Mental Retardation in America

A Historical Reader

Author: Steven Noll,James Trent

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814782477

Category: History

Page: 513

View: 8502

A collection of essays and documents chronicilizing the history of treatment, labeling, and understanding of mental retardating in the U.S. NYUP is one the forefront of publishing in disability studies.
Posted in History

Inventing the Feeble Mind

A History of Intellectual Disability in the United States

Author: James W. Trent

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199396183


Page: 392

View: 8447

Pity, disgust, fear, cure, and prevention - all are words that Americans have used to make sense of what today we call intellectual disability. Inventing the Feeble Mind explores the history of this disability from its several identifications over the past 200 years: idiocy, imbecility,feeblemindedness, mental defect, mental deficiency, mental retardation, and most recently intellectual disability. Using institutional records, private correspondence, personal memories, and rare photographs, James Trent argues that the economic vulnerability of intellectually disabled people (andoften their families), more than the claims made for their intellectual and social limitations, has shaped meaning, services, and policies in United States history.
Posted in

Understanding Mental Retardation

Author: Patricia Ainsworth (M.D.),Pamela C. Baker

Publisher: Univ. Press of Mississippi

ISBN: 9781604730531

Category: Psychology

Page: 200

View: 562

CONSUMER HEALTH . What measures can parents and advocates take to insure that people who have mental retardation live full, rewarding lives from infancy to old age?. Understanding Mental Retardation explores a diverse group of disorders from their biological roots to the everyday challenges faced by this special population and their families. With parents and those who care for people who have mental retardation in mind, Patricia Ainsworth and Pamela C. Baker write in a style that is at once accessible, informative, and sympathetic to the concerns of those affected. The authors provide practical information that will assist families and other advocates in obtaining needed services. They discuss assessment and treatment, education and employment, social and sexual adjustment, as well as regulatory and legal issues. This book covers the causes of mental retardation, the signs and symptoms of the most common forms of these disorders, and issues of prevention. For the sake of comparison, the book describes basic concepts of normal human development and references the history of Western civilization's responses to those with mental retardation. Understanding Mental Retardation sheds new light on mental illnesses that can complicate the lives of those with mental retardation, and the way symptoms of mental illness may appear confused or masked in a patient with mental retardation. Along with information on treatments and diagnoses, the book offers contact information for governmental resources, as well as a brief summary of the legal issues pertaining to mental retardation in America. Patricia Ainsworth is an assistant professor of psychiatry and human behavior at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, and has a private practice in Ridgeland, Mississippi. She is the author of Understanding Depression (University Press of Mississippi). Pamela C. Baker is director of the South Mississippi Regional Center in Long Beach, Mississippi. She is also an independent consultant in management and disabilities administration and co-editor of Embarking on a New Century: Mental Retardation at the End of the 20th Century .
Posted in Psychology

The Best of AAMR

Families and Mental Retardation : a Collection of Notable AAMR Journal Articles Across the 20th Century

Author: Jan Blacher,Bruce L. Baker

Publisher: AAMR

ISBN: 0940898764

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 382

View: 1822

This historical reference chronicles parental involvement-or the surprising lack of-in mental retardation services from 1876 to 2000 in America. Thirty-two papers taken from the American Journal on Mental Retardation and Mental Retardation speak forcibly on the field's relationship with families of persons with intellectual disabilities. "I would encourage all staff working directly with families as well as those responsible for policy development to read this book-both the original articles and the editors' reflections." Journal of Learning Disabilities
Posted in Family & Relationships

Language and Communication in Mental Retardation

Development, Processes, and intervention

Author: Sheldon Rosenberg,Leonard Abbeduto

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1134743890

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 272

View: 7480

Research on language and communication development and intervention in persons with mental retardation has been conducted at a fast and furious pace during the last two decades. Past attempts to summarize this research have been rather restricted, focusing on a single, narrowly defined substantive domain such as lexical development, or of a single etiology such as Down Syndrome. This volume, in contrast, presents a critical, integrative review of research and theory on language development and processing across all domains and a variety of etiologies. In addition, many previous attempts to review portions of this research have failed to consider the research within the context of current theory and data from developmental psycholinguistics and linguistics. A major contribution of this book is the emphasis on relevant work outside of mental retardation for understanding and treating the language and communication problems of persons with mental retardation. Finally, this book is comprehensive and up-to-date across all the areas of language covered including appropriate introductory material in linguistics and psychology -- discussions of the innateness, cognition-first and motherese views of normal language acquisition. In addition, the authors' extensive bibliography is valuable in and of itself to any serious student or professional in the area.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

Feeble-minded in Our Midst

Institutions for the Mentally Retarded in the South, 1900-1940

Author: Steven Noll

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 9780807845318

Category: History

Page: 254

View: 8800

Steven Noll traces the history and development of institutions for the mentally handicapped in the South between 1900 and 1940. He examines the influences of gender, race, and class in the institutionalization process and relates policies in the South to those in the North and Midwest, regions that had established similar institutions much earlier. In addition, Noll creates a vivid portrait of life and work within institutions and the impact of institutionalization on patients and their families. At the center of the story is the debate between the humanitarians, who advocated institutionalization as a way of protecting and ministering to the mentally deficient, and public policy adherents, who were primarily interested in controlling and isolating perceived deviants. According to Noll, these conflicting ideologies meant that most southern institutions were founded without a clear mission or an understanding of their relationship to southern society at large.
Posted in History

Healing the Broken Mind

Transforming America's Failed Mental Health System

Author: Timothy A. Kelly

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814748120

Category: Medical

Page: 193

View: 3298

"We have come a long way over the past few decades in our understanding of mental illness and its potential treatments. Yet, tragically, many across the country who struggle with serious mental illness are unable to find effective, quality medical treatment. As a federal commission on mental health concluded, the system of care is in shambles. But why? And how do we fix it?" "Timothy A. Kelly, former Commissioner of Virginia's Department of Mental Health, Retardation, and Substance Abuse, brings his three decades of experience as mental health commissioner, psychology professor, and clinician to bear in confronting this crisis in America's mental health care system. In clear and accessible terms, he exposes the weaknesses in the current system, examining how and why one of the world's richest and most advanced countries has allowed its most vulnerable citizens to be victimized by the very system designed to help them." --Book Jacket.
Posted in Medical

Mental Retardation

Author: Robert B. Edgerton

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674568860

Category: Education

Page: 125

View: 8025

Explains the causes of retardation, the prevention of retardation through such means as genetic counseling and prenatal care, and the methods of helping retarded children on the familial, social, and educational levels
Posted in Education

American Psychosis

How the Federal Government Destroyed the Mental Illness Treatment System

Author: E. Fuller Torrey

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199988714


Page: 204

View: 5235

E. Fuller Torrey's book provides an insider's perspective on the birth of the federal mental health program.

These, Too, Must be Equal

America's Needs in Habilitation & Employment of the Mentally Retarded

Author: United States. President's Committee on Mental Retardation

Publisher: N.A


Category: Mentally handicapped

Page: 22

View: 1150

Posted in Mentally handicapped

Mental Retardation:

Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits

Author: Committee on Disability Determination for Mental Retardation,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309083230

Category: Social Science

Page: 350

View: 3937

Current estimates suggest that between one and three percent of people living in the United States will receive a diagnosis of mental retardation. Mental retardation, a condition characterized by deficits in intellectual capabilities and adaptive behavior, can be particularly hard to diagnose in the mild range of the disability. The U.S. Social Security Administration (SSA) provides income support and medical benefits to individuals with cognitive limitations who experience significant problems in their ability to perform work and may therefore be in need of governmental support. Addressing the concern that SSA's current procedures are consistent with current scientific and professional practices, this book evaluates the process used by SSA to determine eligibility for these benefits. It examines the adequacy of the SSA definition of mental retardation and its current procedures for assessing intellectual capabilities, discusses adaptive behavior and its assessment, advises on ways to combine intellectual and adaptive assessment to provide a complete profile of an individual's capabilities, and clarifies ways to differentiate mental retardation from other conditions.
Posted in Social Science

A History of Mental Retardation

A Quarter Century of Promise

Author: R. C. Scheerenberger

Publisher: Paul H Brookes Publishing Company


Category: Political Science

Page: 318

View: 6246

Posted in Political Science

Enabling America:

Assessing the Role of Rehabilitation Science and Engineering

Author: Committee on Assessing Rehabilitation Science and Engineering,Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309063744

Category: Medical

Page: 424

View: 7160

The most recent high-profile advocate for Americans with disabilities, actor Christopher Reeve, has highlighted for the public the economic and social costs of disability and the importance of rehabilitation. Enabling America is a major analysis of the field of rehabilitation science and engineering. The book explains how to achieve recognition for this evolving field of study, how to set priorities, and how to improve the organization and administration of the numerous federal research programs in this area. The committee introduces the "enabling-disability process" model, which enhances the concepts of disability and rehabilitation, and reviews what is known and what research priorities are emerging in the areas of: Pathology and impairment, including differences between children and adults. Functional limitations--in a person's ability to eat or walk, for example. Disability as the interaction between a person's pathologies, impairments, and functional limitations and the surrounding physical and social environments. This landmark volume will be of special interest to anyone involved in rehabilitation science and engineering: federal policymakers, rehabilitation practitioners and administrators, researchers, and advocates for persons with disabilities.
Posted in Medical

Classification in mental retardation

Author: Herbert J. Grossman,American Association on Mental Deficiency

Publisher: Amer Assn on Intellectual&Devel

ISBN: 9780940898127

Category: Medical

Page: 228

View: 5485

Posted in Medical

American Educational History

School, Society, and the Common Good

Author: William Jeynes

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412914205

Category: Education

Page: 469

View: 9958

American Educational History: School, Society, and the Common Good is an up-to-date, contemporary examination of historical trends that have helped shape schools and education in the United States. Author William H. Jeynes places a strong emphasis on recent history, most notably post-World War II issues such as the role of technology, the standards movement, affirmative action, bilingual education, undocumented immigrants, school choice, and much more!
Posted in Education

Behavior Modification in Mental Retardation

The Education and Rehabilitation of the Mentally Retarded Adolescent and Adult

Author: William Gardner

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351314513

Category: Political Science

Page: 379

View: 2545

In this important book, one of the most exciting and promising developments in clinical psychology-behavior modification is applied to the treatment of the mentally retarded, particularly those whose behavior poses difficult problems for institutions. Professor Gardner presents an easily intelligible yet detailed account of the concepts and practices of behavior modification and the underlying learning systems, with numerous clinical illustrations of applying specific techniques to various educational and rehabilitation problems. A thorough discussion of the inadequacies of the psychological evaluation systems normally used in education and rehabilitation is offered, along with an alternative behavior analysis approach that provides a method of translating evaluation data into treatment practices. In explaining behavior analysis, the author takes into account the limited behavioral repertoire of the retarded and environmental deficits. Individual chapters on respondent, operant, and observational learning, and a detailed discussion of a functional analysis approach to evaluation, are included. Proven behavior modification strategies are presented along with a review of related research and clinical studies. The book closes with a detailed description of a research program for the design and testing of sheltered workshop systems for the retarded and emotionally disturbed. The positive approach inherent in the belief that behavior is modifiable-even in the severely limited retarded-is in marked contrast to the pessimism of other systems of therapy, education, and training. Also, the author has concentrated throughout on making the book understandable to clinicians and students with no previous knowledge of behavior modification. Besides serving as a valuable handbook for all treatment personnel, the book can also be used as a basic text for various courses dealing with mental retardation.
Posted in Political Science

Genetics of Mental Retardation

An Overview Encompassing Learning Disability and Intellectual Disability

Author: Samantha J. L. Knight

Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers

ISBN: 3805592809

Category: Medical

Page: 165

View: 4727

This remarkable publication focuses on the importance of genetics in mental retardation, investigating the extent to which molecular diagnostic capability and the understanding of genetic causes have improved over recent years. As a result, clinical evaluation and diagnostic laboratory practice are now undergoing an unprecedented period of change. In a single volume, a unique combination of key individuals and world-class clinical, diagnostic and research-based experts share specialized, state-of the-art knowledge in this field. The parents' perspective lies behind chapters dealing with issues such as: - Classification nomenclature - Well-known syndromes - How modern technologies have resulted in newly identified syndromes - How genome architecture can influence disease - Guidelines for clinical evaluation - Valuable database resources for clinical, diagnostic and research departments - Challenges involved in data interpretation and determining clinical relevance - Genetic overlaps with autism and schizophrenia - Processes of health service implementation Genetics of Mental Retardation is an invaluable resource for researchers and students with an active interest in the field. Furthermore, consultants and trainees in clinical genetics and pediatrics, and researchers working in clinical genetics laboratories will benefit from these reviews.
Posted in Medical

The Future of Disability in America

Author: Committee on Disability in America,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309104726

Category: Medical

Page: 618

View: 3419

The future of disability in America will depend on how well the U.S. prepares for and manages the demographic, fiscal, and technological developments that will unfold during the next two to three decades. Building upon two prior studies from the Institute of Medicine (the 1991 Institute of Medicine's report Disability in America and the 1997 report Enabling America), The Future of Disability in America examines both progress and concerns about continuing barriers that limit the independence, productivity, and participation in community life of people with disabilities. This book offers a comprehensive look at a wide range of issues, including the prevalence of disability across the lifespan; disability trends the role of assistive technology; barriers posed by health care and other facilities with inaccessible buildings, equipment, and information formats; the needs of young people moving from pediatric to adult health care and of adults experiencing premature aging and secondary health problems; selected issues in health care financing (e.g., risk adjusting payments to health plans, coverage of assistive technology); and the organizing and financing of disability-related research. The Future of Disability in America is an assessment of both principles and scientific evidence for disability policies and services. This book's recommendations propose steps to eliminate barriers and strengthen the evidence base for future public and private actions to reduce the impact of disability on individuals, families, and society.
Posted in Medical

Understanding Mental Retardation

Author: Edward Zigler,Robert M. Hodapp

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521318785

Category: Medical

Page: 292

View: 9728

Understanding Mental Retardation constitutes an up-to-date guide to current research and theory for specialists and students alike. Throughout, Edward Zigler and Robert M. Hodapp draw on our knowledge of normal development to inform their discussion of various aspects of retardation. Two introductory chapters provide the developmental framework for this discussion. Topics addressed include issues of definition, classification, and prevalence; motivation and personality factors; intervention in the lives of organically and so-called familial retarded persons; the possibility of 'miracle cures'; and the problems of institutionalization and mainstreaming. The authors' clear presentation and judicious evaluation of the available evidence will attract the attention of a wide audience.
Posted in Medical

Twenty-two Years

Causes and Consequences of Mental Retardation

Author: Stephen A. Richardson,Helene Koller

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674212978

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 328

View: 3368

Twenty-Two Years presents the results of a unique longitudinal study of the first 22 years in the lives of more than 200 young people with varying degrees of mental retardation. By following their paths through available services, job histories, leisure activities, friendships, and marriages, the authors provide objective information about the quality of life of young people with mental retardation. The book makes a unique contribution by determining what factors in childhood predict who will and who will not require mental retardation services and, for those who disappear from services, why some fare better than others. Most important, the results help answer a question that haunts parents: "What will happen when my child grows up?" This study expands on an internationally acclaimed clinical and epidemiological study of children with mental retardation published in 1970. It provides prevalence rates by severity of mental retardation, gender, social class, and family stability, and shows how these change over time. The authors confirm the central role of biomedical factors in the etiology of severe mental retardation. For the etiology of mild mental retardation, the book examines the relative contributions of biomedical and intergenerational genetic factors as well as psychosocial adversity. The book should be of interest to a broad range of clinicians, researchers, and students, as well as the families of people with mental retardation, and it will serve as a model for future epidemiological and follow-up research.
Posted in Family & Relationships