Mountain ecosystem services and climate change

a global overview of potential threats and strategies for adaptation

Author: Egan, Paul A.,Price, Martin F.

Publisher: UNESCO Publishing

ISBN: 9231002252

Category:

Page: 32

View: 6936

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Climate Change and Rocky Mountain Ecosystems

Author: Jessica Halofsky,David L. Peterson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319569287

Category: Science

Page: 236

View: 2977

This book is the result of a team of approximately 100 scientists and resource managers who worked together for two years to understand the effects of climatic variability and change on water resources, fisheries, forest vegetation, non-forest vegetation, wildlife, recreation, cultural resources and ecosystem services. Adaptation options, both strategic and tactical, were developed for each resource area. This information is now being applied in the northern rocky Mountains to ensure long-term sustainability in resource conditions. The volume chapters provide a technical assessment of the effects of climatic variability and change on natural and cultural resources, based on best available science, including new analyses obtained through modeling and synthesis of existing data. Each chapter also contains a summary of adaptation strategies (general) and tactics (on-the-ground actions) that have been developed by science-management teams.
Posted in Science

Building Resilience to Climate Change

Ecosystem-based Adaptation and Lessons from the Field

Author: Angela Andrade Pérez,Bernal Herrera Fernández,Roberto Cazzolla Gatti

Publisher: IUCN

ISBN: 2831712904

Category: Nature

Page: 164

View: 9762

With climate change now a certainty, the question is how much change there will be and what can be done about it. One of the answers is through adaptation. Many of the lessons that are being learned in adaptation are from success stories from the field. This publication contains eleven case studies covering different ecosystems and regions around the world. Its aim is to summarize some current applications of the Ecosystem-Based Adaptation concept and its tools used around the world, and also draw lessons from experiences in conservation adaptation.
Posted in Nature

Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Environmental Change in a Tropical Mountain Ecosystem of South Ecuador

Author: Jörg Bendix,Erwin Beck,Achim Bräuning,Franz Makeschin,Reinhard Mosandl,Stefan Scheu,Wolfgang Wilcke

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642381375

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 1178

An interdisciplinary research unit consisting of 30 teams in the natural, economic and social sciences analyzed biodiversity and ecosystem services of a mountain rainforest ecosystem in the hotspot of the tropical Andes, with special reference to past, current and future environmental changes. The group assessed ecosystem services using data from ecological field and scenario-driven model experiments, and with the help of comparative field surveys of the natural forest and its anthropogenic replacement system for agriculture. The book offers insights into the impacts of environmental change on various service categories mentioned in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005): cultural, regulating, supporting and provisioning ecosystem services. Examples focus on biodiversity of plants and animals including trophic networks, and abiotic/biotic parameters such as soils, regional climate, water, nutrient and sediment cycles. The types of threats considered include land use and climate changes, as well as atmospheric fertilization. In terms of regulating and provisioning services, the emphasis is primarily on water regulation and supply as well as climate regulation and carbon sequestration. With regard to provisioning services, the synthesis of the book provides science-based recommendations for a sustainable land use portfolio including several options such as forestry, pasture management and the practices of indigenous peoples. In closing, the authors show how they integrated the local society by pursuing capacity building in compliance with the CBD-ABS (Convention on Biological Diversity - Access and Benefit Sharing), in the form of education and knowledge transfer for application.
Posted in Science

Ecosystem Services of Headwater Catchments

Author: Josef Křeček,Martin Haigh,Thomas Hofer,Eero Kubin,Catrin Promper

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319579460

Category: Science

Page: 323

View: 9438

This book addresses the evaluation of environmental impacts and services identified in headwaters of different eco-zones around the world. It presents 24 papers selected from contributions to recent meetings of the European Forestry Commission Working Party on the Management of Mountain Watersheds, which is coordinated by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). Through its biennial sessions and inter-session activities, the Working Party focuses on the continuous exchange of knowledge and experience between professionals in Europe and other regions of the world confronted with similar issues. The contributions have been updated and peer-reviewed, and the interdisciplinary team of authors includes experts from the fields of geography, hydrology, chemistry, biology, forestry, ecology and socio-economics. The participatory management of headwater catchments in Europe, Africa, America and Asia was the central theme of the articles, which were divided into four sessions: (1) Headwater Environment and Natural Resources, (2) Enhancing Environmental Services in Headwaters, (3) Environmental Services in the Changing World, and (4) New Challenges for Environmental Education and Active Citizenship. The practical applications shown in the book address the multi-resource concept. The book offers a unique and valuable resource for environmentalists, engineers, watershed planners and policymakers alike.
Posted in Science

Climate Change, Glacier Response, and Vegetation Dynamics in the Himalaya

Contributions Toward Future Earth Initiatives

Author: RB Singh,Udo Schickhoff,Suraj Mal

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319289772

Category: Science

Page: 399

View: 2298

This book provides information essential for anyone interested in climate and environmental change of the Himalayan region, including land and resource managers, environmental planners, conservationists, environmentalists, geographers, climatologists, ecologists, and students. The book is unique in its coverage of the current understanding of the science of climate change in the Himalayan mountain system and of the major impacts on physical systems and ecosystems. The book gives an overview of the physical science basis of climate change and explains drivers and processes of glacier and vegetation dynamics. The book covers relevant aspects of accelerated climate change observed in the Himalayan mountain system, and highlights the regional differentiation of climatic changes and associated environmental modifications. The focus is on climate variability and change, and how physical systems and ecosystems respond to climate change impacts. Consequences include impacts on physical systems such as glacier shrinkage, glacial lake outburst floods, altered hydrological characteristics, permafrost warming and thawing, and mass movements on slopes. Climate change is also a powerful stressor on ecosystems and induces range shifts of plant and animal species and alterations in terms of phenology, biomass, plant cover, plant group dominance and species composition. Thus, ecosystem structure and functioning will be strongly affected. The book has an introductory chapter followed by a section on climate change, a section on impacts on glaciers and hydrology, and a section on vegetation dynamics. Each section has several chapters presenting key concepts, major drivers and key processes of environmental change in the Himalayan region from different perspectives. Climate change impacts in the Himalaya have not been studied in much detail, and respective findings were not presented so far in a comprehensive overview. This book summarizes the current knowledge of interactions between climate change and the dynamics of glaciers, hydrology, and vegetation.
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Global Change and Mountain Regions

An Overview of Current Knowledge

Author: Uli M. Huber,Harald K.M. Bugmann,Mel A. Reasoner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 140203508X

Category: Science

Page: 652

View: 1529

This book gives an overview of the state of research in fields pertaining to the detection, understanding and prediction of global change impacts in mountain regions. More than sixty contributions from paleoclimatology, cryospheric research, hydrology, ecology, and development studies are compiled in this volume, each with an outlook on future research directions. The book will interest meteorologists, geologists, botanists and climatologists.
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Climate Change 2007 - Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability

Working Group II Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC

Author: Martin L. Parry

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521880106

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 976

View: 4166

The Climate Change 2007 volumes of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provide the most comprehensive and balanced assessment of climate change available. This IPCC Working Group II volume provides a completely up-to-date scientific assessment of the impacts of climate change, the vulnerability of natural and human environments, and the potential for response through adaptation. Written by the world's leading experts, the IPCC volumes will again prove to be invaluable for researchers, students, and policymakers, and will form the standard reference works for policy decisions for government and industry worldwide.
Posted in Business & Economics

Continuity and Change in Cultural Adaptation to Mountain Environments

From Prehistory to Contemporary Threats

Author: Ludomir R Lozny

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461457025

Category: Social Science

Page: 410

View: 8270

Up until now, mountain ecosystems have not been closely studies by social scientists as they do not offer a readily defined set of problems for human exploitation as, do for instance, tropical forests or arctic habitats. But the archaeological evidence had shown that humans have been living in this type of habitat for thousands of year. From this evidence we can also see that mountainous regions are often frontier zones of competing polities and form refuge areas for dissident communities as they often are inherently difficult to control by centralized authorities. As a consequence they fuel or contribute disproportionately to political violence. But we are now witnessing changes and increasing vulnerability of mountain ecosystems caused by human activities. Human adaptability to mountain ecosystems This volume presents an international and interdisciplinary account of the exploitation of--and human adaptation to--mountainous regions over time. The contributions discuss human cultural responses to key physical and cultural stressors associated with mountain ecosystems, such as aridity, quality of soils, steep slopes, low productivity, as well as transient phenomena such as changing weather patterns, deforestation and erosion, and the possible effects of climate change. This volume will be of interest to anthropologists, ecologists and geologists as mountainous landscapes change fast and cultures disappear and they need to be recorded, and mountain regions are of interest for studies on environmental change and cultural responses of mountain populations provide clues for us all. Critical to understanding mountain adaptations is our comprehension of human decision-making and how people view short- and long-term outcomes.
Posted in Social Science

Climate Change

Anticipated Effects on Ecosystem Services and Potential Actions by the Alaska Region, U. S. Forest Service

Author: J. B. Haufler

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437933742

Category:

Page: 53

View: 6751

Summarizes potential impacts that are likely from predicted climate change (CC) in Southern Alaska (SA), identifies on-going collaborative efforts directed at climate change, and suggests some possible responses that the Alaska Region (AR) could take to address this challenge. Contents: (1) Intro.; (2) Overview of the AR; (3) Ecosystem Services of the SC and SE Landscapes; (4) CC Threats to Ecosystem Services in Southern Coastal Alaska: Observed Changes in Alaska¿s Climate; Predicted CC in Alaska Climate; (5) Impacts of CC on Ecosystem Services: Changing Sea Levels; Increased Ocean Temp. and Changing Circulation Patterns; Increased Ocean Acidification; Increased Storm Intensities; Changes to Stream Temp. and Flows; Loss of Glaciers; Changes to Wetlands; Forest Temp. and Precipitation Changes; Increases in Invasive Species; (6) Initiatives for CC in Southern Alaska Coastal Landscapes; (7) Strategic Plan for CC. Figures.
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Landscape Development and Climate Change in Southwest Bulgaria (Pirin Mountains)

Author: Karsten Grunewald,Jörg Scheithauer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048199594

Category: Science

Page: 161

View: 5835

Landscape Development and Climate Change in Southwest Bulgaria aims to address some of the current limitations in our understanding of past Balkan climate and environment. High mountains and their ecosystems offer an outstanding opportunity for studies on the impact of climate change. The Balkan Mountains in Southeast Europe, situated at the transition between temperate and Mediterranean climate, are considered as very sensitive to historical and current global changes. The geoarchives lake sediment, peat and soil, long living trees and glaciers have been used to reconstruct the climatically-driven change of forest and treeline during the Holocene and the younger past. These processes are interrelated with complex ecological changes, as for example the seasonality of climate parameters. The landscape research approach with the analyses through multi-palaeo-geoecological proxies is new for the Balkans.
Posted in Science

Approaches and tools for assessing mountain forest ecosystem services

Author: Baral, H.,Wanggi Jaung,Bhatta, L.D.,Phuntsho, S.,Sharma, S.,Paudyal, K.,Zarandian, A.,Sears, R.,Sharma, R.,Dorji, T.,Artati, Y.

Publisher: CIFOR

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: 21

View: 5248

Mountain forest ecosystems provide a wide range of direct and indirect contributions to the people who live in the mountains and surrounding areas. Occupying steep slopes at high elevation, these ecosystems provide services such as stabilizing slopes, regulating hydrological cycles, maintaining rich biodiversity and supporting the livelihoods of those who are diverse in culture but vulnerable to poverty and food security. This paper (i) reviews several tools for assessing the sociocultural, economic and ecological values of mountain forest ecosystem services, (ii) demonstrates case studies of tool applications from several countries namely, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Iran and Nepal, and (iii) discusses assessment challenges that should be considered in the application of these tools. In Bhutan, an application of benefit transfer showed that the average total value of forest ecosystem services was over USD 14.5 billion per year. In India, an application of stakeholder and household analyses indicated that a total of 29 different ecosystem services are available and sustain livelihoods of local communities near the Maguri Mottapung wetland. In Indonesia, an application of Q methodology identified anticipated benefits and concerns of forest watershed stakeholders related to certification applications for a payment for ecosystem services. In Iran, an application of the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs Tool showed that the regulation of ecosystem services has been declining in Hyrcanian forests despite the forests’ critical roles in the region. In Nepal, an application of a spatial analytical approach and participatory assessment techniques identified key mountain ecosystem services for community forests at the Charnawolti sub-watershed of Dolakha, and demonstrated forest restoration on degraded lands over the last two decades. Several challenges exist for the assessment of mountain forest ecosystem services and these must be reflected in assessment design. These challenges include the complexity of defining and classifying ecosystem services; limited availability of data on ecosystem services; uncertainties associated with climate change; complex relationships among services including trade-offs and synergies; and limitation of assessments to build successful payments for ecosystem services.
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Mountain Area Research and Management

Integrated Approaches

Author: Martin F. Price

Publisher: Earthscan

ISBN: 1849772010

Category: Science

Page: 317

View: 8232

This book brings together scientists and practitioners from five continents to present their experience in undertaking activities that contribute to our understanding and informed management of mountain areas. In particular, they address the challenges of working in interdisciplinary teams and of effectively involving stakeholders. The result is a powerful book that integrates research from different disciplines in the natural and social sciences, and in some cases indigenous knowledge, to address the question of how knowledge is gained about mountain areas and how can it be integrated and used in effective management.A comprehensive introduction covers the challenges in mountain area research and management, and the need for integrated approaches. This is followed by chapters that look at key areas of mountain research and management over the past 25 years, covering inter-and trans-disciplinary research, subsistence cultures and sustainable development, innovations in watershed management and biodiversity conservation. Subsequent chapters cover key areas of research and management on five continents with a focus on comparison of common challenges and solutions across regions. The concluding chapter brings these experiences together.Published with Parks Canada
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Laudato si

Die Umwelt-Enzyklika des Papstes

Author: Franziskus (Papst),

Publisher: Verlag Herder GmbH

ISBN: 345180736X

Category: Religion

Page: 288

View: 6237

Mit großer Spannung wurde sie erwartet, auch von Nicht-Katholiken: Die Umwelt-Enzyklika von Papst Franziskus nimmt die heute entscheidenden Themen in den Blick; es geht um die geht um soziale, ökologische und politische Zusammenhänge. Wohl selten war ein päpstliches Schreiben so aktuell und brisant und vor allem relevant für alle Gesellschaftsschichten und Menschen weltweit. Mit "Laudato si" beweist Franziskus, dass die Kirche nach wie vor eine unverzichtbare Stimme im Diskurs zur Gestaltung der modernen Welt ist. Wer verstehen will, wie Papst und Kirche die großen Herausforderungen unserer Zeit bestehen wollen, kommt an diesem Werk nicht vorbei. Ein Muss für jeden, der an den drängenden Fragen unserer Zeit interessiert ist.
Posted in Religion

Managing Forest Ecosystems: The Challenge of Climate Change

Author: Felipe Bravo,Valerie LeMay,Robert Jandl,Klaus Gadow

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402083432

Category: Science

Page: 340

View: 5517

Climate changes, particularly warming trends, have been recorded around the globe. For many countries, these changes in climate have become evident through insect epidemics (e.g., Mountain Pine Beetle epidemic in Western Canada, bark beetle in secondary spruce forests in Central Europe), water shortages and intense forest fires in the Mediterranean countries (e.g., 2005 droughts in Spain), and unusual storm activities (e.g., the 2004 South-East Asia Tsunami). Climate changes are expected to impact vegetation as manifested by changes in vegetation extent, migration of species, tree species composition, growth rates, and mortality. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has included discussions on how forests may be impacted, and how they may be used to mitigate the impacts of changes in climate, to possibly slow the rate of change. This book provides current scientific information on the biological and economical impacts of climate changes in forest environments, as well as information on how forest management activities might mitigate these impacts, particularly through carbon sequestration. Case studies from a wide geographic range are presented. This information is beneficial to managers and researchers interested in climate change and impacts upon forest environments and economic activities. This volume, which forms part of Springer’s book series Managing Forest Ecosystems, presents state-of-the-art research results, visions and theories, as well as specific methods for sustainable forest management in changing climatic conditions.
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Mediterranean Mountain Environments

Author: Ioannis Vogiatzakis

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118343980

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 3514

Mediterranean mountains exhibit many similarities in theirbiotic ecological, physical and environmental characteristics.There are also many differences in terms of their humancolonization pattern, historic land uses and current anthopogenicpressures. This book provides an introduction to these environments ofmountainous areas in the Mediterranean and their changes in timeand space in relation to both natural and cultural factors. Mediterranean Mountain Environments places itsemphasis on physical geography while adopting an integratedapproach to the whole subject area. The book draws examples from awide range of environments, demonstrating the interaction betweenhuman and physical processes responsible for shaping mountainareas. Risks and conflicts, as well as methods and tools for theconservation and management of both the natural and culturalenvironment are covered in the light of future challenges for thesustainable development of the Mediterranean mountains. Emphasis on both mainland and island mountain ranges Combines natural and cultural approach in the topic Integrated approach: facing future challenges based on thestudy and understanding of the historical processes that haveshaped the Mediterranean mountains Key references at the end of each chapter
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The Carpathians: Integrating Nature and Society Towards Sustainability

Author: Jacek Kozak,Katarzyna Ostapowicz,Andrzej Bytnerowicz,Bartłomiej Wyżga

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642127258

Category: Nature

Page: 717

View: 1520

The book includes a broad spectrum of perspectives from different scientific disciplines (both the natural and social sciences) as well as practical knowledge. It gives a new insight into the Carpathian mountain region
Posted in Nature

Globalization and Marginalization in Mountain Regions

Assets and Challenges in Marginal Regions

Author: Raghubir Chand,Walter Leimgruber

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331932649X

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 1320

This book looks at the global importance of mountain systems, emphasizing their ecological and socio-economic role in light of climate change and globalization. With a special focus on the Himalayas, it also examines the Czech–German–Austrian mountain borderland, the Alps, the Andes, the highland regions of Malaysia, and the Arctic. The contributors, specialists in their fields, all use an integrative approach that develops and argues the concept of mountain regions as a global common good. Readers also discover that mountain systems and mountain communities are often marginalized and left behind by the process of globalization. Case studies throughout detail the effects of climate change and global warming on both nature and local/regional societies, such as declining water supplies, a shifting vegetation line, and other important issues facing not only mountains but also the vast regions depending on them. In addition, the comprehensive coverage offers authenticated viewpoints from some of the most eminent explorers of Tibet in the nineteenth century. More than 50 percent of the global human population draws benefits directly or indirectly from mountain resources and services. This book provides practitioners, researchers, students, and other interested readers with a compelling look at the global importance of this imposing, yet sensitive ecosystem.
Posted in Social Science

Payments for Environmental Services, Forest Conservation and Climate Change

Livelihoods in the Redd?

Author: Luca Tacconi,Sango Mahanty,Helen Suich

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1849806012

Category: Nature

Page: 288

View: 389

This resourceful book draws on several case studies to derive implications for the design of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) schemes that are very relevant to current climate change negotiations and the implementation of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) schemes at the national level. With its focus on livelihoods, the book also provides important lessons that are relevant to the design of PES schemes focusing on environmental services other than carbon conservation. Drawing practical lessons for the design of activities aimed at reducing deforestation and forest degradation while benefiting rural people, this book will appeal to academics, practitioners and students involved in the fields of environment and natural resource management, forestry and development studies. This insightful study is accessible also to non-experts in presenting the key issues faced in avoiding deforestation and benefiting livelihoods.
Posted in Nature

Water, Climate Change, and Forests

Watershed Stewardship for a Changing Climate

Author: Michael J. Furniss

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437939848

Category: Climatic changes

Page: 75

View: 8582

This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication. Water from forested watersheds provides irreplaceable habitat for aquatic and riparian species and supports our homes, farms, industries, and energy production. Yet population pressures, land uses, and rapid climate change combine to seriously threaten these waters and the resilience of watersheds in most places. Forest land managers are expected to anticipate and respond to these threats and steward forested watersheds to ensure the sustained protection and provision of water and the services it provides. Contents of this report: (1) Intro.; (2) Background: Forests and Water; Climate Change: Hydrologic Responses and Ecosystem Services; (3) Moving Forward: Think; Collaborate; Act; (4) Closing; (5) Examples of Watershed Stewardship. Illus.
Posted in Climatic changes