Modern Mathematical Tools and Techniques in Capturing Complexity

Author: Leandro Pardo,Narayanaswamy Balakrishnan,Maria Angeles Gil

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642208525

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 514

View: 1721

Real-life problems are often quite complicated in form and nature and, for centuries, many different mathematical concepts, ideas and tools have been developed to formulate these problems theoretically and then to solve them either exactly or approximately. This book aims to gather a collection of papers dealing with several different problems arising from many disciplines and some modern mathematical approaches to handle them. In this respect, the book offers a wide overview on many of the current trends in Mathematics as valuable formal techniques in capturing and exploiting the complexity involved in real-world situations. Several researchers, colleagues, friends and students of Professor María Luisa Menéndez have contributed to this volume to pay tribute to her and to recognize the diverse contributions she had made to the fields of Mathematics and Statistics and to the profession in general. She had a sweet and strong personality, and instilled great values and work ethics in her students through her dedication to teaching and research. Even though the academic community lost her prematurely, she would continue to provide inspiration to many students and researchers worldwide through her published work.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Strengthening Links Between Data Analysis and Soft Computing

Author: Przemyslaw Grzegorzewski,Marek Gagolewski,Olgierd Hryniewicz,Maria Angeles Gil

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319107658

Category: Computers

Page: 294

View: 1666

This book gathers contributions presented at the 7th International Conference on Soft Methods in Probability and Statistics SMPS 2014, held in Warsaw (Poland) on September 22-24, 2014. Its aim is to present recent results illustrating new trends in intelligent data analysis. It gives a comprehensive overview of current research into the fusion of soft computing methods with probability and statistics. Synergies of both fields might improve intelligent data analysis methods in terms of robustness to noise and applicability to larger datasets, while being able to efficiently obtain understandable solutions of real-world problems.
Posted in Computers

The Mathematics of the Uncertain

A Tribute to Pedro Gil

Author: Eduardo Gil,Eva Gil,Juan Gil,María Ángeles Gil

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319738488

Category: Computers

Page: 917

View: 3147

This book is a tribute to Professor Pedro Gil, who created the Department of Statistics, OR and TM at the University of Oviedo, and a former President of the Spanish Society of Statistics and OR (SEIO). In more than eighty original contributions, it illustrates the extent to which Mathematics can help manage uncertainty, a factor that is inherent to real life. Today it goes without saying that, in order to model experiments and systems and to analyze related outcomes and data, it is necessary to consider formal ideas and develop scientific approaches and techniques for dealing with uncertainty. Mathematics is crucial in this endeavor, as this book demonstrates. As Professor Pedro Gil highlighted twenty years ago, there are several well-known mathematical branches for this purpose, including Mathematics of chance (Probability and Statistics), Mathematics of communication (Information Theory), and Mathematics of imprecision (Fuzzy Sets Theory and others). These branches often intertwine, since different sources of uncertainty can coexist, and they are not exhaustive. While most of the papers presented here address the three aforementioned fields, some hail from other Mathematical disciplines such as Operations Research; others, in turn, put the spotlight on real-world studies and applications. The intended audience of this book is mainly statisticians, mathematicians and computer scientists, but practitioners in these areas will certainly also find the book a very interesting read.
Posted in Computers

Numerical Methods for Hyperbolic Equations

Author: Elena Vázquez-Cendón,Arturo Hidalgo,Pilar Garcia Navarro,Luis Cea

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 041562150X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 434

View: 3316

Numerical Methods for Hyperbolic Equations is a collection of 49 articles presented at the International Conference on Numerical Methods for Hyperbolic Equations: Theory and Applications (Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 4-8 July 2011). The conference was organized to honour Professor Eleuterio Toro in the month of his 65th birthday. The topics covered include: • Recent advances in the numerical computation of environmental conservation laws with source terms • Multiphase flow and porous media • Numerical methods in astrophysics • Seismology and geophysics modelling • High order methods for hyperbolic conservation laws • Numerical methods for reactive flows • Finite volume and discontinous Galerkin schemes for stiff source term problems • Methods and models for biomedical problems • Numerical methods for reactive flows The research interest of Eleuterio Toro, born in Chile on 16th July 1946, is reflected in Numerical Methods for Hyperbolic Equations, and focuses on: numerical methods for partial differential equations, with particular emphasis on methods for hyperbolic equations; design and application of new algorithms; hyperbolic partial differential equations as mathematical models of various types of processes; mathematical modelling and simulation of physico/chemical processes that include wave propagation phenomena; modelling of multiphase flows; application of models and methods to real problems. Eleuterio Toro received several honours and distinctions, including the honorary title OBE from Queen Elizabeth II (Buckingham Palace, London 2000); Distinguished Citizen of the City of Carahue (Chile, 2001); Life Fellow, Claire Hall, University of Cambridge (UK, 2003); Fellow of the Indian Society for Shock Wave Research (Bangalore, 2005); Doctor Honoris Causa (Universidad de Santiago de Chile, 2008); William Penney Fellow, University of Cambridge (UK, 2010); Doctor Honoris Causa (Universidad de la Frontera, Chile, 2012). Professor Toro is author of two books, editor of two books and author of more than 260 research works. In the last ten years he has been invited and keynote speaker in more than 100 scientific events. Professor Toro has held many visiting appointments round the world, which include several European countries, Japan, China and USA.
Posted in Mathematics

Complexity and Postmodernism

Understanding Complex Systems

Author: Paul Cilliers

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134743297

Category: Philosophy

Page: 176

View: 1512

In Complexity and Postmodernism, Paul Cilliers explores the idea of complexity in the light of contemporary perspectives from philosophy and science. Cilliers offers us a unique approach to understanding complexity and computational theory by integrating postmodern theory (like that of Derrida and Lyotard) into his discussion. Complexity and Postmodernism is an exciting and an original book that should be read by anyone interested in gaining a fresh understanding of complexity, postmodernism and connectionism.
Posted in Philosophy

Sociology and Complexity Science

A New Field of Inquiry

Author: Brian Castellani,Frederic William Hafferty

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540884629

Category: Science

Page: 277

View: 3969

By now, most academics have heard something about the new science of complexity. In a manner reminiscent of Einstein and the last hundred years of physics, complexity science has captured the public imagination. ® One can go to Amazon. com and purchase books on complexification (Casti 1994), emergence (Holland 1998), small worlds (Barabási 2003), the web of life (Capra 1996), fuzzy thinking (Kosko 1993), global c- plexity (Urry 2003) and the business of long-tails (Anderson 2006). Even television has incorporated the topics of complexity science. Crime shows ® ® such as 24 or CSI typically feature investigators using the latest advances in computational modeling to “simulate scenarios” or “data mine” all p- sible suspects—all of which is done before the crime takes place. The ® World Wide Web is another example. A simple search on Google. Com using the phrase “complexity science” gets close to a million hits! C- plexity science is ubiquitous. What most scholars do not realize, however, is the remarkable role sociologists are playing in this new science. C- sider the following examples. 0. 1 Sociologists in Complexity Science The first example comes from the new science of networks (Barabási 2003). By now, most readers are familiar with the phenomena known as six-degrees of separation—the idea that, because most large networks are comprised of a significant number of non-random weak-ties, the nodes (e. g. , people, companies, etc.
Posted in Science

Complexity Explained

Author: Péter Érdi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540357785

Category: Mathematics

Page: 397

View: 5688

This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. It illuminates how complex collective behavior emerges from the parts of a system, due to the interaction between the system and its environment. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research. The book is not highly technical mathematically, but teaches and uses the basic mathematical notions of dynamical system theory, making the book useful for students of science majors and graduate courses.
Posted in Mathematics

Drift into Failure

From Hunting Broken Components to Understanding Complex Systems

Author: Sidney Dekker

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351942913

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 234

View: 1154

What does the collapse of sub-prime lending have in common with a broken jackscrew in an airliner’s tailplane? Or the oil spill disaster in the Gulf of Mexico with the burn-up of Space Shuttle Columbia? These were systems that drifted into failure. While pursuing success in a dynamic, complex environment with limited resources and multiple goal conflicts, a succession of small, everyday decisions eventually produced breakdowns on a massive scale. We have trouble grasping the complexity and normality that gives rise to such large events. We hunt for broken parts, fixable properties, people we can hold accountable. Our analyses of complex system breakdowns remain depressingly linear, depressingly componential - imprisoned in the space of ideas once defined by Newton and Descartes. The growth of complexity in society has outpaced our understanding of how complex systems work and fail. Our technologies have gotten ahead of our theories. We are able to build things - deep-sea oil rigs, jackscrews, collateralized debt obligations - whose properties we understand in isolation. But in competitive, regulated societies, their connections proliferate, their interactions and interdependencies multiply, their complexities mushroom. This book explores complexity theory and systems thinking to understand better how complex systems drift into failure. It studies sensitive dependence on initial conditions, unruly technology, tipping points, diversity - and finds that failure emerges opportunistically, non-randomly, from the very webs of relationships that breed success and that are supposed to protect organizations from disaster. It develops a vocabulary that allows us to harness complexity and find new ways of managing drift.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Philosophy of Complex Systems

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080931227

Category: Philosophy

Page: 952

View: 9486

The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of complex nonlinear dynamical systems, especially in recent years. -Comprehensive coverage of all main theories in the philosophy of Complex Systems -Clearly written expositions of fundamental ideas and concepts -Definitive discussions by leading researchers in the field -Summaries of leading-edge research in related fields are also included
Posted in Philosophy

OECD Insights Debate the Issues: Complexity and Policy making

Author: Love Patrick,Stockdale-Otárola Julia

Publisher: OECD Publishing

ISBN: 9264271538

Category:

Page: 104

View: 8946

The financial crisis and Great Recession revealed failures in economic analyses and the policy choices these analyses informed.
Posted in

Complexity

The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos

Author: Mitchell M. Waldrop

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 0671872346

Category: Mathematics

Page: 380

View: 586

A look at the rebellious thinkers who are challenging old ideas with their insights into the ways countless elements of complex systems interact to produce spontaneous order out of confusion
Posted in Mathematics

Principles of Systems Science

Author: George E Mobus,Michael C. Kalton

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493919202

Category: Science

Page: 755

View: 2670

This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. While the concepts and components of systems science will continue to be distributed throughout the various disciplines, undergraduate degree programs in systems science are also being developed, including at the authors’ own institutions. However, the subject is approached, systems science as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated perspective on the comprehensive nature of systems. It ends with practical aspects such as systems analysis, computer modeling, and systems engineering that demonstrate how the knowledge of systems can be used to solve problems in the real world. Each chapter is broken into parts beginning with qualitative descriptions that stand alone for students who have taken intermediate algebra. The second part presents quantitative descriptions that are based on pre-calculus and advanced algebra, providing a more formal treatment for students who have the necessary mathematical background. Numerous examples of systems from every realm of life, including the physical and biological sciences, humanities, social sciences, engineering, pre-med and pre-law, are based on the fundamental systems concepts of boundaries, components as subsystems, processes as flows of materials, energy, and messages, work accomplished, functions performed, hierarchical structures, and more. Understanding these basics enables further understanding both of how systems endure and how they may become increasingly complex and exhibit new properties or characteristics. Serves as a textbook for teaching systems fundamentals in any discipline or for use in an introductory course in systems science degree programs Addresses a wide range of audiences with different levels of mathematical sophistication Includes open-ended questions in special boxes intended to stimulate integrated thinking and class discussion Describes numerous examples of systems in science and society Captures the trend towards interdisciplinary research and problem solving
Posted in Science

Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology

Author: Harry T. Reis,Charles M. Judd

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139867369

Category: Psychology

Page: N.A

View: 7720

This indispensable sourcebook covers conceptual and practical issues in research design in the field of social and personality psychology. Key experts address specific methods and areas of research, contributing to a comprehensive overview of contemporary practice. This updated and expanded second edition offers current commentary on social and personality psychology, reflecting the rapid development of this dynamic area of research over the past decade. With the help of this up-to-date text, both seasoned and beginning social psychologists will be able to explore the various tools and methods available to them in their research as they craft experiments and imagine new methodological possibilities.
Posted in Psychology

Activity Systems Analysis Methods

Understanding Complex Learning Environments

Author: Lisa C. Yamagata-Lynch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441963215

Category: Education

Page: 148

View: 7910

In the last two decades, there has been growing interest in pursuing theoretical paradigms that capture complex learning situations. Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) is one of several theoretical frameworks that became very popular among educational researchers because it conceptualizes individuals and their environment as a holistic unit of analysis. It assumes a non-dualistic ontology and acknowledges the complexities involved in human activity in natural settings. Recently, reputable journals such as the American Psychologist, Educational Psychologist, and Educational Researcher that are targeted for a wide-range of audience have included articles on CHAT. In many of such articles, CHAT has been referred to as social constructivism, sociocultural theory, or activity theory. Activity systems analysis is one of the popular methods among CHAT researchers for mapping complex human interactions from qualitative data. However, understanding the methods involved in activity systems analysis is a challenging task for many researchers. This difficulty derives from several reasons. First the original texts of CHAT are in Russian and there have been numerous authors who report on the difficulties of reconciling translation problems of the works of original authors’ such as Vygotsky and Leontiev. Second, in North America activity systems analysis has deviated from the Russian scholars’ intentions and Engeström’s original work using the triangle model to identify tensions to overcome and bring about sociopolitical change in participant practices. Third, to this date there are numerous publications on the theoretical background of activity theory and studies reporting the results of using activity systems analysis for unpacking qualitative data sets, but there have been no methodological publications on how researchers engage in activity systems analysis. Thus, there is a dearth of literature in both book and journal publications that guide researchers on the methodological issues involving activity systems analysis.
Posted in Education

Understanding Complex Datasets

Data Mining with Matrix Decompositions

Author: David Skillicorn

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781584888338

Category: Computers

Page: 260

View: 7362

Making obscure knowledge about matrix decompositions widely available, Understanding Complex Datasets: Data Mining with Matrix Decompositions discusses the most common matrix decompositions and shows how they can be used to analyze large datasets in a broad range of application areas. Without having to understand every mathematical detail, the book helps you determine which matrix is appropriate for your dataset and what the results mean. Explaining the effectiveness of matrices as data analysis tools, the book illustrates the ability of matrix decompositions to provide more powerful analyses and to produce cleaner data than more mainstream techniques. The author explores the deep connections between matrix decompositions and structures within graphs, relating the PageRank algorithm of Google's search engine to singular value decomposition. He also covers dimensionality reduction, collaborative filtering, clustering, and spectral analysis. With numerous figures and examples, the book shows how matrix decompositions can be used to find documents on the Internet, look for deeply buried mineral deposits without drilling, explore the structure of proteins, detect suspicious emails or cell phone calls, and more. Concentrating on data mining mechanics and applications, this resource helps you model large, complex datasets and investigate connections between standard data mining techniques and matrix decompositions.
Posted in Computers

Modeling Cities and Regions as Complex Systems

From Theory to Planning Applications

Author: Roger White,Guy Engelen,Inge Uljee

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262029561

Category: Political Science

Page: 344

View: 6047

The theory and practice of modeling cities and regions as complex, self-organizing systems, presenting widely used cellular automata-based models, theoretical discussions, and applications.
Posted in Political Science

A Guide to Algorithm Design

Paradigms, Methods, and Complexity Analysis

Author: Anne Benoit,Yves Robert,Frédéric Vivien

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439898138

Category: Computers

Page: 380

View: 6283

Presenting a complementary perspective to standard books on algorithms, A Guide to Algorithm Design: Paradigms, Methods, and Complexity Analysis provides a roadmap for readers to determine the difficulty of an algorithmic problem by finding an optimal solution or proving complexity results. It gives a practical treatment of algorithmic complexity and guides readers in solving algorithmic problems. Divided into three parts, the book offers a comprehensive set of problems with solutions as well as in-depth case studies that demonstrate how to assess the complexity of a new problem. Part I helps readers understand the main design principles and design efficient algorithms. Part II covers polynomial reductions from NP-complete problems and approaches that go beyond NP-completeness. Part III supplies readers with tools and techniques to evaluate problem complexity, including how to determine which instances are polynomial and which are NP-hard. Drawing on the authors’ classroom-tested material, this text takes readers step by step through the concepts and methods for analyzing algorithmic complexity. Through many problems and detailed examples, readers can investigate polynomial-time algorithms and NP-completeness and beyond.
Posted in Computers

Big Data in Complex Systems

Challenges and Opportunities

Author: Aboul-Ella Hassanien,Ahmad Taher Azar,Vaclav Snasel,Janusz Kacprzyk,Jemal H. Abawajy

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331911056X

Category: Computers

Page: 499

View: 9571

This volume provides challenges and Opportunities with updated, in-depth material on the application of Big data to complex systems in order to find solutions for the challenges and problems facing big data sets applications. Much data today is not natively in structured format; for example, tweets and blogs are weakly structured pieces of text, while images and video are structured for storage and display, but not for semantic content and search. Therefore transforming such content into a structured format for later analysis is a major challenge. Data analysis, organization, retrieval, and modeling are other foundational challenges treated in this book. The material of this book will be useful for researchers and practitioners in the field of big data as well as advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Each of the 17 chapters in the book opens with a chapter abstract and key terms list. The chapters are organized along the lines of problem description, related works, and analysis of the results and comparisons are provided whenever feasible.
Posted in Computers

How People Learn

Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning with additional material from the Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309131979

Category: Education

Page: 384

View: 7261

First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning. Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb. How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system. Topics include: How learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain. How existing knowledge affects what people notice and how they learn. What the thought processes of experts tell us about how to teach. The amazing learning potential of infants. The relationship of classroom learning and everyday settings of community and workplace. Learning needs and opportunities for teachers. A realistic look at the role of technology in education.
Posted in Education

Engineering a Learning Healthcare System:

A Look at the Future: Workshop Summary

Author: Institute of Medicine,National Academy of Engineering

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309120640

Category: Medical

Page: 340

View: 9727

Improving our nation's healthcare system is a challenge which, because of its scale and complexity, requires a creative approach and input from many different fields of expertise. Lessons from engineering have the potential to improve both the efficiency and quality of healthcare delivery. The fundamental notion of a high-performing healthcare system--one that increasingly is more effective, more efficient, safer, and higher quality--is rooted in continuous improvement principles that medicine shares with engineering. As part of its Learning Health System series of workshops, the Institute of Medicine's Roundtable on Value and Science-Driven Health Care and the National Academy of Engineering, hosted a workshop on lessons from systems and operations engineering that could be applied to health care. Building on previous work done in this area the workshop convened leading engineering practitioners, health professionals, and scholars to explore how the field might learn from and apply systems engineering principles in the design of a learning healthcare system. Engineering a Learning Healthcare System: A Look at the Future: Workshop Summary focuses on current major healthcare system challenges and what the field of engineering has to offer in the redesign of the system toward a learning healthcare system.
Posted in Medical