: Redouane Borsali,Robert Pecora

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 140204464X

Category: Science

Page: 1452

View: 6296

This 2-volume set includes extensive discussions of scattering techniques (light, neutron and X-ray) and related fluctuation and grating techniques that are at the forefront of this field. Most of the scattering techniques are Fourier space techniques. Recent advances have seen the development of powerful direct imaging methods such as atomic force microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. In addition, techniques that can be used to manipulate soft matter on the nanometer scale are also in rapid development. These include the scanning probe microscopy technique mentioned above as well as optical and magnetic tweezers.
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Applications of Neutron Scattering to Soft Condensed Matter

Author: Barbara J Gabrys

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482283093

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 2750

Neutrons, which are a penetrating yet non destructive probe, are ideally suited to studying the structure, organisation and motion of molecules responsible for the physical properties of materials under a variety of conditions. Applications are in fields as diverse as colloid and polymer science, earth sciences, pharmaceutics, biology and engineering. This book will be of interest to both present and potential future users of neutron sources working in these areas, as both a useful reference and a comprehensive overview.
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Structure from Diffraction Methods

Author: Duncan W. Bruce,Dermot O'Hare,Richard I. Walton

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118695712

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 376

View: 739

Inorganic materials show a diverse range of important propertiesthat are desirable for many contemporary, real-world applications.Good examples include recyclable battery cathode materials forenergy storage and transport, porous solids for capture and storageof gases and molecular complexes for use in electronic devices. Anunderstanding of the function of these materials is necessary inorder to optimise their behaviour for real applications, hence theimportance of 'structure–property relationships'. The chapters presented in this volume deal with recent advancesin the characterisation of crystalline materials. They include somefamiliar diffraction methods, thoroughly updated with modernadvances. Also included are techniques that can now probe detailsof the three-dimensional arrangements of atoms in nanocrystallinesolids, allowing aspects of disorder to be studied. Small-anglescattering, a technique that is often overlooked, can probe bothordered and disordered structures of materials at longer lengthscales than those probed by powder diffraction methods. Addressing both physical principals and recent advances in theirapplications, Structure from Diffraction Methodscovers: Powder Diffraction X-Ray and Neutron Single-Crystal Diffraction PDF Analysis of Nanoparticles Electron Crystallography Small-Angle Scattering Ideal as a complementary reference work to other volumes in theseries (Local Structural Characterisation and MultiLength-Scale Characterisation), or as an examination of thespecific characterisation techniques in their own right,Structure from Diffraction Methods is a valuable addition tothe Inorganic Materials Series.
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Dynamics of Soft Matter

Neutron Applications

Author: VICTORIA GARCIA SAKAI,Christiane Alba-Simionesco,Sow Hsin Chen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461407273

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 450

View: 6041

Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or microfluidics. Emphasizing the complementarities of scattering techniques with other spectroscopic ones, this volume also highlights the potential gain in combining techniques such as rheology, NMR, light scattering, dielectric spectroscopy, as well as synchrotron radiation experiments. Key areas covered include polymer science, biological materials, complex fluids and surface science.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Neutron Scattering in Biology

Techniques and Applications

Author: Jörg Fitter,Thomas Gutberlet

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540291084

Category: Medical

Page: 557

View: 2925

The advent of new neutron facilities and the improvement of existing sources and instruments world wide supply the biological community with many new opportunities in the areas of structural biology and biological physics. The present volume offers a clear description of the various neutron-scattering techniques currently being used to answer biologically relevant questions. Their utility is illustrated through examples by some of the leading researchers in the field of neutron scattering. This volume will be a reference for researchers and a step-by-step guide for young scientists entering the field and the advanced graduate student.
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Frontiers in Condensed Matter Physics Research

Author: John V. Chang

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781594548291

Category: Science

Page: 134

View: 1424

Condensed matter is one of the most active fields of physics, with a stream of discoveries in areas from superfluidity and magnetism to the optical, electronic and mechanical properties of materials such as semiconductors, polymers and carbon nanotubes. It includes the study of well-characterised solid surfaces, interfaces and nanostructures as well as studies of molecular liquids (molten salts, ionic solutions, liquid metals and semiconductors) and soft matter systems (colloidal suspensions, polymers, surfactants, foams, liquid crystals, membranes, biomolecules etc) including glasses and biological aspects of soft matter. The book presents state-of-the-art research in this exciting field.
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Neutrons, X-rays and Light

Scattering Methods Applied to Soft Condensed Matter

Author: Thomas Zemb,Peter Lindner

Publisher: North-Holland

ISBN: 9780444511225

Category: Science

Page: 541

View: 3754

Scattering experiments, using X-ray, light and neutron sources (in historical order) are key techniques for studying structure and dynamics in systems containing colliods, polymers, surfactants and biological macromolecules, summarized here as soft condensed matter. The education in this field in Europe is very heterogeneous and frequently inadequate, which severely limits an efficient use of these methods, especially at large-scale facilities. The series of "Bombannes" schools and the completely revised and updated second edition of the lecture notes are devoted to a practical approach to current methodology of static and dynamic techiques. Basic information on data interpretation, on the complementarity of the different types of radiation, as well as information on recent applications and developments is presented. The aim is to avoid over - as well as under-exploitation of data.
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Neutron Spin Echo Spectroscopy

Basics, Trends and Applications

Author: Ferenc Mezei,Catherine Pappas,Thomas Gutberlet

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540458239

Category: Science

Page: 350

View: 6457

Neutron spin echo (NSE) spectroscopy is the highest energy resolution neutron scattering technique available for examining a large area (in time and space) in condensed matter physics. This broad dynamic and spatial range is extensively exploited in the study of a wide range of scientific problems ranging from the dynamics of glasses, polymer melts, complex fluids and microemulsions to the elementary excitations in superfluid 4He and to ferromagnets and spin glasses. This book reviews the current status and future prospects in NSE spectroscopy describing the method, latest instrumentation and also the use of NSE in fundamental, hard- and soft-matter science. It provides first-hand information for researchers working in the fields touched by NSE. In addition, young researchers, PhD students and graduates interested in the method will obtain a comprehensive overview and guidelines to implementing the NSE technique.
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Neutron and X-ray Spectroscopy

Author: Françoise Hippert,Erik Geissler,Jean Louis Hodeau,Eddy Lelièvre-Berna,Jean-René Regnard

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402033370

Category: Science

Page: 566

View: 5399

- Up-to-date account of the principles and practice of inelastic and spectroscopic methods available at neutron and synchrotron sources - Multi-technique approach set around a central theme, rather than a monograph on one technique - Emphasis on the complementarity of neutron spectroscopy and X-ray spectroscopy which are usually treated in separate books
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Neutron Applications in Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences

Author: Liyuan Liang,Romano Rinaldi,Helmut Schober

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387094168

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 638

View: 3472

Neutron Applications in Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences offers a comprehensive overview of the wide ranging applications of neutron scattering techniques to elucidate the fundamental materials properties at the nano-, micro- and meso-scale, which underpin research in the related fields of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences. Introductions to neutron scattering fundamentals and instrumentation are paired with a thorough review of the applications to a large variety of scientific and technological problems, written through the direct experience of leading scientists in each field. Tailored to a wide audience, this volume provides the novice with an inspiring introduction and stimulates the expert to consider these non-conventional problem solving techniques in his/her field of interest. Earth and environmental scientists, engineers, researchers and graduate students involved with materials science will find Neutron Applications in Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences a valuable ready-to-use reference.
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Neutron Scattering

Lectures of the JCNS Laboratory Course Held at the Forschungszentrum Jülich and the Research Reactor FRM II of TU Munich

Author: Thomas Brückel

Publisher: Forschungszentrum Jülich

ISBN: 3893364897

Category: Neutrons

Page: 450

View: 6966

Posted in Neutrons

The Electromagnetic Spectrum of Neutron Stars

Author: A. Baykal (Ed),Sinan K. Yerli,Sitki C. Inam,Sergei Grebenev

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402038600

Category: Science

Page: 386

View: 5555

Neutron stars hold a central place in astrophysics, not only because they are made up of the most extreme states of the condensed matter, but also because they are, along with white dwarfs and black holes, one of the stable configurations that stars reach at the end of stellar evolution. Neutron stars posses the highest rotation rates and strongest magnetic fields among all stars. They radiate prolifically, in high energy electromagnetic radiation and in the radio band. This book is devoted to the selected lectures presented in the 6th NATO-ASI series entitled "The Electromagnetic Spectrum of Neutron Stars" in Marmaris, Turkey, on 7-18 June 2004. This ASI is devoted to the spectral properties of neutron stars. Spectral observations of neutron stars help us to understand the magnetospheric emission processes of isolated radio pulsars and the emission processes of accreting neutron stars. This volume includes spectral information from the neutron stars in broadest sense, namely neutrino and gravitational radiation along with the electromagnetic spectrum. We believe that this volume can serve as graduate level of text including the broad range of properties of neutron stars.
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The Electromagnetic Spectrum of Neutron Stars

Author: Altan Baykal,Sinan K. Yerli,Sitki C. Inam,Sergei Grebenev

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402038615

Category: Science

Page: 386

View: 8278

Neutron stars hold a central place in astrophysics, not only because they are made up of the most extreme states of the condensed matter, but also because they are, along with white dwarfs and black holes, one of the stable configurations that stars reach at the end of stellar evolution. Neutron stars posses the highest rotation rates and strongest magnetic fields among all stars. They radiate prolifically, in high energy electromagnetic radiation and in the radio band. This book is devoted to the selected lectures presented in the 6th NATO-ASI series entitled "The Electromagnetic Spectrum of Neutron Stars" in Marmaris, Turkey, on 7-18 June 2004. This ASI is devoted to the spectral properties of neutron stars. Spectral observations of neutron stars help us to understand the magnetospheric emission processes of isolated radio pulsars and the emission processes of accreting neutron stars. This volume includes spectral information from the neutron stars in broadest sense, namely neutrino and gravitational radiation along with the electromagnetic spectrum. We believe that this volume can serve as graduate level of text including the broad range of properties of neutron stars.
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In-situ Materials Characterization

Across Spatial and Temporal Scales

Author: Alexander Ziegler,Heinz Graafsma,Xiao Feng Zhang,Joost W.M. Frenken

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642451527

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 3381

The behavior of nanoscale materials can change rapidly with time either because the environment changes rapidly or because the influence of the environment propagates quickly across the intrinsically small dimensions of nanoscale materials. Extremely fast time resolution studies using X-rays, electrons and neutrons are of very high interest to many researchers and is a fast-evolving and interesting field for the study of dynamic processes. Therefore, in situ structural characterization and measurements of structure-property relationships covering several decades of length and time scales (from atoms to millimeters and femtoseconds to hours) with high spatial and temporal resolutions are crucially important to understand the synthesis and behavior of multidimensional materials. The techniques described in this book will permit access to the real-time dynamics of materials, surface processes and chemical and biological reactions at various time scales. This book provides an interdisciplinary reference for research using in situ techniques to capture the real-time structural and property responses of materials to surrounding fields using electron, optical and x-ray microscopies (e.g. scanning, transmission and low-energy electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy) or in the scattering realm with x-ray, neutron and electron diffraction.
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Novel Methods in Soft Matter Simulations

Author: Mikko Karttunen,Ilpo Vattulainen,Ari Lukkarinen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540209164

Category: Science

Page: 393

View: 8974

Soft matter and biological systems pose many challenges for theoretical, experimental and computational research. From the computational point of view, these many-body sytems cover variations in relevant time and length scales over many orders of magnitude. Indeed, the macroscopic properties of materials and complex fluids are ultimately to be deduced from the dynamics of the microsopic, molecular level. In these lectures, internationally renowned experts offer a tutorial presentation of novel approaches for bridging these space and time scales in realistic simulations. This volume addresses graduate students and nonspecialist researchers from related areas seeking a high-level but accessible introduction to the state of the art in soft matter simulations.
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Lasers and Nuclei

Applications of Ultrahigh Intensity Lasers in Nuclear Science

Author: Heinrich Schwoerer,Joseph Magill,Burgard Beleites

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540302719

Category: Science

Page: 255

View: 1029

Lasers and Nuclei describes the generation of high-energy-particle radiation with high-intensity lasers and its application to nuclear science. A basic introduction to laser--matter interaction at high fields is complemented by detailed presentations of state of the art laser particle acceleration and elementary laser nuclear experiments. The text also discusses future applications of lasers in nuclear science, for example in nuclear astrophysics, isotope generation, nuclear fuel physics and proton and neutron imaging.
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