Neighborhood Disorganization and Social Control

Case Studies from Three Russian Cities

Author: Olga Siegmunt

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319215906

Category: Social Science

Page: 82

View: 4507

This Brief presents a framework for understanding the role of school and neighborhood contexts in the development of self-control. Through the application of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime and Shaw and McKay’s social disorganization theory, the authors of this Brief examine the importance of family socialization and school and neighborhood for self-control of youth in three Russian cities, replicating results from an earlier study in Germany. The cases presented in the Brief found that family socialization is important for self-control, but it interacts with school and neighbourhood contexts. According to the study, school social control as a structural characteristic can lead to less delinquency, even if students did not develop self-control. Self-control mediates parental supervision and attachment to parents on one hand, and juvenile delinquency on the other hand. However it was not found to mediate neighbourhood context characteristics. The results of the study provide a research framework that can be applied to other international, comparative contexts. It will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, particularly Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, as well as related fields such as Public Policy and Social Work.
Posted in Social Science

A General Theory of Crime

Author: Michael R. Gottfredson,Travis Hirschi

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780804717731

Category: Social Science

Page: 297

View: 8196

By articulating a general theory of crime and related behavior, the authors present a new and comprehensive statement of what the criminological enterprise should be about. They argue that prevalent academic criminology—whether sociological, psychological, biological, or economic—has been unable to provide believable explanations of criminal behavior. The long-discarded classical tradition in criminology was based on choice and free will, and saw crime as the natural consequence of unrestrained human tendencies to seek pleasure and to avoid pain. It concerned itself with the nature of crime and paid little attention to the criminal. The scientific, or disciplinary, tradition is based on causation and determinism, and has dominated twentieth-century criminology. It concerns itself with the nature of the criminal and pays little attention to the crime itself. Though the two traditions are considered incompatible, this book brings classical and modern criminology together by requiring that their conceptions be consistent with each other and with the results of research. The authors explore the essential nature of crime, finding that scientific and popular conceptions of crime are misleading, and they assess the truth of disciplinary claims about crime, concluding that such claims are contrary to the nature of crime and, interestingly enough, to the data produced by the disciplines themselves. They then put forward their own theory of crime, which asserts that the essential element of criminality is the absence of self-control. Persons with high self-control consider the long-term consequences of their behavior; those with low self-control do not. Such control is learned, usually early in life, and once learned, is highly resistant to change. In the remainder of the book, the authors apply their theory to the persistent problems of criminology. Why are men, adolescents, and minorities more likely than their counterparts to commit criminal acts? What is the role of the school in the causation of delinquincy? To what extent could crime be reduced by providing meaningful work? Why do some societies have much lower crime rates than others? Does white-collar crime require its own theory? Is there such a thing as organized crime? In all cases, the theory forces fundamental reconsideration of the conventional wisdom of academians and crimina justic practitioners. The authors conclude by exploring the implications of the theory for the future study and control of crime.
Posted in Social Science

Data-Driven Process Discovery and Analysis

First International Symposium, SIMPDA 2011, Campione D’Italia, Italy, June 29 – July 1, 2011, Revised Selected Papers

Author: Karl Aberer,Ernesto Damiani,Tharam Dillon

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 364234044X

Category: Computers

Page: 213

View: 5423

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the First International Symposium on Data-Driven Process Discovery and Analysis held in Campione d'Italia, Italy, in June/July 2011. The 11 revised full papers were carefully selected from 31 submissions. In addition to the thorough review process, the lively discussions at the event itself also helped the authors to improve their papers and to foster interesting extensions. The selected papers cover a wide range of topics spanning from theoretical issues related to process representation to practical experience in process discovery and analysis.
Posted in Computers

Police-Citizen Relations Across the World

Comparing sources and contexts of trust and legitimacy

Author: Dietrich Oberwittler,Sebastian Roché

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315406640

Category: Social Science

Page: 308

View: 6336

Police-citizen relations are in the public spotlight following outbursts of anger and violence. Such clashes often happen as a response to fatal police shootings, racial or ethnic discrimination, or the mishandling of mass protests. But even in such cases, citizens’ assessment of the police differs considerably across social groups. This raises the question of the sources and impediments of citizens’ trust and support for police. Why are police-citizen relations much better in some countries than in others? Are police-minority relations doomed to be strained? And which police practices and policing policies generate trust and legitimacy? Research on police legitimacy has been centred on US experiences, and relied on procedural justice as the main theoretical approach. This book questions whether this approach is suitable and sufficient to understand public attitudes towards the police across different countries and regions of the world. This volume shows that the impact of macro-level conditions, of societal cleavages, and of state and political institutions on police-citizen relations has too often been neglected in contemporary research. Building on empirical studies from around the world as well as cross-national comparisons, this volume considerably expands current perspectives on the sources of police legitimacy and citizens’ trust in the police. Combining the analysis of micro-level interactions with a perspective on the contextual framework and varying national conditions, the contributions to this book illustrate the strength of a broadened perspective and lead us to ask how specific national frameworks shape the experiences of policing.
Posted in Social Science

Handbook of LGBT Communities, Crime, and Justice

Author: Dana Peterson,Vanessa R. Panfil

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461491886

Category: Social Science

Page: 587

View: 9148

Contemporary scholars have begun to explore non-normative sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression in a growing victimization literature, but very little research is focused on LGBTQ communities’ patterns of offending (beyond sex work) and their experiences with police, the courts, and correctional institutions. This Handbook, the first of its kind in Criminology and Criminal Justice, will break new ground by presenting a thorough treatment of all of these under-explored issues in one interdisciplinary volume that features current empirical work.
Posted in Social Science

Victorian Environments

Acclimatizing to Change in British Domestic and Colonial Culture

Author: Grace Moore,Michelle J. Smith

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137573376

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 317

View: 6013

This collection will draw attention to new ideas in both Victorian studies and in the emerging area of literature and the environment. Adopting a broad interpretation of the term ‘environment’ the work aims to draw together new approaches to Victorian texts and cultures that conceptualise and are influenced by environments ranging from rural to urban, British to Antipodean, and from the terrestrial to the aquatic.With the pressures of industrialism and the clustering of workers in urban centres, the Victorians were acutely aware that their environment was changing. Torn between nostalgia for a countryside that was in jeopardy and exhilaration at the rapidity with which their surroundings altered, the literature and culture produced by the Victorians reflects a world undergoing radical change. Colonization and assisted emigration schemes expanded the scope of the environment still further, pushing the boundaries of the ‘home’ on an unprecedented scale and introducing strange new worlds. These untamed physical environments enabled new freedoms, but also posed challenges that invited attempts to control, taxonomize and harness the natural world. Victorian Environments draws together leading and emerging international scholars for an examination of how various kinds of environments were constructed, redefined, and transformed, in British and colonial texts and cultures, with particular attention to the relationship between Australia and Britain.
Posted in Literary Criticism

Out of Control

Assessing the General Theory of Crime

Author: Erich Goode

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804758190

Category: Social Science

Page: 270

View: 5910

A supplemental textbook that examines the self-control theory of crime from a range of perspectives, both supportive and critical.
Posted in Social Science

International Handbook of Juvenile Justice

Author: Scott H. Decker,Nerea Marteache

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319450905

Category: Social Science

Page: 550

View: 6766

This comprehensive reference work presents an in-depth analysis of juvenile justice systems across the world. The second edition of this Handbook has been updated with 13 new chapters, now covering a total of 34 countries, across North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East from an international and comparative perspective. The International Handbook of Juvenile Justice is the result of research conducted by a group of outstanding scholars working in the field of juvenile justice. It reflects a collective concern about trends in juvenile justice over the past two decades, trends that have begun to blur the difference between criminal and juvenile justice. Also new to the second edition, each chapter is formatted to increase the comparative aspect of the book, highlighting: · The legal status of juveniles · Age of majority · The country’s stance toward the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child · Trends in juvenile crime over the period 2004-2014 · Causes of juvenile crime · Policing and juveniles · Courts and juveniles · Custodial rules for juveniles (detention, prison, mixing juveniles with adults) · Alternative sanctions for juveniles: home confinement, restorative justice, restitution, etc. · Differences in treatment of boys and girls This seminal work highlights similarities and differences between the various systems, and will be an important reference for researchers in criminology and criminal justice, particularly interested in juvenile delinquency and youth crime, as well as related disciplines like sociology, social work, and public policy.
Posted in Social Science

Organized Crime, Corruption and Crime Prevention

Essays in Honor of Ernesto U. Savona

Author: Stefano Caneppele,Francesco Calderoni

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319018396

Category: Social Science

Page: 337

View: 2538

​​​This volume collects new contributions to research on mafias, organized crime, money laundering, and other forms of complex crimes, gathering some of the most authoritative and well-known scholars in the field. The chapters for this volume are original peices written in honor of the retirement of Dr. Ernesto U. Savona, highlighting his research and legacy. Throughout his academic career, Professor Ernesto U. Savona has investigated complex crimes ranging from organized crime, to economic crime, to money laundering. In his work, he has tried to bring together academics, policy makers, and practitioners to bring understanding for crime problems and innovative solutions. His passion towards the practical application of the findings of scientific research led him to found Transcrime in 1994, which is today among the most important criminological think-tanks in Europe.This important book is aimed at scholars studying criminal policy and research, particularly in the areas of criminal networks, organized crime, white collar crime, the history of criminology.
Posted in Social Science

The Many Faces of Youth Crime

Contrasting Theoretical Perspectives on Juvenile Delinquency across Countries and Cultures

Author: Josine Junger-Tas,Ineke Haen Marshall,Dirk Enzmann,Martin Killias,Majone Steketee,Beata Gruszczynska

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441994554

Category: Social Science

Page: 367

View: 1510

This book presents the first comprehensive analysis of the second International Self-Report Delinquency study (ISRD-2). An earlier volume, Juvenile Delinquency in Europe and Beyond (Springer, 2010) focused mainly on the findings with regard to delinquency, victimization and substance use in each of the individual participating ISRD-2 countries. The Many Faces of Youth Crime is based on analysis of the merged data set and has a number of unique features:  The analyses are based on an unusually large number of respondents (about 67,000 7th, 8th and 9th graders) collected by researchers from 31 countries;  It includes reports on the characteristics, experiences and behaviour of first and second generation migrant youth from a variety of cultures;  It is one of the first large-scale international studies asking 12-16 year olds about their victimization experiences (bullying, assault, robbery, theft);  It describes both intriguing differences between young people from different countries and country clusters in the nature and extent of delinquency, victimization and substance use, as well as remarkable cross-national uniformities in delinquency, victimization, and substance use patterns;  A careful comparative analysis of the social responses to offending and victimization adds to our limited knowledge on this important issue;  Detailed chapters on the family, school, neighbourhood, lifestyle and peers provide a rich comparative description of these institutions and their impact on delinquency;  It tests a number of theoretical perspectives (social control, self-control, social disorganization, routine activities/opportunity theory) on a large international sample from a variety of national contexts;  It combines a theoretical focus with a thoughtful consideration of the policy implications of the findings;  An extensive discussion of the ISRD methodology of ‘flexible standardization’ details the challenges of comparative research. The book consists of 12 chapters, which also may be read individually by those interested in particular special topics (for instance, the last chapter should be of special interest to policy makers). The material is presented in such a way that it is accessible to more advanced students, researchers and scholars in a variety of fields, such as criminology, sociology, deviance, social work, comparative methodology, youth studies, substance use studies, and victimology.
Posted in Social Science

Illegal Entrepreneurship, Organized Crime and Social Control

Essays in Honor of Professor Dick Hobbs

Author: Georgios A. Antonopoulos

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319316087

Category: Social Science

Page: 360

View: 1075

This book covers organized crime groups, empirical studies of organized crime, criminal finances and money laundering, and crime prevention, gathering some of the most authoritative and well-known scholars in the field. The contributions to this book are new chapters written in honor of Professor Dick Hobbs, on the occasion of his retirement. They reflect his powerful influence on the study of organized crime, offering a novel perspective that located organized crime in its socio-economic context, studied through prolonged ethnographic engagement. Professor Hobbs has influenced a generation of criminology researchers engaged in studying organized crime groups, and this work provides a both a look back and this influence and directions for future research. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, particularly with a focus on organized crime and financial crime, as well as those interested in corruption, crime prevention, and applications of ethnographic methods.
Posted in Social Science

Contemporary Organized Crime

Developments, Challenges and Responses

Author: Hans Nelen,Dina Siegel

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319559737

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 6690

This edited volume explores recent research and developments in the study of organized crime. It covers six key areas: drug-related issues; human trafficking and prostitution; sports and crime; procurement and corruption; and enforcement and prevention. The contributors provide timely research for understanding various aspects of organized crime, as well as the responses that have been developed worldwide to prevent and contain them. The contributions were presented at seminars of the Centre for Information and Research on Organized Crime (CIROC). It represents the third installment of such a volume, after Global Organized Crime: Trends and Developments (Siegel et al, 2003) and Organized Crime: Culture, Markets and Policies (Siegel and Nelen, 2008). It will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, particularly with an interest in organized crime and criminal networks, as well as related fields such as Comparative Law, and Political Science. This collection represents the most current thinking on entrenched problems of organized crime....This book is an important contribution in developing new approaches to organized crime and its control. Jay S. Albanese, Ph.D., Professor and Chair, Criminal Justice Programs, Virginia Commonwealth University The book is very well organised and written and deals with a diversity of topics and approaches. Ernesto U.Savona, Director of Transcrime, Professor of Criminology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan
Posted in Social Science

Community-Oriented Policing and Technological Innovations

Author: Georgios Leventakis,M. R. Haberfeld

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319892940

Category: Social Science

Page: 131

View: 8447

This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize how technological innovations can advance community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through effective and efficient tools, procedures and approaches - Accelerating communication between citizens and police forces - Early identification, timely intervention, as well as better crime reporting, identification of risks, unreported and undiscovered crime through the community Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.
Posted in Social Science

Drones and Unmanned Aerial Systems

Legal and Social Implications for Security and Surveillance

Author: Aleš Završnik

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319237608

Category: Social Science

Page: 275

View: 4430

This book tackles the regulatory issues of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) or Remotely-Piloted Aerial Systems (RPAS), which have profound consequences for privacy, security and other fundamental liberties. Collectively known as “drones,” they were initially deployed for military purposes: reconnaissance, surveillance and extrajudicial executions. Today, we are witnessing a growth of their use into the civilian and humanitarian domain. They are increasingly used for goals as diverse as news gathering, aerial inspection of oil refinery flare stacks, mapping of the Amazonian rain-forest, crop spraying and search and rescue operations. The civil use of drones is becoming a reality in the European Union and in the US.The drone revolution may be a new technological revolution. Proliferation of the next generation of “recreational” drones show how drones will be sold as any other consumer item. The cultural perception of the technology is shifting, as drones are increasingly being used for humanitarian activities, on one hand, but they can also firmly be situated in the prevailing modes of postmodern governance on the other hand. This work will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice interested in issues related to surveillance, security, privacy, and technology. It will also provide a criminological background for related legal issues, such as privacy law, aviation law, international criminal law, and comparative law.
Posted in Social Science

Gender-Based Violence

Perspectives from Africa, the Middle East, and India

Author: Yanyi K. Djamba,Sitawa R. Kimuna

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319166700

Category: Social Science

Page: 243

View: 2034

This book offers new perspectives on gender-based violence in three regions where the subject has been taboo in everyday discourse often due to patriarchal cultural norms that limit women’s autonomy. The contributions to this book provide rare insight into not only the levels and the socio-demographic determinants of domestic violence, but topics ranging from men’s attitudes toward wife beating; domestic violence-related adolescent deaths, and women’s health problems due to sexual and physical abuse. With a comprehensive introduction that provides a comparative international research framework for discussing gender-based violence in these three unique regions, this volume provides a key basis for understanding gender-based violence on a more global level. Part I, on Africa, covers men’s attitudes towards domestic violence, the impact of poverty and fertility, the association between adolescent deaths and domestic violence, and the link between domestic abuse and HIV. Part II, on the Middle East, covers the importance of consanguinity on domestic violence in Egypt and Jordan, the effects of physical abuse on reproductive health, and the link between political unrests and women’s experience and attitudes towards domestic violence. Part III, on India, shows how sexual abuse puts women at risk of reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted infections, as well as the role of gender norms in wife abuse and the role of youth aggressive behavior in nonconsensual sex. With such a deep and broad coverage of factors of intimate partner abuse, this book serves as a reference document for researchers, decision-makers, and organizations that are searching for ways to reduce gender-based domestic violence. This book is of interest for researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, as well as Sociology, Social Work, Public Health and Human Rights.
Posted in Social Science

Serial Homicide

Profiling of Victims and Offenders for Policing

Author: Agnieszka Daniszewska

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319400541

Category: Social Science

Page: 88

View: 8646

This Brief provides an overview and history of the definition of serial homicide, from the perspectives of psychology, medicine, criminology and forensics. It reviews research to provide a standard definition of serial homicide (as opposed to multiple or mass homicide), and provide insights on profiles of victims and offenders for police practitioners. It also includes a discussion of the media approach to covering serial homicide. The Brief is divided into four major sections covering: definitions and overview of serial homicide, profiling perpetrators according to different typologies, profiling victims, applied case studies, and recommendations for investigation and prevention. The author’s approach is aimed primarily at researchers in police studies, but will be of interest to researchers in related fields such as criminal justice, sociology, psychology, and public policy.
Posted in Social Science

What Works in Crime Prevention and Rehabilitation

Lessons from Systematic Reviews

Author: David Weisburd,David P. Farrington,Charlotte Gill

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493934775

Category: Social Science

Page: 331

View: 9261

Systematic reviews aim to minimize any possible bias in drawing conclusions by stating explicit criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies, by conducting extensive and wide-ranging searches for possibly eligible studies, and by making all stages of the review explicit and transparent so that the methods can be checked and replicated. Over a decade ago, a concerted effort was made by members of the criminology community, including the Editors and contributors of this volume, to bring the practice of systematic reviews to the study of Criminology, providing replicable, evidence-based data to answer key questions about the study of crime causation, detection, and prevention. Now, the pioneers in this effort present a comprehensive stock-taking of what has been learned in the past decade of systematic reviews in criminology. Much has been discovered about the effectiveness of (for example) boot camps, “hot spots” policing, closed-circuit television surveillance, neighborhood watch, anti-bullying programs in schools, early parenting programs, drug treatment programs, and other key topics. This ambitious volume aims to bring together and assess all major systematic reviews of the effectiveness of criminological interventions, to draw broad conclusions about what works in policing, corrections, developmental prevention, situational prevention, drug abuse treatments, sentencing and deterrence, and communities. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as in related fields such as public health and forensic science, with important implications for policy-makers and practitioners. Decisively showing that the “nothing works” era is over, this volume takes stock of what we know, and still need to know, to prevent crime. Focusing on different areas of prevention, individual chapters provide a state-of–the art analysis of the extent evaluation evidence. Together, they comprise an essential guide to improving both public safety and the lives of those most at risk of criminal involvement. I plan to keep this book close at hand and to use if often! Francis T. Cullen, Distinguished Research Professor Emeritus, University of Cincinnati This impressive volume, edited by Weisburd, Farrington and Gill, provides a comprehensive picture of what we’ve learned from systematic reviews about “what works” in addressing crime – and goes on to identify the “next step” issues that demand attention if the field is to move forward. At a time when there is a broad commitment to bringing science to the front lines of practice, this book should be on the reading list of both policymakers and scholars. Laurie O. Robinson, Clarence J. Robinson Professor of Criminology, Law Society, George Mason University and former Assistant Attorney General of the U.S. Department of Justice
Posted in Social Science

Using Modeling to Predict and Prevent Victimization

Author: Ken Pease,Andromachi Tseloni

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319031856

Category: Social Science

Page: 80

View: 5277

This work provides clear application of a new statistical modeling technique that can be used to recognize patterns in victimization and prevent repeat victimization. The history of crime prevention techniques range from offender-based, to environment/situation-based, to victim-based. The authors of this work have found more accurate ways to predict and prevent victimization using a statistical modeling, based around crime concentration and sub-group profiling with regard to crime vulnerability levels, to predict areas and individuals vulnerable to crime. Following from this prediction, they propose policing strategies to improve crime prevention based on these predictions. With a combination of immediate actions and longer-term research recommendations, this work will be of interest to researchers and policy makers in focused on crime prevention, police studies, victimology and statistical applications.
Posted in Social Science

Women and the Mafia

Female Roles in Organized Crime Structures

Author: Giovanni Fiandaca

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387365427

Category: Social Science

Page: 300

View: 4337

The insightful essays in this book shine a new light on the roles of women within criminal networks, roles that in reality are often less traditional than researchers used to think. The book seeks to answer questions from a wide range of academic disciplines and traces the portrait of women tied to organized crime in Italy and around the world. The book offers up accounts of mafia women, and also tales of severe abuse and violence against women.
Posted in Social Science

Crime and Crime Reduction

The importance of group processes

Author: Jane L. Wood,Theresa A. Gannon

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136223894

Category: Psychology

Page: 224

View: 4889

The problems associated with groups that commit crime are well known and notoriously complex. However, there are many questions that we still cannot answer with certainty. This book seeks to deepen understanding of the group processes involved in crime and the treatment of offenders’ thoughts and behaviour. Together, the chapters in this volume address the following questions: Are people more likely to commit crime because of the influence of their group? Does group membership cause people to become criminals, or does the group merely foster people’s pre-existing criminal inclinations? How does group membership exert such a strong hold on people so that some risk imprisonment or even death, rather than relinquish their membership? The contributors to Crime and Crime Reduction consider the social psychological influences of groups and specific forms of group crime such as street and prison gangs, terrorism, organized criminal networks, and group sexual offending. The book also addresses important questions about the role of groups in treating offenders, and why existing group membership should be considered when treating offenders. Group criminal activity is a key area of study for researchers and for students of Forensic Psychology and Criminology courses. This book will therefore be of interest to students, scholars, and law enforcement practitioners who want to understand the group processes involved in crime and its reduction.
Posted in Psychology