Lochner V. New York

Economic Regulation on Trial

Author: Paul Kens

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780700609192

Category: Law

Page: 216

View: 1559

Lochner v. New York (1905), which pitted a conservative activist judiciary against a reform-minded legislature, remains one of the most important and most frequently cited cases in Supreme Court history. In this concise and readable guide, Paul Kens shows us why the case remains such an important marker in the ideological battles between the free market and the regulatory state. The Supreme Court's decision declared unconstitutional a New York State law limiting bakery workers to no more than ten hours per day or sixty hours per week. By evoking its "police power," the state hoped to eliminate the employers' abuse of these workers. But the 5-4 majority opinion, authored by Justice Rufus Peckham and renounced by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, cited the state's violation of due process and the "right of contract between employers and employees," which the majority believed was protected by the Fourteenth Amendment. Critics jumped on the decision as an example of conservative juidicial activism promoting laissez-faire capitalism at the expense of progressive reform. As series editors Peter Hoffer and N.E.H. Hull note in their preface, "the case also raised a host of significant questions regarding the impetus of state legislatures to enter the workplace and regulate hours, wages, and working conditions; of the role of courts as monitors of the constitutionality of state regulation of the economy; and of the place of economic and moral theories in judicial thinking." Kens, however, reminds us that these hotly contested ideas and principles emerged from a very real human drama involving workers, owners, legislators, lawyers, and judges. Within the crucible of an industrializing America, their story reflected the fierce competition between two powerful ideologies.
Posted in Law

Courts in Federal Countries

Federalists or Unitarists?

Author: Nicholas Aroney,John Kincaid

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1487500629

Category: Law

Page: 583

View: 3094

Courts in Federal Countries examines the role high courts play in thirteen countries, including Australia, Brazil, Canada, Germany, India, Nigeria, Spain, and the United States.
Posted in Law

The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America

An Encyclopedia

Author: Wilbur R. Miller

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483305937

Category: History

Page: 2712

View: 5762

Several encyclopedias overview the contemporary system of criminal justice in America, but full understanding of current social problems and contemporary strategies to deal with them can come only with clear appreciation of the historical underpinnings of those problems. Thus, this five-volume work surveys the history and philosophy of crime, punishment, and criminal justice institutions in America from colonial times to the present. It covers the whole of the criminal justice system, from crimes, law enforcement and policing, to courts, corrections and human services. Among other things, this encyclopedia: explicates philosophical foundations underpinning our system of justice; charts changing patterns in criminal activity and subsequent effects on legal responses; identifies major periods in the development of our system of criminal justice; and explores in the first four volumes - supplemented by a fifth volume containing annotated primary documents - evolving debates and conflicts on how best to address issues of crime and punishment. Its signed entries in the first four volumes--supplemented by a fifth volume containing annotated primary documents--provide the historical context for students to better understand contemporary criminological debates and the contemporary shape of the U.S. system of law and justice.
Posted in History

The Human Body on Trial

A Handbook with Cases, Laws, and Documents

Author: Lynne Curry

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1576073491

Category: History

Page: 237

View: 810

Explores the controversial issue of an individual's right over his body versus the government's right to control it, focusing on individual cases, historical contexts, and key people and events.
Posted in History

Justice Stephen Field

Shaping Liberty from the Gold Rush to the Gilded Age

Author: Paul Kens

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 376

View: 9400

Outspoken and controversial, Stephen Field served on the Supreme Court from his appointment by Lincoln in 1863 through the closing years of the century. No justice had ever served longer on the Court, and few were as determined to use the Court to lead the nation into a new and exciting era. Paul Kens shows how Field ascended to such prominence, what influenced his legal thought and court opinions, and why both are still very relevant today. One of the famous gold rush forty-niners, Field was a founder of Marysville, California, a state legislator, and state supreme court justice. His decisions from the state bench and later from the federal circuit court often placed him in the middle of tense conflicts over the distribution of the land and mineral wealth of the new state. Kens illuminates how Field's experiences in early California influenced his jurisprudence and produced a theory of liberty that reflected both the ideals of his Jacksonian youth and the teachings of laissez-faire economics. During the time that Field served on the U.S. Supreme Court, the nation went through the Civil War and Reconstruction and moved from an agrarian to an industrial economy in which big business dominated. Fear of concentrated wealth caused many reformers of the time to look to government as an ally in the preservation of their liberty. In the volatile debates over government regulation of business, Field became a leading advocate of substantive due process and liberty of contract, legal doctrines that enabled the Court to veto state economic legislation and heavily influenced constitutional law well into the twentieth century. In the effort to curb what he viewed as the excessive power of government, Field tended to side with business and frequently came into conflict with reformers of his era. Gracefully written and filled with sharp insights, Kens' study sheds new light on Field's role in helping the Court define the nature of liberty and determine the extent of constitutional protection of property. By focusing on the political, economic, and social struggles of his time, it explains Field's jurisprudence in terms of conflicting views of liberty and individualism. It firmly establishes Field as a persuasive spokesman for one side of that conflict and as a prototype for the modern activist judge, while providing an important new view of capitalist expansion and social change in Gilded Age America.
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

The Myth of the Imperial Judiciary

Why the Right is Wrong about the Courts

Author: Mark Kozlowski

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814749291

Category: Law

Page: 293

View: 6793

Few institutions have become as ferociously fought over in democratic politics as the courts. While political criticism of judges in this country goes back to its inception, today’s intensely ideological assault is nearly unprecedented. Spend any amount of time among the writings of contemporary right-wing critics of judicial power, and you are virtually assured of seeing repeated complaints about the “imperial judiciary.” American conservatives contend not only that judicial power has expanded dangerously in recent decades, but that liberal judges now willfully write their policy preferences into law. They raise alarms that American courts possess a degree of power incompatible with the functioning of a democratic polity. The Myth of the Imperial Judiciary explores the anti-judicial ideological trend of the American right, refuting these claims and taking a realistic look at the role of courts in our democracy to show that conservatives have a highly unrealistic conception of their power. Kozlowski first assesses the validity of the conservative view of the Founders’ intent, arguing that courts have played an assertive role in our politics since their establishment. He then considers contemporary judicial powers to show that conservatives have greatly overstated the extent to which the expansion of rights which has occurred has worked solely to the benefit of liberals. Kozlowski reveals the ways in which the claims of those on the right are often either unsupported or simply wrong. He concludes that American courts, far from imperiling our democracy or our moral fabric, stand as a bulwark against the abuse of legislative power, acting forcefully, as they have always done, to give meaning to constitutional promises.
Posted in Law

Tiergarten - In the Garden of Beasts

Ein amerikanischer Botschafter in Nazi-Deutschland

Author: Erik Larson

Publisher: Hoffmann und Campe

ISBN: 345585107X

Category: History

Page: 480

View: 7324

Berlin, 1933. William E. Dodd kommt als Botschafter nach Deutschland. Zunächst recht unkritisch, verkehren er und seine Tochter Martha mit hochrangigen Nazis und besuchen deren schillernde Partys. Doch die Schatten werden immer dunkler - bis zur blutigen »Nacht der langen Messer«, in der ein Ausbruch von Gewalt und Hass endgültig Hitlers skrupellose Ambitionen offenbart. Er ist nicht Roosevelts erste Wahl, doch da sich kein anderer Kandidat findet, wird der gutmütige Geschichtsprofessor Dodd nach Berlin geschickt. Dieser muss sich nicht nur mit den merkwürdigen Entwicklungen in Deutschland auseinandersetzen, sondern auch einem intriganten, politisch gleichgültigen State Department entgegentreten. Unterdessen ist Martha verzückt von den Partys und dem Pomp - und den hübschen jungen Nazis. Doch als sich Attacken auf Juden häufen, die Presse der Zensur unterworfen wird, Entwürfe von beängstigenden Gesetzen in den Umlauf kommen und schließlich in der »Nacht der langen Messer« Hitlers wahre Absichten offenbar werden, müssen die Dodds die Gefahr erkennen. Atemberaubend temporeich erzählt, mit unvergesslichen Porträts der neuen Herren von Deutschland, zeigt das Buch aus der Perspektive von externen Augenzeugen die Machtergreifung der Nazis in einem neuen Licht - und gibt Einblick, warum die Welt die ernste Bedrohung durch Hitler erst wahrnahm, als Berlin und Europa von Blut und Terror überschwemmt wurden.
Posted in History

Industrieökonomik

Author: Jean Tirole

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3486800221

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 1099

View: 9953

Das Standard-Lehrbuch in diesem Bereich. Beginnend mit einer klaren und ausführlichen Darstellung des mikroökonomischen Theorie werden die verschiedenen für die Industrieökonomik relevanten Themenbereiche erarbeitet. Dabei nimmt auch die Darstellung von Markt-Unvollkommenheiten einen breiten Raum ein. Viele der Theorien werden mit Hilfe der Spieltheorie erläutert.
Posted in Business & Economics

Die Federalist papers

Author: Alexander Hamilton,James Madison,John Jay

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 9783406547546

Category: Constitutional history

Page: 583

View: 9117

Posted in Constitutional history

Längengrad

Die wahre Geschichte eines einsamen Genies, welches das größte wissenschaftliche Problem seiner Zeit löste

Author: Dava Sobel

Publisher: ebook Berlin Verlag

ISBN: 3827072360

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 240

View: 6487

John Harrison, ein schottischer Uhrmacher, setzte sich ein ehrgeiziges und unmöglich erscheinendes Ziel: eine Methode zu ersinnen, die es Seeleuten ermöglicht, den genauen Längengrad ihrer Position auf See zu bestimmen. Über vierzig Jahre arbeitete Harrison wie besessen an der Herstellung eines perfekten Chronometers und kam schließlich — trotz Missgunst und zahlreicher Anfeindungen — zum Erfolg. Dava Sobels in luzider Prosa erzählte Geschichte dieser wissenschaftlichen Gralssuche wurde ein überwältigender internationaler Erfolg.
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

Common law

Author: Oliver Wendell Holmes

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783428121519

Category: Common law

Page: 423

View: 4652

Posted in Common law

Kesselrings letzte Schlacht.

Kriegsverbrecherprozesse, Vergangenheitspolitik und Wiederbewaffnung: Der Fall Kesselring.

Author: Kerstin von Lingen

Publisher: Verlag Ferd.Sch├╢ningh GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: N.A

Category: War criminals

Page: 392

View: 4153

Posted in War criminals

US-Rechtspraxis

Praxishandbuch Zivilrecht und Öffentliches Recht

Author: Kirk W. Junker

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3899498100

Category: Law

Page: 523

View: 4282

Das Handbuch Amerikanische Rechtspraxis wendet sich in erster Linie an deutsche Anwälte, die mit dem amerikanischen oder englischen Recht in der Praxis in Berührung kommen, kann aber auch von international tätigen Unternehmen mit Gewinn genutzt werden. Thematisch umfaßt die Darstellung vor allem die Bereiche Zivilprozessrecht, Strafprozessrecht, Vertragsrecht, enthält zusätzlich Formulierungsmuster und Musterverträge sowie zahlreiche Praxistipps.
Posted in Law

Grundlagen der Philosophie

Author: Herbert Spencer

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9925012422

Category: Philosophy

Page: 584

View: 8721

Nachdruck des Originals von 1875.
Posted in Philosophy

Verfassungspatriotismus

Author: Jan-Werner Müller

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783518126127

Category: Citizenship

Page: 155

View: 2590

Posted in Citizenship

Historic U.S. Court Cases

An Encyclopedia

Author: John W. Johnson

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780415937559

Category: Electronic books

Page: 1089

View: 5992

This collection of essays looks at over 200 major court cases, at both state and federal levels, from the colonial period to the present. Organized thematically, the articles range from 1,000 to 5,000 words and include recent topics such as the Microsoft antitrust case, the O.J. Simpson trials, and the Clinton impeachment. This new edition includes 43 new essays as well as updates throughout, with end-of-essay bibliographies and indexes by case and subject/name.
Posted in Electronic books

Demokratische Ausblicke

Author: Walt Whitman

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783938871003

Category:

Page: 95

View: 7579

Posted in

Der große Crash 1929

Ursachen, Verlauf, Folgen

Author: John Kenneth Galbraith

Publisher: FinanzBuch Verlag

ISBN: 9783898794558

Category: Schwarzer Freitag 1929 - Geschichte

Page: 238

View: 1889

Posted in Schwarzer Freitag 1929 - Geschichte

Metaphysik der sitten

Author: Immanuel Kant

Publisher: Рипол Классик

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 5175

Posted in History