MERRIAM-wEBSTER'S Advanced Learner's English Dictionary, Stephen J. Perrault, 2008

MERRIAM-wEBSTER'S Advanced Learner's English Dictionary,

Author: Merriam-Webster, Inc

Publisher: Bukupedia

ISBN: N.A

Category: Reference

Page: 2032

View: 7482

Preface Merriam-Webster[1]s Advanced Learner[1]s English Dictionary is not only an entirely new dictionary created by the editorial staff of America[1]s oldest dictionary publisher it also marks the beginning of a new kind of publishing for this company. Over the past 160 years, Merriam-Webster has produced hundreds of dictionaries and other reference books, and many of those books have been useful to learners of English as a second or foreign language, but this dictionary is the first one that we have produced specifically to meet the needs of those learners. The creation of this dictionary reflects the reality that English has become an international language, and that American English, in particular, is now being used and studied every day by millions of people around the world. We believe that we have a unique opportunity to help students of English in the U.S. and elsewhere to understand our language and to use it more clearly and effectively. This dictionary provides coverage of both American and British English. Its coverage of British English is current and comprehensive. Its coverage of American English is, we believe, unparalleled. The thousands of entries, senses, phrases, forms, and examples that are labeled US in this dictionary will provide learners with a clearer and more precise description of idiomatic American usage than has ever before been available in a dictionary of this kind. The approximately 100,000 entries in this dictionary include a broad selection of words from all major areas of interest, including popular culture, business, sports, science, and technology, among others. Our main focus in choosing entries has been to include the language that people are most likely to need and encounter in their daily lives. The evidence used to make decisions about which words and senses to include was drawn, first of all, from our continually growing database of citation text, now numbering more than 100 million words. That evidence was augmented in essential ways by the resources that are available to us over the Internet, and in particular by the enormous databases of Lexis-Nexis, which provided editors with ready access to vast amounts of material from both American and British sources. Not so long ago dictionary editors had to rely entirely on evidence that had been painstakingly collected over a period of years by a program of reading. That program continues at Merriam-Webster, providing the basis of our citation database, and we continue to find great value in the traditional methods of evidence-gathering, but we also have fully embraced the power of the electronic tools that have become available in recent decades. The use of computers now makes it possible for dictionary editors to examine and describe language at a level of detail that was never before imaginable. The definitions in this dictionary are written in simple language. In many cases, a single use of a word will be given more than one definition. Very often a word will be defined by a quite simple definition, followed by a definition that is perhaps somewhat less simple or that shows how the defined word is related to another word. For example, the verb pioneer is defined both as to help create or develop new ideas, methods, etc. and as to be a pioneer in the development of something . The first definition can certainly stand alone, but the second definition enhances it by underscoring the close connection between the verb pioneer and the noun pioneer a connection that native speakers are unconsciously aware of, but that learners may not sense so strongly. The inclusion of multiple definitions thus helps learners both to expand their vocabularies and to gain a fuller picture of a word[1]s meaning by approaching it from a slightly different direction. Notes of various kinds are also used abundantly throughout the dictionary to clarify and emphasize aspects of usage that cannot be easily captured or expressed in a definition. True fluency in any language, of course, is not acquired by memorizing dictionary definitions, but by hearing and seeing how words are used in combination with each other to express meaning. In writing this book we have devoted a great deal of care and attention to creating simple and accurate definitions, but our feeling throughout has been that the real heart of the dictionary is its examples. We know from experience that dictionary users, whether native speakers or learners, want more examples. They want examples for common words, and they want examples for difficult words. Although not every entry in this dictionary includes an example there is usually very little value in providing an example for, say, a noun like microchip or monoplane the great majority of the entries do, and a large percentage of them include more than one. There are more than 160,000 usage examples in this dictionary. A few of them are quotations taken from well-known works of American and British literature, but most are made-up examples, based on evidence of real English, that have been carefully written to show words being used in appropriate contexts which accurately reflect their uses in actual speech and writing. A large number of the examples in this dictio- 7a JOBNAME: Webster’s Learners D PAGE: 2 SESS: 12 OUTPUT: Mon Jul 14 12:25:33 2008 /data31/webster/dict/mw−learners−dictionary/003−fm−preface nary do not simply illustrate usage, they also explain it and expand upon it in other ways. Many examples include synonymous words or phrases shown within brackets, thus allowing the reader either to learn a new word or to have the connection between the meanings of words reinforced. Examples also often include glosses, so that phrases and compound terms whose meanings are not obvious can be explained clearly and simply. And we have very frequently explained the meaning of entire phrases and sentences by restating them with other, simpler words. Many examples also show how the same word can be used in slightly different ways[1]or how related words can be used in different ways[1]to say the same thing. We believe that such examples are of great value to the learner they are the next best thing to having a native speaker available by your side to help clarify what you are seeing and hearing. Any comprehensive dictionary contains an enormous amount of information, and dictionary editors have typically been required to use a variety of abbreviations and other shortcuts to fit all that information into the limited space available between the covers of a book. Two of our main goals in creating the entries for this dictionary were to keep the use of such shortcuts to a minimum and to employ conventions that are readily understandable. We set out to create a dictionary that could be easily used without frequent reference to explanatory materials. To achieve that, we have minimized the use of abbreviations and symbols although we were not able to eliminate them entirely and we have tried to use labels and notes whose meanings are immediately clear. We have also made every effort to organize entries in a way that allows users to find the information they want quickly. The most obvious convention we have adopted for this purpose is the use of blue text for examples. The blue text not only highlights the examples, it also makes it much easier to identify the other elements of an entry[1]the definitions, usages notes, and so on[1]and to navigate through long entries to find the particular information that you need. It can sometimes be easy to forget that a large dictionary like this one has to be written word by word and line by line. Each definition, each example, each note that appears in this dictionary is the product of careful and strenuous thought by at least one person, and often by many people, since the nature of the writing and editing process is such that multiple stages of review are required before the work is truly finished. The names of the many people who worked on this book are listed in the following paragraphs. The length of this project has meant that some of the people who were with us when it began had moved on to other parts of their lives by the time it ended. The Merriam-Webster editors credited here include both current and former staff members. Former Director of Defining E. Ward Gilman and former Editor in Chief Frederick C. Mish, both now retired, provided helpful suggestions when the project was in its initial planning stages, as did consultant Robert Ilson. President and Publisher John M. Morse was also involved in the initial planning of the project and provided support and encouragement throughout it. The editors who had the first crack at creating entries included, in no particular order, Karen L. Wilkinson, Susan L. Brady, Thomas F. Pitoniak, Kathleen M. Doherty, Emily A. Brewster, G. James Kossuth, Emily B. Arsenault, Penny L. Couillard-Dix, Emily A. Vezina, Benjamin T. Korzec, Ilya A. Davidovich, Judy Yeh, Rose Martino Bigelow, Kory L. Stamper, Peter A. Sokolowski, Neil S. Serven, Deanna Stathis, Anne Eason, Joanne M. Despres, Rebecca Bryer-Charette, and myself. Dr. Ilson undertook a complete review of the work that was done at that early stage, and he made many valuable corrections and additions. He was particularly helpful in providing good examples and in augmenting our coverage of British English by identifying distinctions often very subtle ones between American and British usage. The pronunciations throughout the dictionary were provided by Joshua S. Guenter. The essential task of checking and re-checking cross-references was handled by Maria Sansalone, Donna L. Rickerby, and Adrienne M. Scholz. The work of copyediting the entries that had been created by the definers was done by editors Wilkinson, Brady, Brewster, Couillard-Dix, Korzec, Yeh, Stamper, Sokolowski, Serven, Eason, Despres, Bryer- Charette, and me. The complexity of this project was such that an additional reviewing stage was added following copyediting. That work was done by editors Bryer-Charette, Korzec, Brewster, Stamper, Brady, Couillard-Dix, Wilkinson, and Madeline L. Novak. The responsibility for final review of the manuscript fell to me. The proofreading of the galleys and page proofs was done by many of the editors mentioned above and by Anne P. Bello and Paul S. Wood. The primary proofreader for the in-house keying of revisions was Kathleen M. Doherty. Specialized editing assistance was provided by editors Wood and Doherty. Most of the illustrations that appear throughout were newly created for this book. The new black-and-white illustrations were drawn by Tim Phelps of Johns Hopkins Univ., and the color illustrations were researched and drawn by Merriam-Webster editor Diane Caswell Christian. Mark A. Stevens oversaw the creation of the new illustrations and planned the black-and-white illustrations along with Lynn Stowe Tomb, who also coordinated work with Mr. Phelps and converted the drawings to electronic form for typesetting. Freelancer Loree Hany and editors Jennifer N. Cislo and Joan I. Narmontas assisted in art research. The selection of the 3,000 entry words that are highlighted as being most important for learners to know was based in large part on initial recommendations provided by James G. Lowe and Madeline L. Novak. Additional research was carried out and final selections were made by John M. Morse. The Geographical Names section was prepared by Daniel J. Hopkins. The other back matter sections were prepared by Mark A. Stevens, C. Roger Davis, and outside contributor Orin Hargraves. Robert D. Copeland arranged for 8a Preface JOBNAME: Webster’s Learners D PAGE: 3 SESS: 12 OUTPUT: Mon Jul 14 12:25:33 2008 /data31/webster/dict/mw−learners−dictionary/003−fm−preface Content Data Solutions, Inc., to convert the dictionary data files to a suitable format before typesetting them. The converted files were checked by Donna L. Rickerby. Daniel B. Brandon keyed revisions into the converted data files and contributed other technical help. Thomas F. Pitoniak directed the book through its typesetting stages. Project coordination and scheduling were handled by Madeline L. Novak, who was also chiefly responsible for the book[1]s typography and page design. Our notions about what this book could and should be continued to develop as we progressed through the different stages of editing, and many of the people named above made useful suggestions that led to changes, both minor and major, in the book[1]s style and content. Further changes were implemented thanks to comments and suggestions from a group of consultants who reviewed a selection of entries at a fairly late stage in the project. We gratefully acknowledge the important contributions of those consultants, whose names are listed below. We want first of all to express our thanks to Jerome C. Su, President of the Taiwan Association of Translation and Interpretation and Chair of Bookman Books, Taipei, Taiwan, for all of his advice and good suggestions at the reviewing stage and throughout the project. Our other consultants, all of whom provided us with carefully considered and valuable feedback, were Virginia G. Allen, author and educator, Ohio State Univ. James H. Miller, ESL teacher Elizabeth Niergarth, ESL instructor consultant, Harvard Univ. Susan Despres Prior, ESL teacher Caroline Wilcox Reul, lexicographer and ESL teacher Maggie Sokolik, Director, Technical Communication Program, College of Engineering, Univ. of California, Berkeley Yukio Takahashi, English teacher, Sendai Shirayuri Gakuen High School, Sendai, Japan Gregory Trzebiatowski, Headmaster, Thomas Jefferson School, Concepción, Chile and his students Felipe Opazo, Paula Reyes, and Carolina Sanhueza and Rob Waring, author and educator, Notre Dame Seishin Univ., Okayama, Japan. All of the editors who worked on this book have of course had the experience of studying a foreign language, with varying degrees of success. This project has given us renewed opportunities to understand what it is like to approach Englishwith all its complexities, subtleties, and apparent inconsistenciesas a learner rather than as a native speaker, and that experience has reminded us again of just how challenging the task of learning a new language truly is. We hope and believe that Merriam-Webster[1]s Advanced Learner[1]s English Dictionary is a resource that will make that task easier for students of English. Stephen J. Perrault Editor
Posted in Reference

Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary

Author: Daniel J. Hopkins,MERRIAM-WEBSTER STAFF,편집부

Publisher: Merriam-Webster

ISBN: 9780877795469

Category: Travel

Page: 1387

View: 1229

Offers 48,000 entries on countries, states, cities, natural landforms, and bodies of water, with information on history, population, and location
Posted in Travel

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary

Eleventh Edition

Author: Merriam-Webster

Publisher: Merriam-Webster

ISBN: 9780877798095

Category: Reference

Page: 1623

View: 7549

Presents concise definitions, pronunciations, abbreviations, some illustrations, usage examples, and synonyms with ten thousand new words and meanings.
Posted in Reference

The Future of Translation Technology

Towards a World without Babel

Author: Chan Sin-wai

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131755325X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 316

View: 1446

Technology has revolutionized the field of translation, bringing drastic changes to the way translation is studied and done. To an average user, technology is simply about clicking buttons and storing data. What we need to do is to look beyond a system’s interface to see what is at work and what should be done to make it work more efficiently. This book is both macroscopic and microscopic in approach: macroscopic as it adopts a holistic orientation when outlining the development of translation technology in the last forty years, organizing concepts in a coherent and logical way with a theoretical framework, and predicting what is to come in the years ahead; microscopic as it examines in detail the five stages of technology-oriented translation procedure and the strengths and weaknesses of the free and paid systems available to users. The Future of Translation Technology studies, among other issues: The Development of Translation Technology Major Concepts in Computer-aided Translation Functions in Computer-aided Translation Systems A Theoretical Framework for Computer-Aided Translation Studies The Future of Translation Technology This book is an essential read for scholars and researchers of translational studies and computational linguistics, and a guide to system users and professionals.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Synonyms

Author: Merriam-Webster, Inc

Publisher: Merriam-Webster

ISBN: 9780877793410

Category: Reference

Page: 940

View: 9768

"The ideal guide to choosing the right word. Entries go beyond the word lists of a thesaurus, explaining important differences between synonyms. Provides over 17,000 usage examples. Lists antonyms and related words."
Posted in Reference

Sentimental Education in Chinese History

An Interdisciplinary Textual Research on Ming and Qing Sources

Author: Paolo Santangelo

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789004123601

Category: Social Science

Page: 606

View: 4308

A pionering inquiry on the role, perception and representation of emotional sphere in traditional Chinese culture provides a fascinating contribution on a key anthropological problem, in order to understand not only pre-modern private history, but also contemporary Chinese society. The importance of this work goes beyond Chinese studies.
Posted in Social Science

Die Amerikanische Sprache

Das Englisch der Vereinigten Staaten

Author: H. L. Mencken,Heinrich Spies

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3663161374

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 180

View: 5420

Dieser Buchtitel ist Teil des Digitalisierungsprojekts Springer Book Archives mit Publikationen, die seit den Anfängen des Verlags von 1842 erschienen sind. Der Verlag stellt mit diesem Archiv Quellen für die historische wie auch die disziplingeschichtliche Forschung zur Verfügung, die jeweils im historischen Kontext betrachtet werden müssen. Dieser Titel erschien in der Zeit vor 1945 und wird daher in seiner zeittypischen politisch-ideologischen Ausrichtung vom Verlag nicht beworben.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

Historisches und kritisches Wörterbuch II

Zweiter Teil der Auswahl

Author: Pierre Bayle

Publisher: Meiner Verlag

ISBN: 3787320148

Category: Philosophy

Page: 250

View: 6363

Pierre Bayles "Dictionnaire historique et critique" (1. Aufl. 1697) ist als die "Bibel" oder, in den Worten Wilhelm Diltheys, als die "Rüstkammer der Aufklärung" bezeichnet worden. Die Attraktion, die es nicht nur auf die zeitgenössischen Leser ausübte, beruht in erster Linie auf dem Geist nüchterner, vorurteilsfreier Prüfung, der das ganze Werk durchzieht. Diese Grundhaltung traf den Nerv und das Lebensgefühl des 18. Jahrhunderts, das sich nach Kants Worten nur dem verpflichtet fühlte, was vor dem "Richterstuhl der Vernunft" legitimiert worden war. Bayle steht am Anfang dieser Entwicklung und pocht unbeirrbar auf die Rechte der Vernunft, die sich für ihn in einer schonungslosen Prüfung des überlieferten Wissenstandes manifestieren. Im Jahr 2003 haben die Herausgeber aus den mehr als 2000 Artikeln des Wörterbuchs einen ersten Band mit einer Auswahl von gut 30 Artikeln sowie mit den vier "Klarstellungen" Bayles in neuer Übersetzung innerhalb der Philosophischen Bibliothek (PhB 542) vorgelegt. Infolge der positiven Resonanz erscheint anläßlich des 300. Todestages Bayles jetzt der zweite und abschließende Teil der Auswahlausgabe. Der Schwerpunkt liegt wiederum auf den philosophischen Artikeln des 'Dictionnaire'. Zusammen mit den bereits vorliegenden Texten vermitteln die hier präsentierten gut 30 weiteren Artikel einen Eindruck von Bayles philosophischem Denken.
Posted in Philosophy

Die Entdecker

Das Abenteuer des Menschen, sich und die Welt zu erkennen

Author: BOORSTIN

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 303486650X

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 826

View: 9441

Posted in Juvenile Nonfiction

The New York Public Library Book of how and where to Look it Up

Author: Sherwood Harris

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated

ISBN: N.A

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 382

View: 1131

Explains how to find and retrieve information, and lists the best book, periodical, electronic, public, government, and private sources
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

Arabisch für Dummies

Author: Amine Bouchentouf

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 352770521X

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 369

View: 2159

"Arabisch fr Dummies" bietet einen leichten Einstieg in die arabische Sprache. Los geht's mit einer Einfhrung in die Besonderheiten der arabischen Sprache, in die Betonung sowie in die Grammatik. Dann wird es auch schon praktisch: Jedes Kapitel beschftigt sich mit einer Alltagssituation: Sie lernen, wie Sie sich auf Arabisch vorstellen, etwas beschreiben, telefonieren oder ein Hotelzimmer reservieren. Dabei lernen Sie die wichtigsten Stze, Umschreibungen und Begriffe und bekommen nebenbei viele Informationen zum Alltag und zur Kultur im Orient. Am Ende jedes Kapitels gibt es eine kleine bung, mit der Sie Ihre erworbenen Sprachkenntnisse prfen knnen. Im Anhang des Buches finden Sie Verb-Tabellen und ein kleines Arabisch-Deutsch-/Deutsch-Arabisch-Wrterbuch. Auf der beiliegenden CD gibt es die Sprachbungen aus dem Buch zum Anhren und Nachsprechen.
Posted in Foreign Language Study

Nightflyers - Die Dunkelheit zwischen den Sternen

Roman

Author: George R.R. Martin

Publisher: Penhaligon Verlag

ISBN: 3641243009

Category: Fiction

Page: 208

View: 4368

Die Buchvorlage der spektakulären Netflix-Serie Melantha Jhirl ist eine Kämpferin, und sie soll acht Wissenschaftler auf einer gewagten Expedition beschützen. An Bord des Raumschiffs Nightflyer brechen sie auf, um die rätselhafte Rasse der Volcryn zu erforschen. Doch sie sind nicht allein an Bord! Als der Telepath des Teams eine seltsame Präsenz an Bord spürt, ist es bereits zu spät. Das Wesen ermordet Malantha Jhirls Schützlinge. Sie ist die einzige, die es aufhalten kann – doch dafür muss sie selbst am Leben bleiben ... Mit fünfzehn Illustrationen des mehrfach ausgezeichneten Illustators David Palumbo.
Posted in Fiction

Das kleine Buch der Mode

Author: Christian Dior

Publisher: Edel:Books

ISBN: 3944296788

Category: Design

Page: 128

View: 1505

Christian Diors zeitloses ModeABC – nach über 50 Jahren erstmals wieder in deutscher Sprache erhältlich! 1954 veröffentlichte Christian Dior erstmals sein persönliches Mode-Handbuch. Von A bis Z werden darin alle wichtigen Stichworte aus dem Bereich der Mode abgehandelt, über die jede stilbewusste Frau Bescheid wissen sollte – seien es Schnitte, Farben oder Materialien. Auch heute, 60 Jahre später, hat Diors Modebibel nichts von ihrer Gültigkeit verloren. Der klassische Look, der Dior berühmt machte, überzeugt durch seine zeitlose Eleganz und liegt nach wie vor voll im Trend. Das liebevoll gestaltete Büchlein mit Vintage-Charme ist daher ein Muss für alle Frauen, die sich für Mode interessieren.
Posted in Design

The Multimedia and CD-ROM Directory 1998

Author: Connectsoft-U S

Publisher: Waterlow Pub Limited

ISBN: 9780333711699

Category: Computers

Page: 1050

View: 2780

Now in its 19th edition, this comprehensive directory details companies active in multimedia, which continues to evolve alongside the industry that it tracks. The text contains details of approximately 16,000 companies. Entries include company descriptions and classifications by activity, sector, platform, product type, size, turnover and more. The database section is indexed. This year articles from industry leaders and shapers, as well as interviews with heads of trend-setting companies and a round-up of statistics, should make this a useful item for professionals in the industry, and those who purchase multimedia professionally.
Posted in Computers

American Reference Books Annual

Author: Bohdan S. Wynar

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Reference books

Page: N.A

View: 610

1970- issued in 2 vols.: v. 1, General reference, social sciences, history, economics, business; v. 2, Fine arts, humanities, science and engineering.
Posted in Reference books

Reference Books Bulletin

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Reference books

Page: N.A

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Posted in Reference books

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Roman

Author: Zadie Smith

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783462042443

Category:

Page: 643

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Posted in

Der Tod wird euch finden

Al-Qaida und der Weg zum 11. September - Ein SPIEGEL-Buch

Author: Lawrence Wright

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 3641019087

Category: History

Page: 608

View: 2039

In einer packenden Erzählung schildert der Journalist Lawrence Wright erstmals umfassend die Vorgeschichte des 11. September. Vier Männer stehen im Mittelpunkt: Osama Bin Laden und seine Nummer zwei, Aiman al-Sawahiri, der FBI-Mann John O’Neill und der saudische Geheimdienstchef Turki al-Faisal. Meisterhaft verknüpft Wright ihre Lebenswege zu einem Gesamtbild der Ereignisse, Wendepunkte, Versäumnisse und Fehleinschätzungen, die den Anschlägen vorangingen. »Wo ihr auch sein mögt, der Tod wird euch finden, und wäret ihr im hohen Turm.« Mit diesen dem Koran entlehnten Worten mahnte Osama Bin Laden seine Kämpfer, furchtlos dem Tod entgegenzusehen. Im Rückblick lassen sie sich auch als düstere Warnung an den Feind lesen, dessen Hochhaustürme in New York zum Angriffsziel wurden. Osama Bin Ladens Aufstieg zum bekanntesten Terroristen des 21. Jahrhunderts bildet einen der Erzählstränge in der bislang vollständigsten Rekonstruktion der Vorgeschichte des 11. September durch den Journalisten Lawrence Wright. Daneben verfolgt Wright, der jahrelang recherchierte und Hunderte von Interviews führte, den Werdegang des al-Qaida-Mitstreiters Aiman al-Sawahiri, des obersten Terroristenfahnders des FBI, John O’Neill, der ausgerechnet in den Trümmern des World Trade Centers starb, sowie des saudischen Königssohns Turki al-Faisal, der als Geheimdienstchef seines Landes zwischen beiden Welten wandelte. Zu einer fesselnden Erzählung verwoben, erhellen die Lebensgeschichten zugleich die Hintergründe des Anschlags: die wachsende Radikalisierung der Islamisten, die Zerrissenheit arabischer Staaten, die widersprüchliche Haltung des Westens. Eine unglaublich spannende und gewinnbringende Lektüre. • Ein tiefer Einblick in Denken und Handeln der al-Qaida-Führer und ihrer wichtigsten Kontrahenten • Eines der besten Bücher des Jahres 2006 in Großbritannien und Amerika, Pulitzer-Preis 2007
Posted in History

Merriam-Webster's Medical Desk Dictionary

Author: Merriam-Webster, Inc

Publisher: Delmar Pub

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medical

Page: 958

View: 421

Offers concise definitions of medical terms and includes a chapter on the history of medical English.
Posted in Medical