Neutrons in Soft Matter

Author: Toyoko Imae,Toshiji Kanaya,Michihiro Furusaka,Naoya Torikai

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118002186

Category: Science

Page: 664

View: 3455

Neutron and synchrotron facilities, which are beyond the scale of the laboratory, and supported on a national level in countries throughout the world. These tools for probing micro- and nano-structure research and on fast dynamics research of atomic location in materials have been key in the development of new polymer-based materials. Different from several existing professional books on neutron science, this book focuses on theory, instrumentation, an applications. The book is divided into five parts: Part 1 describes the underlying theory of neutron scattering. Part 2 describes the various instruments that exist and the various techniques used to achieve neutron scattering or bombardment. Part 3 discusses data treatment and simulation methods as well as how to assess the environment of the sample (temperature, pressure, shear, and external fields). Part 4 addresses the myriad applications of small and large molecules, biomolecules, and gels. Part 5 describes the various global neutron sources that exist and provides an overview of the different reactors.
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Neutron Scattering in Condensed Matter Physics

Author: Albert Furrer,Joël Mesot,Thierry Strässle

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9813102500

Category:

Page: 316

View: 9220

Neutron scattering has become a key technique for investigating the properties of materials on an atomic scale. The uniqueness of this method is based on the fact that the wavelength and energy of thermal neutrons ideally match interatomic distances and excitation energies in condensed matter, and thus neutron scattering is able to directly examine the static and dynamic properties of the material. In addition, neutrons carry a magnetic moment, which makes them a unique probe for detecting magnetic phenomena. In this important book, an introduction to the basic principles and instrumental aspects of neutron scattering is provided, and the most important phenomena and materials properties in condensed matter physics are described and exemplified by typical neutron scattering experiments, with emphasis on explaining how the relevant information can be extracted from the measurements.
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Dynamics of Soft Matter

Neutron Applications

Author: VICTORIA GARCIA SAKAI,Christiane Alba-Simionesco,Sow Hsin Chen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461407273

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 450

View: 3899

Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or microfluidics. Emphasizing the complementarities of scattering techniques with other spectroscopic ones, this volume also highlights the potential gain in combining techniques such as rheology, NMR, light scattering, dielectric spectroscopy, as well as synchrotron radiation experiments. Key areas covered include polymer science, biological materials, complex fluids and surface science.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Soft-Matter Characterization

Author: Redouane Borsali,Robert Pecora

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 140204464X

Category: Science

Page: 1452

View: 546

This 2-volume set includes extensive discussions of scattering techniques (light, neutron and X-ray) and related fluctuation and grating techniques that are at the forefront of this field. Most of the scattering techniques are Fourier space techniques. Recent advances have seen the development of powerful direct imaging methods such as atomic force microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. In addition, techniques that can be used to manipulate soft matter on the nanometer scale are also in rapid development. These include the scanning probe microscopy technique mentioned above as well as optical and magnetic tweezers.
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Soft Condensed Matter

New Research

Author: Kathy I. Dillon

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781594546655

Category: Science

Page: 350

View: 4480

Condensed matter is one of the most active fields of physics, with a stream of discoveries in areas from superfluidity and magnetism to the optical, electronic and mechanical properties of materials such as semiconductors, polymers and carbon nanotubes. It includes the study of well-characterised solid surfaces, interfaces and nanostructures as well as studies of molecular liquids (molten salts, ionic solutions, liquid metals and semiconductors) and soft matter systems (colloidal suspensions, polymers, surfactants, foams, liquid crystals, membranes, biomolecules etc.) including glasses and biological aspects of soft matter. This book presents state-of-theart research in this exciting field.
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Applications of Neutron Scattering to Soft Condensed Matter

Author: Barbara J Gabrys

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9789056993009

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 3636

Neutrons, which are a penetrating yet non destructive probe, are ideally suited to studying the structure, organisation and motion of molecules responsible for the physical properties of materials under a variety of conditions. Applications are in fields as diverse as colloid and polymer science, earth sciences, pharmaceutics, biology and engineering. This book will be of interest to both present and potential future users of neutron sources working in these areas, as both a useful reference and a comprehensive overview.
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Neutron, X-Rays and Light. Scattering Methods Applied to Soft Condensed Matter

Author: Th Zemb,P. Lindner

Publisher: North-Holland

ISBN: 9781493302260

Category: Science

Page: 552

View: 8794

Scattering experiments, using X-ray, light and neutron sources (in historical order) are key techniques for studying structure and dynamics in systems containing colliods, polymers, surfactants and biological macromolecules, summarized here as soft condensed matter. The education in this field in Europe is very heterogeneous and frequently inadequate, which severely limits an efficient use of these methods, especially at large-scale facilities. The series of "Bombannes" schools and the completely revised and updated second edition of the lecture notes are devoted to a practical approach to current methodology of static and dynamic techiques. Basic information on data interpretation, on the complementarity of the different types of radiation, as well as information on recent applications and developments is presented. The aim is to avoid over - as well as under-exploitation of data.
Posted in Science

Dynamics of Soft Matter

Neutron Applications

Author: VICTORIA GARCIA SAKAI,Christiane Alba-Simionesco,Sow Hsin Chen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461407273

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 450

View: 3758

Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or microfluidics. Emphasizing the complementarities of scattering techniques with other spectroscopic ones, this volume also highlights the potential gain in combining techniques such as rheology, NMR, light scattering, dielectric spectroscopy, as well as synchrotron radiation experiments. Key areas covered include polymer science, biological materials, complex fluids and surface science.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Neutrons in disordered matter

proceedings Euroconference '94 : Stockholm, Sweden, 9-13 June, 1994

Author: Monique Dahlborg,Ulf Dahlborg

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 195

View: 1514

Posted in Science

Neutron Applications in Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences

Author: Liyuan Liang,Romano Rinaldi,Helmut Schober

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387094168

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 638

View: 6275

Neutron Applications in Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences offers a comprehensive overview of the wide ranging applications of neutron scattering techniques to elucidate the fundamental materials properties at the nano-, micro- and meso-scale, which underpin research in the related fields of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences. Introductions to neutron scattering fundamentals and instrumentation are paired with a thorough review of the applications to a large variety of scientific and technological problems, written through the direct experience of leading scientists in each field. Tailored to a wide audience, this volume provides the novice with an inspiring introduction and stimulates the expert to consider these non-conventional problem solving techniques in his/her field of interest. Earth and environmental scientists, engineers, researchers and graduate students involved with materials science will find Neutron Applications in Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences a valuable ready-to-use reference.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Complementarity Between Neutron and Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering

Author: Albert Furrer

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814616273

Category:

Page: 392

View: 5560

Understanding and manipulating the properties of materials naturally occurring in our world and artificially produced by modern technologies requires detailed information on their properties on the atomic scale. This information is the basis for any kind of research in physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, metallurgy, and ceramics. Among the various experimental methods, neutron and photon scattering have become the key techniques of choice. This book provides an overview of the complementarity between neutron and synchrotron x-ray scattering. The most important topics are covered, including structure determination, magnetic correlations, polymer dynamics, thin films and multilayers, photoemission studies, etc; they are thoroughly introduced and discussed by experts from both the experimental and the theoretical side. Contents:Neutron- and Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering (The Theoretical Principles) (W E Fischer)Structure Determination by Powder Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction (A N Fitch)Magnetic Neutron and Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering (W G Stirling)Magnetic Excitations Through the Eye of the Neutron (W J L Buyers)Topological Excitations in Low-Dimensional Magnets (H B Braun)Elastic and Inelastic X-Ray Scattering from Correlated Electrons: A Theoretical Perspective (M Altarelli)From Thin Films to Superlattices Studied with X-Rays and Neutrons (D F McMorrow)Small-Angle and Surface Scattering from Porous and Fractal Materials (S K Sinha)Hot Topics in Condensed Matter Physics (H R Ott)Neutron Beam Optics (P Böni)Synchrotron X-Ray Beam Optics (A Freund)Summary Lecture: Some Features of the Scattering and Absorption of Beams of Neutrons and Beams of X-Rays (S W Lovesey)and other papers Readership: Condensed matter and solid state physicists. Keywords:Photon Scattering;Structure Determination;Magnetic Correlations;Polymer Dynamics;Thin Films;Multilayers;Photoemission Studies;Synchrotron X-Ray;Optics;Neutrons
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Neutron Scattering in Biology

Techniques and Applications

Author: Jörg Fitter,Thomas Gutberlet,John Katsaras

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540291084

Category: Medical

Page: 557

View: 5863

The advent of new neutron facilities and the improvement of existing sources and instruments world wide supply the biological community with many new opportunities in the areas of structural biology and biological physics. The present volume offers a clear description of the various neutron-scattering techniques currently being used to answer biologically relevant questions. Their utility is illustrated through examples by some of the leading researchers in the field of neutron scattering. This volume will be a reference for researchers and a step-by-step guide for young scientists entering the field and the advanced graduate student.
Posted in Medical

Neutrons, X-rays and Light

Scattering Methods Applied to Soft Condensed Matter

Author: Thomas Zemb,Peter Lindner

Publisher: North-Holland

ISBN: 9780444511225

Category: Science

Page: 541

View: 5107

Scattering experiments, using X-ray, light and neutron sources (in historical order) are key techniques for studying structure and dynamics in systems containing colliods, polymers, surfactants and biological macromolecules, summarized here as soft condensed matter. The education in this field in Europe is very heterogeneous and frequently inadequate, which severely limits an efficient use of these methods, especially at large-scale facilities. The series of "Bombannes" schools and the completely revised and updated second edition of the lecture notes are devoted to a practical approach to current methodology of static and dynamic techiques. Basic information on data interpretation, on the complementarity of the different types of radiation, as well as information on recent applications and developments is presented. The aim is to avoid over - as well as under-exploitation of data.
Posted in Science

Neutron Scattering

Lectures of the JCNS Laboratory Course Held at the Forschungszentrum Jülich and the Research Reactor FRM II of TU Munich

Author: Thomas Brückel

Publisher: Forschungszentrum Jülich

ISBN: 3893364897

Category: Neutrons

Page: 450

View: 2758

Posted in Neutrons

Theory of Neutron Scattering from Condensed Matter

Author: Stephen W. Lovesey

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198520290

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 6841

An invaluable, up-to-date reference aid for investigators and researchers, this two-volume work develops the principles and concepts of statistical physics and quantum chemistry that are the basis for the interpretation of experimental data. These volumes build on the author's now standard text, Theory of Neutron Scattering (OUP, 1971), and include expanded coverage of nuclear scattering, with many sections completely rewritten and updated, and many previously unpublished experimental calculations. With a greatly expanded bibliography including 200 new references, this work will interest graduate students and researchers in physics.
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research:

Fiscal Year 2010

Author: Laboratory Assessments Board,Panel on Neutron Research,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309161703

Category: Political Science

Page: 28

View: 1183

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a national user facility whose mission is to ensure the availability of neutron measurement capabilities in order to meet the needs of U.S. researchers from industry, academia, and government agencies. This mission is aligned with the mission of NIST, which is to promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve the quality of life. As requested by the Deputy Director of NIST, this book assesses NCNR, based on the following criteria: (1) the technical merit of the current laboratory programs relative to current state-of-the-art programs worldwide; (2) the adequacy of the laboratory budget, facilities, equipment, and human resources, as they affect the quality of the laboratory technical programs; and (3) the degree to which the laboratory programs in measurement science and standards achieve their stated objectives and desired impact.
Posted in Political Science

In-situ Materials Characterization

Across Spatial and Temporal Scales

Author: Alexander Ziegler,Heinz Graafsma,Xiao Feng Zhang,Joost W.M. Frenken

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642451527

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 2772

The behavior of nanoscale materials can change rapidly with time either because the environment changes rapidly or because the influence of the environment propagates quickly across the intrinsically small dimensions of nanoscale materials. Extremely fast time resolution studies using X-rays, electrons and neutrons are of very high interest to many researchers and is a fast-evolving and interesting field for the study of dynamic processes. Therefore, in situ structural characterization and measurements of structure-property relationships covering several decades of length and time scales (from atoms to millimeters and femtoseconds to hours) with high spatial and temporal resolutions are crucially important to understand the synthesis and behavior of multidimensional materials. The techniques described in this book will permit access to the real-time dynamics of materials, surface processes and chemical and biological reactions at various time scales. This book provides an interdisciplinary reference for research using in situ techniques to capture the real-time structural and property responses of materials to surrounding fields using electron, optical and x-ray microscopies (e.g. scanning, transmission and low-energy electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy) or in the scattering realm with x-ray, neutron and electron diffraction.
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Neutron Scattering with a Triple-Axis Spectrometer

Basic Techniques

Author: Gen Shirane,Stephen M. Shapiro,John M. Tranquada

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139431019

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 7454

Neutron scattering is an extremely powerful tool in the study of elemental excitations in condensed matter. This book provides a practical guide to basic techniques using a triple-axis spectrometer. Introductory chapters summarize useful scattering formulas and describe the components of a spectrometer, followed by a comprehensive discussion of the resolution function and focusing effects. Later sections include simple examples of phonon and magnon measurements, and an analysis of spurious effects in both inelastic and elastic measurements, and how to avoid them. Finally, polarization analysis techniques and their applications are covered. This guide will allow graduate students and experienced researchers new to neutron scattering to make the most efficient use of their experimental time.
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Vibrational Spectroscopy with Neutrons

With Applications in Chemistry, Biology, Materials Science and Catalysis

Author: Philip C H Mitchell,Stewart F Parker,Anibal J Ramirez-Cuesta,John Tomkinson

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814482005

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 668

View: 2312

' Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) is a spectroscopic technique in which neutrons are used to probe the dynamics of atoms and molecules in solids and liquids. This book is the first, since the late 1960s, to cover the principles and applications of INS as a vibrational-spectroscopic technique. It provides a hands-on account of the use of INS, concentrating on how neutron vibrational spectroscopy can be employed to obtain chemical information on a range of materials that are of interest to chemists, biologists, materials scientists, surface scientists and catalyst researchers. This is an accessible and comprehensive single-volume primary text and reference source. Contents:The Theory of Inelastic Neutron Scattering SpectroscopyInstrumentation and Experimental MethodsInterpretation and Analysis of Spectra Using Molecular ModellingAnalysis of INS SpectraDihydrogen and HydridesSurface Chemistry and CatalysisOrganic and Organometallic CompoundsHydrogen BondingSoft Condensed Matter — Polymers and BiomaterialsNon-Hydrogenous Materials and CarbonVibrational Spectroscopy with Neutrons — The Future Readership: Users and potential users of neutron scattering spectroscopy (academics, staff of neutron scattering institutes, researchers and graduate students); solid state vibrational spectroscopists. Keywords:Inelastic Neutron Scattering;Vibrational Spectroscopy;Hydrogen;Solid State;Density Functional Theory;Hydrogen Bonding;Water;Proton;Polymer;Biominerals;Phosphate;Catalyst;Zeolite;Sulfide;Cross SectionKey Features:Acquaints the reader with the basic concepts of neutron scatteringOffers an insight into how theory and experiment connect in the interpretation of INS scattering dataShows how useful information can be extracted from experimental dataDescribes studies of dihydrogen and its compounds using INS spectroscopyProvides a comprehensive listing of compounds and materials studied by INSReviews:“This book provides a very good account of the principles and applications of Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) as a vibrational spectroscopic technique, without assuming a high level of background knowledge. It is a piece of work factually novel and done properly, which meets the needs of graduate students as well as both users and potential users of inelastic neutron spectroscopy at academic and research institutions. On the whole the book is quite clearly written, the subject matter rather well developed and the applications of the INS well described in a wide range of materials and problems.”Notiziario Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone '
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Lasers and Nuclei

Applications of Ultrahigh Intensity Lasers in Nuclear Science

Author: Heinrich Schwoerer,Joseph Magill,Burgard Beleites

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540302719

Category: Science

Page: 255

View: 9527

Lasers and Nuclei describes the generation of high-energy-particle radiation with high-intensity lasers and its application to nuclear science. A basic introduction to laser--matter interaction at high fields is complemented by detailed presentations of state of the art laser particle acceleration and elementary laser nuclear experiments. The text also discusses future applications of lasers in nuclear science, for example in nuclear astrophysics, isotope generation, nuclear fuel physics and proton and neutron imaging.
Posted in Science