Since the Second World War interest in the active by Italian geophysicists; studies of ground deform volcano Mount Etna, in Sicily, has been steadily ation by British and Italian groups; measurements increasing. This interest has not been restricted of microgravity changes particularly by a British to Italy, and scientists from Belgium, France, group; endeavours to improve analytical tech Germany, the United States and the United King niques for gases and sublimates by French and also dom have played a part in volcanological studies. Italian and British workers; pioneering work on In 1972 much of this work was drawn together at a rheology of lavas and growth of lava fields by discussion meeting convened by the Royal Society British scientists; and greatly improved surveil of London and attended by representatives of most lance of activity, notably that occurring in the summit region. of the projects that were being conducted on Etna. The meeting served to draw together current It is a principal aim of this book to synthesize the knowledge of Etna, especially information derived results of these many different studies into a more during the 1971 flank eruption, and also to point complete understanding of the volcano. Inevitably out deficiencies in knowledge and methods of the coverage is somewhat uneven; some fields of approach to investigating the volcano. In his study have been researched more thoroughly than opening statement to the meeting Professor A. others.
The anatomy of a volcano
Author: D.K. Chester,Angus Duncan,J.E. Guest,C. Kilburn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Understanding the physical behavior of volcanoes is key to mitigating the hazards active volcanoes pose to the ever-increasing populations living nearby. The processes involved in volcanic eruptions are driven by a series of interlinked physical phenomena, and to fully understand these, volcanologists must employ various physics subdisciplines. This book provides the first advanced-level, one-stop resource examining the physics of volcanic behavior and reviewing the state-of-the-art in modeling volcanic processes. Each chapter begins by explaining simple modeling formulations and progresses to present cutting-edge research illustrated by case studies. Individual chapters cover subsurface magmatic processes through to eruption in various environments and conclude with the application of modeling to understanding the other volcanic planets of our Solar System. Providing an accessible and practical text for graduate students of physical volcanology, this book is also an important resource for researchers and professionals in the fields of volcanology, geophysics, geochemistry, petrology and natural hazards.
The Physics and Mathematics of Volcanism
Author: Sarah A. Fagents,Tracy K. P. Gregg,Rosaly M. C. Lopes
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This book contains case histories intended to show how societies and landscapes interact. The range of interest stretches from the small groups of the earliest Neolithic, through Bronze and Iron Age civilizations, to modern nation states. The coexistence is, of its very nature reciprocal, resulting in changes in both society and landscape. In some instances the adaptations may be judged successful in terms of human needs, but failure is common and even the successful cases are ephemeral when judged in the light of history. Comparisons and contrasts between the various cases can be made at various scales from global through inter-regional, to regional and smaller scales. At the global scale, all societies deal with major problems of climate change, sea-level rise, and with ubiquitous problems such as soil erosion and landscape degradation. Inter-regional differences bring out significant detail with one region suffering from drought when another suffers from widespread flooding. For example, desertification in North Africa and the Near East contrasts with the temperate countries of southern Europe where the landscape-effects of deforestation are more obvious. And China and Japan offer an interesting comparison from the standpoint of geological hazards to society - large, unpredictable and massively erosive rivers in the former case, volcanoes and accompanying earthquakes in the latter. Within the North African region localized climatic changes led to abandonment of some desertified areas with successful adjustments in others, with the ultimate evolution into the formative civilization of Egypt, the "Gift of the Nile". At a smaller scale it is instructive to compare the city-states of the Medieval and early Renaissance times that developed in the watershed of a single river, the Arno in Tuscany, and how Pisa, Siena and Florence developed and reached their golden periods at different times depending on their location with regard to proximity to the sea, to the main trunk of the river, or in the adjacent hills. Also noteworthy is the role of technology in opening up opportunities for a society. Consider the Netherlands and how its history has been formed by the technical problem of a populous society dealing with too much water, as an inexorably rising sea threatens their landscape; or the case of communities in Colorado trying to deal with too little water for farmers and domestic users, by bringing their supply over a mountain chain. These and others cases included in the book, provide evidence of the successes, near misses and outright failures that mark our ongoing relationship with landscape throughout the history of Homo sapiens. The hope is that compilations such as this will lead to a better understanding of the issue and provide us with knowledge valuable in planning a sustainable modus vivendi between humanity and landscape for as long as possible. Audience: The book will interest geomorphologists, geologists, geographers, archaeologists, anthropologists, ecologists, environmentalists, historians and others in the academic world. Practically, planners and managers interested in landscape/environmental conditions will find interest in these pages, and more generally the increasingly large body of opinion in the general public, with concerns about Planet Earth, will find much to inform their opinions. Extra material: The color plate section is available at http://extras.springer.com
Author: I. Peter Martini,Ward Chesworth
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This volume provides an accessible scientific introduction to the historical geography of Tropical Pacific Islands, assessing the environmental and cultural changes they have undergone and how they are affected currently by these shifts and alterations. The book emphasizes the roles of plants, animals, people, and the environment in shaping the tropical Pacific through a cross-disciplinary approach involving history, geography, biology, environmental science, and anthropology. With these diverse scientific perspectives, the eight chapters of the book provide a comprehensive overview of Tropical Pacific Islands from their initial colonization by native peoples to their occupation by colonial powers, and the contemporary changes that have affected the natural history and social fabric of these islands. The Tropical Pacific Islands are introduced by a description of their geological formation, development, and geography. From there, the book details the origins of the island's original peoples and the dawn of the political economy of these islands, including the domestication and trade of plants, animals, and other natural resources. Next, readers will learn about the impact of missionaries on Pacific Islands, and the affects of Wold War II and nuclear testing on natural resources and the health of its people. The final chapter discusses the islands in the context of natural resource extraction, population increases, and global climate change. Working together these factors are shown to affect rainfall and limited water resources, as well as the ability to sustain traditional crops, and the capacity of the islands to accomodate its residents.
Author: Walter M. Goldberg
The contributions in this book were presented, orally or as posters, at the International Volcanological Congress held in New Zealand from 1 to 9 February 1986, the centenary year of the Tarawera eruption of 10 June 1886. More than 500 people, from 29 countries, attend ed the Congress. Most of these works formed part of Symposium 4, "Volcanic Hazards - Prediction and Assess ment", convened by J.H. Latter, R.R. Dibble, D.A. Swanson and C.G. Newhall. The collection represents over half of the published abstracts of Symposium 4, together with three papers given at the Symposium, which lacked abstracts, and two which were part of Symposium 1 on pyroclastic flow deposits. The contribu tions cover a good proportion of the volcanically active parts of the world, with Italy, Japan, the West Indies and the USA especially well represented. Mount Erebus, Vulcano and Rabaul are individual volcanoes which have been treated in particular detail. Unfor tunately, there are no chapters in the book dealing with Africa, the Atlantic islands (except Iceland), Hawaii, Central America (except Mexico), or South America (in spite of the major disaster at Nevado del Ruiz Volcano in 1985).
Assessment and Monitoring
Author: John H. Latter
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
An illustrated guide for anyone wishing to visit and explore active volcanoes safely and enjoyably.
Author: Rosaly M. C. Lopes
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
There are over 1300 active volcanoes worldwide and many more dormant or extinct. Some are developed as tourist destinations; others are not, but have great potential. Mount Fuji in Japan attracts over 100 million visitors per year and has immense cultural and spiritual significance, while a number of volcanic areas in national parks, for example Teide in Spain, Yellowstone in the US, Vesuvius in Italy and Tongariro in New Zealand, attract between one to four million tourists each year. In the last decade the designation of nearly 50 geoparks around the world has highlighted their potential for tourism development.This book provides the first global review and assessment of the sustainable use of active and dormant volcanic and geothermal environments for geotourism. The volcano-based tourism sector is further augmented through a closely linked range of geothermal resources and attractions, such as geysers and hot springs, which are discussed in detail throughout individual chapters covering all key volcanic and geothermal regions around the world. It is shown that volcano and geothermal tourism is a subsection of nature-based geotourism and incorporates a variety of other tourism categories such as adventure tourism, extreme tourism, ecotourism, green tourism, educational tourism, and hot spring tourism. This comprehensive book covers the most important issues of this growing tourism sector whilst incorporating relevant global research, making it an essential resource for all in the field.Includes colour plates.
Sustainable Geo-resources for Leisure and Recreation
Author: Patricia Erfurt-Cooper,Malcolm Cooper
Category: Business & Economics
Volcanoes and the Environment is a comprehensive and accessible text incorporating contributions from some of the world's authorities in volcanology. This book is an indispensable guide for those interested in how volcanism affects our planet's environment. It spans a wide variety of topics from geology to climatology and ecology; it also considers the economic and social impacts of volcanic activity on humans. Topics covered include how volcanoes shape the environment, their effect on the geological cycle, atmosphere and climate, impacts on health of living on active volcanoes, volcanism and early life, effects of eruptions on plant and animal life, large eruptions and mass extinctions, and the impact of volcanic disasters on the economy. This book is intended for students and researchers interested in environmental change from the fields of earth and environmental science, geography, ecology and social science. It will also interest policy makers and professionals working on natural hazards.
Author: Joan Marti,Gerald G. J. Ernst
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Author: John Eugene Haas,Robert S. Ayre
Publisher: National Academies
The book deals with the most striking landscapes and landforms of Italy. Attention is given to landform diversity and landscape evolution through time which has been controlled by very diverse geological conditions and dramatic climate changes that have characterized the Italian peninsula and islands since the end of the last glaciation. In addition, various examples of human impact on the landscape are presented. Landscapes and Landforms of Italy contains more than thirty case studies of a multitude of Italian geographical landmarks. The topics and sites described in this book range from the Alpine glaciers to the Etna and Vesuvius volcanoes, taking into account the most representative fluvial, coastal, gravity-induced, karst and structural landscapes of the country. Chapters on the geomorphological landmarks of the cities of Rome and Venice are also included. The book provides the readers with the opportunity to explore the variety of Italian landscapes and landforms through informative texts illustrated with several color maps and photos. This book will be relevant to scientists, scholars and any readers interested in geology, physical geography, geomorphology, landscape tourism, geoheritage and environmental protection.
Author: Mauro Soldati,Mauro Marchetti
Statistics in Volcanology is a comprehensive guide to modern statistical methods applied in volcanology written by today's leading authorities. The volume aims to show how the statistical analysis of complex volcanological data sets, including time series, and numerical models of volcanic processes can improve our ability to forecast volcanic eruptions. Specific topics include the use of expert elicitation and Bayesian methods in eruption forecasting, statistical models of temporal and spatial patterns of volcanic activity, analysis of time series in volcano seismology, probabilistic hazard assessment, and assessment of numerical models using robust statistical methods. Also provided are comprehensive overviews of volcanic phenomena, and a full glossary of both volcanological and statistical terms. Statistics in Volcanology is essential reading for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and research scientists interested in this multidisciplinary field.
Author: Heidy M. Mader
Publisher: Geological Society of London
magmatism in Italy
Author: Sandro Conticelli,Leone Melluso
Describes volcanoes and how they erupt, including their causes and types, how scientists study them, their effects, and notable eruptions from the destruction of Pompeii to the eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980.
Author: Amie Jane Leavitt
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
For effusive volcanoes in resource-poor regions, there is a pressing need for a crisis response-chain bridging the global scientific community to allow provision of standard products for timely humanitarian response. As a first step in attaining this need, this Special Publication provides a complete directory of current operational capabilities for monitoring effusive eruptions. This volume also reviews the state-of-the-art in terms of satellite-based volcano hot-spot tracking and lava-flow simulation. These capabilities are demonstrated using case studies taken from well-known effusive events that have occurred worldwide over the last two decades at volcanoes such as Piton de la Fournaise, Etna, Stromboli and Kilauea. We also provide case-type response models implemented at the same volcanoes, as well as the results of a community-wide drill used to test a fully-integrated response focused on an operational hazard-GIS. Finally, the objectives and recommendations of the ‘Risk Evaluation, Detection and Simulation during Effusive Eruption Disasters’ working group are laid out in a statement of community needs by its members.
Author: A.J.L. Harris,T. De Groeve,F. Garel,S.A. Carn
Publisher: Geological Society of London
Find out about geothermal energy, plate tectonics, and pyroclastic flow as they relate to the causes and effects of volcanic eruption.
Nature's Awesome Power
Author: Maryann Dobeck
Publisher: Benchmark Education Company
Based on the Symposium on Magma Transport and Storage from Source to Eruption Site, held at the 28th International Geological Congress, in Washington DC, July 9-19, 1989. The symposium brought together scientists working from a broad range of perspectives to explore the processes, pathways and mechanics of magmatic movement, combining their individual focuses into a unified theme. Combines treatments of the current research on magma movement in the earth's mantle, oceanic and continental crusts and volcanic centers based on approaches from continuum mechanics, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, experimental high-pressure geophysics, seismology and seismic tomography, observational volcanology and geodesy, field and structural geology. Chapters blend review material with new research results to promote accessibility and provide a measure of self-containment.
Author: Michael P. Ryan
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated
For years, tourists have trekked across cracked rock at Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano to witness the awe-inspiring sight of creeping lava and its devastating effects on the landscape. In 2010, Eyjafjallajökull erupted in Iceland, stranding travelers as a cloud of ash covered western and northern Europe, causing the largest disruption of air travel since World War II. And just a few months later, Mount Merapi blew in Indonesia, killing over 350 people and displacing over 350,000 others, awakening people once more to the dangerous potential of these sleeping giants. Though today largely dormant, volcanoes continue to erupt across the world, reminding us of their sheer physical power. In Volcano, James Hamilton explores the cultural history generated by the violence and terrifying beauty of volcanoes. He describes the reverberations of early eruptions of Vesuvius and Etna in Greek and Roman myth. He also examines the depiction of volcanoes in art—from the earliest known wall painting of an erupting volcano in 6200 BCE to the distinctive colors of Andy Warhol and Michael Sandle’s exploding mountains. Surveying a number of twenty-first-century works, Hamilton shows that volcanoes continue to influence the artistic imagination. Combining established figures such as Joseph Wright and J. M. W. Turner with previously unseen perspectives, this richly illustrated book will appeal to anyone interested in science as well as the cultural impact of these spectacular natural features.
Nature and Culture
Author: James Hamilton
Publisher: Reaktion Books
Volcanic eruptions are common, with more than 50 volcanic eruptions in the United States alone in the past 31 years. These eruptions can have devastating economic and social consequences, even at great distances from the volcano. Fortunately many eruptions are preceded by unrest that can be detected using ground, airborne, and spaceborne instruments. Data from these instruments, combined with basic understanding of how volcanoes work, form the basis for forecasting eruptionsâ€"where, when, how big, how long, and the consequences. Accurate forecasts of the likelihood and magnitude of an eruption in a specified timeframe are rooted in a scientific understanding of the processes that govern the storage, ascent, and eruption of magma. Yet our understanding of volcanic systems is incomplete and biased by the limited number of volcanoes and eruption styles observed with advanced instrumentation. Volcanic Eruptions and Their Repose, Unrest, Precursors, and Timing identifies key science questions, research and observation priorities, and approaches for building a volcano science community capable of tackling them. This report presents goals for making major advances in volcano science.
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Committee on Seismology and Geodynamics,Committee on Improving Understanding of Volcanic Eruptions
Publisher: National Academies Press