Lithic Debitage

Context, Form, Meaning

Author: William Andrefsky, Jr.

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780874807684

Category: Social Science

Page: 279

View: 8561

Debitage, the by-product flakes and chips from stone tool production, is the most abundant artifact type in prehistoric archaeological sites. For much of the period in which archaeology has employed scientific methodology, debitage has been discarded or ignored as debris. Now archaeologists have begun to recognize its potential to provide information about the kinds of tools produced and the characteristics of the technology being employed. Debitage can even provide clues regarding human organizational systems such as settlement mobility and site functions. This volume brings together some of the most recent research on debitage analysis and interpretation. It presents stone tool production experiments and offers detailed archaeological investigations for interpreting variability at the individual and collective levels. Although there are a number of volumes that focus on general analysis of lithic artifacts, this is the first volume to address debitage and should be of use to a wide range of archaeological researchers.
Posted in Social Science

Lithic Debitage

Context, Form, Meaning

Author: William Andrefsky

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780874806793

Category: Social Science

Page: 266

View: 7733

Debitage, the by-product flakes and chips from stone tool production, is the most abundant artifact type in prehistoric archaeological sites. For much of the period in which archaeology has employed scientific methodology, debitage has been discarded or ignored as debris. Now archaeologists have begun to recognize its potential to provide information about the kinds of tools produced and the characteristics of the technology being employed. Debitage can even provide clues regarding human organizational systems such as settlement mobility and site functions. This volume brings together some of the most recent research on debitage analysis and interpretation. It presents stone tool production experiments and offers detailed archaeological investigations for interpreting variability at the individual and collective levels. Although there are a number of volumes that focus on general analysis of lithic artifacts, this is the first volume to address debitage and should be of use to a wide range of archaeological researchers.
Posted in Social Science

Lithics

Macroscopic Approaches to Analysis

Author: William Andrefsky, Jr

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139448196

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 8002

This book is a fully updated and revised edition of William Andrefsky Jr's ground-breaking manual on lithic analysis. Designed for students and professional archaeologists, this highly illustrated book explains the fundamental principles of the measurement, recording and analysis of stone tools and stone tool production debris. Introducing the reader to lithic raw materials, classification, terminology and key concepts, it comprehensively explores methods and techniques, presenting detailed case studies of lithic analysis from around the world. It examines new emerging techniques, such as the advances being made in lithic debitage analysis and lithic tool analysis, and includes a new section on stone tool functional studies. An extensive and expanded glossary makes this book an invaluable reference for archaeologists at all levels.
Posted in Social Science

Lithic Analysis

Author: George H. Odell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441990097

Category: Social Science

Page: 262

View: 1392

This practical volume does not intend to replace a mentor, but acts as a readily accessible guide to the basic tools of lithic analysis. The book was awarded the 2005 SAA Award for Excellence in Archaeological Analysis. Some focuses of the manual include: history of stone tool research; procurement, manufacture and function; assemblage variability. It is an incomparable source for academic archaeologists, cultural resource and heritage management archaeologists, government heritage agencies, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students of archaeology focused on the prehistoric period.
Posted in Social Science

Aggregate Analysis in Chipped Stone

Author: Christopher T. Hall,Mary Lou Larson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 262

View: 5148

Less than two decades ago, archaeologists considered lithic debitage, the flakes and debris left from the manufacture of stone tools, little more than uninformative waste. Since then, fieldworkers have increasingly recognized that stone flakes can provide information both singly and in aggregate. Many methods are now available for analyzing lithic debitage, yet no single method is entirely reliable as a vehicle to meaningful interpretation of past behavior. Part of the problem lies in the disparity between tightly controlled experimental conditions and the difficulty of sorting individual sequences out of the masses of stone found in many archaeological sites. Contributors to this volume seek to identify the strengths and weaknesses in the more widespread and competing analytical forms while arguing for the use of multiple lines of evidence. As the title indicates, their primary focus is on mass analysis of aggregates rather than individual flakes. Thus several chapters also address problems of subdividing aggregates to better deal with the "mixed assemblages" generated by multiple factors over time.
Posted in Social Science

Aurignacian Lithic Economy

Ecological Perspectives from Southwestern France

Author: Brooke S. Blades

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306471884

Category: Social Science

Page: 211

View: 3490

Drawing data from a classic region for Paleolithic research in Europe, this book explores how early modern humans obtained lithic raw materials and analyzes the different utilization patterns for locally available materials compared with those from a greater distance. The author locates these patterns within an ecological context and argues that early modern humans selected specific mobility strategies to accommodate changes in subsistence environments.
Posted in Social Science

Toward a Behavioral Ecology of Lithic Technology

Cases from Paleoindian Archaeology

Author: Todd A. Surovell

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 0816599521

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 9677

Modern humans and their hominid ancestors relied on chipped-stone technology for well over two million years and colonized more than 99 percent of the Earth's habitable landmass in doing so. Yet there currently exist only a handful of informal models derived from ethnographic observation, experiments, engineering, and "common sense" to explain variability in archaeological lithic assemblages. Because the fundamental processes of making, using, and discarding stone tools are, at root, exercises in problem solving, Todd Surovell asks what conditions favor certain technological solutions. Whether asking if a biface should be made thick or thin or if a flake should be saved or discarded, Surovell seeks answers that extend beyond a case-by-case analysis. One avenue for addressing these questions theoretically is formal mathematical modeling. Here Surovell constructs a series of models designed to link environmental variability to human decision making as it pertains to lithic technology. To test the models, Surovell uses data from the analysis of more than 40,000 artifacts from five Rocky Mountain and Northern Plains Folsom and Goshen complex archaeological sites dating to the Younger Dryas stadial (ca. 12,600-11,500 years BP). The primary result is the production of powerful new analytical tools useful to the interpretation of archaeological assemblages. Surovell's goal is to promote modeling and explore the general issues governing technological decisions. In this light, his models can be applied to any context in which stone tools are made and used.
Posted in Social Science

Lithic Technological Systems and Evolutionary Theory

Author: Nathan Goodale,William Andrefsky, Jr

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316194426

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 9185

Stone tool analysis relies on a strong background in analytical and methodological techniques. However, lithic technological analysis has not been well integrated with a theoretically informed approach to understanding how humans procured, made, and used stone tools. Evolutionary theory has great potential to fill this gap. This collection of essays brings together several different evolutionary perspectives to demonstrate how lithic technological systems are a by-product of human behavior. The essays cover a range of topics, including human behavioral ecology, cultural transmission, phylogenetic analysis, risk management, macroevolution, dual inheritance theory, cladistics, central place foraging, costly signaling, selection, drift, and various applications of evolutionary ecology.
Posted in Social Science

Understanding Stone Tools and Archaeological Sites

Author: Brian Patrick Kooyman

Publisher: UNM Press

ISBN: 9780826323330

Category: Social Science

Page: 206

View: 1620

This generously illustrated instructional guide explains the examination and analysis of stone tools and stone-tool sites anywhere in the world. Lithics expert Brian P. Kooyman explores the production, function, and context of stone tools to understand how human cultures used lithic tools at particular sites and to give readers the practical skills for lithic and site analysis. The guide covers manufacturing techniques, lithic types and materials, reduction strategies and techniques, worldwide lithic technology, production variables, meaning of form, and usewear and residue analysis. The author draws on extensive field work in North America, particularly at Head-Smashed-In in Alberta, Canada. However, the thery, methodology, and analysis applies to the investigation of stone tools and lithic sites worldwide.
Posted in Social Science

Lithic Technology

Measures of Production, Use and Curation

Author: William Andrefsky, Jr

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139474839

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 9195

The life history of stone tools is intimately linked to tool production, use and maintenance. These are important processes in the organization of lithic technology, or the manner in which lithic technology is embedded within human organizational strategies of land use and subsistence practices. This volume brings together essays that measure the life history of stone tools relative to retouch values, raw material constraints and evolutionary processes. Collectively, they explore the association of technological organization with facets of tool form such as reduction sequences, tool production effort, artifact curation processes and retouch measurement. Data sets cover a broad geographic and temporal span, including examples from France during the Paleolithic, the Near East during the Neolithic, and other regions such as Mongolia, Australia, and Italy. North American examples are derived from Paleoindian times to historic period aboriginal populations throughout the United States and Canada.
Posted in Social Science

Contemporary Lithic Analysis in the Southeast

Problems, Solutions, and Interpretations

Author: Philip J. Carr,Andrew P. Bradbury,Sarah E. Price

Publisher: University of Alabama Press

ISBN: 0817356991

Category: History

Page: 253

View: 1142

Normal0falsefalsefalseEN-USX-NONEX-NONEMicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Representing work by a mixture of veterans and a new generation of lithic analysts, Contemporary Lithic Analysis in the Southeast explores fresh ideas while reworking and pushing the limits of traditional methods and hypotheses. The variability in the southeastern lithic landscape over space and through time makes it a dynamic and challenging region for archaeologists. Demonstrating a holistic approach and using a variety of methods, this volume aims to derive information regarding prehistoric lifeways from lithic assemblages. The contributors use data from a wide temporal span and a variety of sites across the Southeast, ranging from Texas to South Carolina and from Florida to Kentucky. Not merely cautionary tales, these case studies demonstrate the necessity of looking beyond the bag of lithic material sitting in the laboratory to address the key questions in the organization of prehistoric lithic technologies. How do field-collection strategies bias our interpretations? What is therelationship between technological strategies and tool design? How can inferences regarding social and economic strategies be made from lithic assemblages? Contributors William Andrefsky Jr. / Andrew P. Bradbury / Philip J. Carr / CarolynConklin / D. Randall Cooper / Jason L.Edmonds / Jay D. Franklin / Albert C.Goodyear III / Joel Hardison / Lucinda M.Langston / D. Shane Miller / George H.Odell / Charlotte D. Pevny / Tara L. Potts /Sarah E. Price / Douglas Sain / Sarah C.Sherwood / Ashley M. Smallwood /Paul Thacker
Posted in History

Prehistoric Quarries and Lithic Production

Author: Jonathon E. Ericson,Barbara A. Purdy

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521256223

Category: History

Page: 149

View: 4472

This book was originally published in 1984. For over a million years rocks provided human beings with the essential raw materials for the production of tools. Nevertheless we still know very little about the behaviour and processes that resulted in the creation of archaeological sites at or near lithic quarries. In the past archaeologists have placed much emphasis on the process of 'exchange' in their analysis of prehistoric economies while largely ignoring the sources of the exchanged objects. However, with the development of interest in the means of production, these sites have begun to take on a new significance. Prehistoric Quarries and Lithic Production is the first systematic study of archaeological sites that served as quarries for stone tools. Its theoretical and methodological importance will extend its appeal beyond those archaeologists concerned with lithic technology and prehistoric exchange systems to archaeologists and anthropologists in general and to geographers and geologists.
Posted in History

Designing Experimental Research in Archaeology

Examining Technology Through Production and Use

Author: Jeffrey R. Ferguson

Publisher: University Press of Colorado

ISBN: 9781607320234

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 3090

Designing Experimental Research in Archaeology is a guide for the design of archaeological experiments for both students and scholars. Experimental archaeology provides a unique opportunity to corroborate conclusions with multiple trials of repeatable experiments and can provide data otherwise unavailable to archaeologists without damaging sites, remains, or artifacts. Each chapter addresses a particular classification of material culture-ceramics, stone tools, perishable materials, composite hunting technology, butchering practices and bone tools, and experimental zooarchaeology-detailing issues that must be considered in the development of experimental archaeology projects and discussing potential pitfalls. The experiments follow coherent and consistent research designs and procedures and are placed in a theoretical context, and contributors outline methods that will serve as a guide in future experiments. This degree of standardization is uncommon in traditional archaeological research but is essential to experimental archaeology. The field has long been in need of a guide that focuses on methodology and design. This book fills that need not only for undergraduate and graduate students but for any archaeologist looking to begin an experimental research project.
Posted in Social Science

Unit Issues in Archaeology

Measuring Time, Space, and Material

Author: Ann Felice Ramenofsky,Anastasia Steffen

Publisher: University of Utah Press

ISBN: 9780874805482

Category: Social Science

Page: 245

View: 7677

As the contributors to this well-edited book make clear the process of splitting up and classifying the material record of constantly changing life is still a highly controversial and theoretical one. Some of the papers discuss how typologies are created to split one type of stone tool from another. Another paper focuses on the classification of landscape units examining issues such as the identification of `sites' during intensive survey. Such different fields of enquiry (imposing order on `time', `space' and `material') are pulled together by a great introduction which defines the problem and suggests theoretical ways of approaching it.
Posted in Social Science