*An Elementary Introduction*

Author: Brian Hall

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319134671

Category: Mathematics

Page: 453

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## Lie Groups, Lie Algebras, and Representations

This textbook treats Lie groups, Lie algebras and their representations in an elementary but fully rigorous fashion requiring minimal prerequisites. In particular, the theory of matrix Lie groups and their Lie algebras is developed using only linear algebra, and more motivation and intuition for proofs is provided than in most classic texts on the subject. In addition to its accessible treatment of the basic theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras, the book is also noteworthy for including: a treatment of the Baker–Campbell–Hausdorff formula and its use in place of the Frobenius theorem to establish deeper results about the relationship between Lie groups and Lie algebras motivation for the machinery of roots, weights and the Weyl group via a concrete and detailed exposition of the representation theory of sl(3;C) an unconventional definition of semisimplicity that allows for a rapid development of the structure theory of semisimple Lie algebras a self-contained construction of the representations of compact groups, independent of Lie-algebraic arguments The second edition of Lie Groups, Lie Algebras, and Representations contains many substantial improvements and additions, among them: an entirely new part devoted to the structure and representation theory of compact Lie groups; a complete derivation of the main properties of root systems; the construction of finite-dimensional representations of semisimple Lie algebras has been elaborated; a treatment of universal enveloping algebras, including a proof of the Poincaré–Birkhoff–Witt theorem and the existence of Verma modules; complete proofs of the Weyl character formula, the Weyl dimension formula and the Kostant multiplicity formula. Review of the first edition: This is an excellent book. It deserves to, and undoubtedly will, become the standard text for early graduate courses in Lie group theory ... an important addition to the textbook literature ... it is highly recommended. — The Mathematical Gazette
## Lie Groups, Lie Algebras, and Representations

Lie groups, Lie algebras, and representation theory are the main focus of this text. In order to keep the prerequisites to a minimum, the author restricts attention to matrix Lie groups and Lie algebras. This approach keeps the discussion concrete, allows the reader to get to the heart of the subject quickly, and covers all of the most interesting examples. The book also introduces the often-intimidating machinery of roots and the Weyl group in a gradual way, using examples and representation theory as motivation. The text is divided into two parts. The first covers Lie groups and Lie algebras and the relationship between them, along with basic representation theory. The second part covers the theory of semisimple Lie groups and Lie algebras, beginning with a detailed analysis of the representations of SU(3). The author illustrates the general theory with numerous images pertaining to Lie algebras of rank two and rank three, including images of root systems, lattices of dominant integral weights, and weight diagrams. This book is sure to become a standard textbook for graduate students in mathematics and physics with little or no prior exposure to Lie theory. Brian Hall is an Associate Professor of Mathematics at the University of Notre Dame.
## Lie Groups, Lie Algebras, and Representations

This book addresses Lie groups, Lie algebras, and representation theory. In order to keep the prerequisites to a minimum, the author restricts attention to matrix Lie groups and Lie algebras. This approach keeps the discussion concrete, allows the reader to get to the heart of the subject quickly, and covers all of the most interesting examples. The book also introduces the often-intimidating machinery of roots and the Weyl group in a gradual way, using examples and representation theory as motivation. The text is divided into two parts. The first covers Lie groups and Lie algebras and the relationship between them, along with basic representation theory. The second part covers the theory of semisimple Lie groups and Lie algebras, beginning with a detailed analysis of the representations of SU(3). The author illustrates the general theory with numerous images pertaining to Lie algebras of rank two and rank three, including images of root systems, lattices of dominant integral weights, and weight diagrams. This book is sure to become a standard textbook for graduate students in mathematics and physics with little or no prior exposure to Lie theory. Brian Hall is an Associate Professor of Mathematics at the University of Notre Dame.
## Introduction to Lie Algebras and Representation Theory

This book is designed to introduce the reader to the theory of semisimple Lie algebras over an algebraically closed field of characteristic 0, with emphasis on representations. A good knowledge of linear algebra (including eigenvalues, bilinear forms, euclidean spaces, and tensor products of vector spaces) is presupposed, as well as some acquaintance with the methods of abstract algebra. The first four chapters might well be read by a bright undergraduate; however, the remaining three chapters are admittedly a little more demanding. Besides being useful in many parts of mathematics and physics, the theory of semisimple Lie algebras is inherently attractive, combining as it does a certain amount of depth and a satisfying degree of completeness in its basic results. Since Jacobson's book appeared a decade ago, improvements have been made even in the classical parts of the theory. I have tried to incor porate some of them here and to provide easier access to the subject for non-specialists. For the specialist, the following features should be noted: (I) The Jordan-Chevalley decomposition of linear transformations is emphasized, with "toral" subalgebras replacing the more traditional Cartan subalgebras in the semisimple case. (2) The conjugacy theorem for Cartan subalgebras is proved (following D. J. Winter and G. D. Mostow) by elementary Lie algebra methods, avoiding the use of algebraic geometry.
## Introduction to Lie Algebras

Lie groups and Lie algebras have become essential to many parts of mathematics and theoretical physics, with Lie algebras a central object of interest in their own right. This book provides an elementary introduction to Lie algebras based on a lecture course given to fourth-year undergraduates. The only prerequisite is some linear algebra and an appendix summarizes the main facts that are needed. The treatment is kept as simple as possible with no attempt at full generality. Numerous worked examples and exercises are provided to test understanding, along with more demanding problems, several of which have solutions. Introduction to Lie Algebras covers the core material required for almost all other work in Lie theory and provides a self-study guide suitable for undergraduate students in their final year and graduate students and researchers in mathematics and theoretical physics.
## Lie Groups, Lie Algebras, and Their Representations

This book has grown out of a set of lecture notes I had prepared for a course on Lie groups in 1966. When I lectured again on the subject in 1972, I revised the notes substantially. It is the revised version that is now appearing in book form. The theory of Lie groups plays a fundamental role in many areas of mathematics. There are a number of books on the subject currently available -most notably those of Chevalley, Jacobson, and Bourbaki-which present various aspects of the theory in great depth. However, 1 feei there is a need for a single book in English which develops both the algebraic and analytic aspects of the theory and which goes into the representation theory of semi simple Lie groups and Lie algebras in detail. This book is an attempt to fiii this need. It is my hope that this book will introduce the aspiring graduate student as well as the nonspecialist mathematician to the fundamental themes of the subject. I have made no attempt to discuss infinite-dimensional representations. This is a very active field, and a proper treatment of it would require another volume (if not more) of this size. However, the reader who wants to take up this theory will find that this book prepares him reasonably well for that task.
## Lie Groups

Lie Groups is intended as an introduction to the theory of Lie groups and their representations at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level. It covers the essentials of the subject starting from basic undergraduate mathematics. The correspondence between linear Lie groups and Lie algebras is developed in its local and global aspects. The classical groups are analysed in detail, first with elementary matrix methods, then with the help of the structural tools typical of thetheory of semisimple groups, such as Cartan subgroups, roots, weights, and reflections. The fundamental groups of the classical groups are worked out as an application of these methods. Manifolds are introduced when needed, in connection with homogeneous spaces, and the elements of differential and integral calculus on manifolds are presented, with special emphasis on integration on groups and homogeneous spaces. Representation theory starts from first principles, such as Schur's lemma and its consequences, and proceeds from there to the Peter-Weyl theorem, Weyl's character formula, and the Borel-Weil theorem, all in the context of linear groups.
## Quantum Theory for Mathematicians

Although ideas from quantum physics play an important role in many parts of modern mathematics, there are few books about quantum mechanics aimed at mathematicians. This book introduces the main ideas of quantum mechanics in language familiar to mathematicians. Readers with little prior exposure to physics will enjoy the book's conversational tone as they delve into such topics as the Hilbert space approach to quantum theory; the Schrödinger equation in one space dimension; the Spectral Theorem for bounded and unbounded self-adjoint operators; the Stone–von Neumann Theorem; the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin approximation; the role of Lie groups and Lie algebras in quantum mechanics; and the path-integral approach to quantum mechanics. The numerous exercises at the end of each chapter make the book suitable for both graduate courses and independent study. Most of the text is accessible to graduate students in mathematics who have had a first course in real analysis, covering the basics of L2 spaces and Hilbert spaces. The final chapters introduce readers who are familiar with the theory of manifolds to more advanced topics, including geometric quantization.
## Representations of Compact Lie Groups

This introduction to the representation theory of compact Lie groups follows Herman Weyl’s original approach. It discusses all aspects of finite-dimensional Lie theory, consistently emphasizing the groups themselves. Thus, the presentation is more geometric and analytic than algebraic. It is a useful reference and a source of explicit computations. Each section contains a range of exercises, and 24 figures help illustrate geometric concepts.
## Lie Groups, Physics, and Geometry

Describing many of the most important aspects of Lie group theory, this book presents the subject in a 'hands on' way. Rather than concentrating on theorems and proofs, the book shows the applications of the material to physical sciences and applied mathematics. Many examples of Lie groups and Lie algebras are given throughout the text. The relation between Lie group theory and algorithms for solving ordinary differential equations is presented and shown to be analogous to the relation between Galois groups and algorithms for solving polynomial equations. Other chapters are devoted to differential geometry, relativity, electrodynamics, and the hydrogen atom. Problems are given at the end of each chapter so readers can monitor their understanding of the materials. This is a fascinating introduction to Lie groups for graduate and undergraduate students in physics, mathematics and electrical engineering, as well as researchers in these fields.
## An Introduction to Lie Groups and Lie Algebras

This book is an introduction to semisimple Lie algebras; concise and informal, with numerous exercises and examples.
## Compact Lie Groups

Blending algebra, analysis, and topology, the study of compact Lie groups is one of the most beautiful areas of mathematics and a key stepping stone to the theory of general Lie groups. Assuming no prior knowledge of Lie groups, this book covers the structure and representation theory of compact Lie groups. Coverage includes the construction of the Spin groups, Schur Orthogonality, the Peter-Weyl Theorem, the Plancherel Theorem, the Maximal Torus Theorem, the Commutator Theorem, the Weyl Integration and Character Formulas, the Highest Weight Classification, and the Borel-Weil Theorem. The book develops the necessary Lie algebra theory with a streamlined approach focusing on linear Lie groups.
## Lie Groups, Lie Algebras, and Some of Their Applications

This text introduces upper-level undergraduates to Lie group theory and physical applications. It further illustrates Lie group theory's role in several fields of physics. 1974 edition. Includes 75 figures and 17 tables, exercises and problems.
## Lie Groups

Lie groups has been an increasing area of focus and rich research since the middle of the 20th century. In Lie Groups: An Approach through Invariants and Representations, the author's masterful approach gives the reader a comprehensive treatment of the classical Lie groups along with an extensive introduction to a wide range of topics associated with Lie groups: symmetric functions, theory of algebraic forms, Lie algebras, tensor algebra and symmetry, semisimple Lie algebras, algebraic groups, group representations, invariants, Hilbert theory, and binary forms with fields ranging from pure algebra to functional analysis. By covering sufficient background material, the book is made accessible to a reader with a relatively modest mathematical background. Historical information, examples, exercises are all woven into the text. This unique exposition is suitable for a broad audience, including advanced undergraduates, graduates, mathematicians in a variety of areas from pure algebra to functional analysis and mathematical physics.
## Differential Geometry, Lie Groups, and Symmetric Spaces

The present book is intended as a textbook and reference work on three topics in the title. Together with a volume in progress on "Groups and Geometric Analysis" it supersedes my "Differential Geometry and Symmetric Spaces," published in 1962. Since that time several branches of the subject, particularly the function theory on symmetric spaces, have developed substantially. I felt that an expanded treatment might now be useful.
## Lie Groups

The work of the Norwegian mathematician Sophus Lie extends ideas of symmetry and leads to many applications in mathematics and physics. Ordinarily, the study of the "objects" in Lie's theory (Lie groups and Lie algebras) requires extensive mathematical prerequisites beyond the reach of the typical undergraduate. By restricting to the special case of matrix Lie groups and relying on ideas from multivariable calculus and linear algebra, this lovely and important material becomes accessible even to college sophomores. Working with Lie's ideas fosters an appreciation of the unity of mathematics and the sometimes surprising ways in which mathematics provides a language to describe and understand the physical world.Lie Groups is an active learning text that can be used by students with a range of backgrounds and interests. The material is developed through 200 carefully chosen problems. This is the only book in the undergraduate curriculum to bring this material to students so early in their mathematical careers.
## Representation Theory

The primary goal of these lectures is to introduce a beginner to the finite dimensional representations of Lie groups and Lie algebras. Since this goal is shared by quite a few other books, we should explain in this Preface how our approach differs, although the potential reader can probably see this better by a quick browse through the book. Representation theory is simple to define: it is the study of the ways in which a given group may act on vector spaces. It is almost certainly unique, however, among such clearly delineated subjects, in the breadth of its interest to mathematicians. This is not surprising: group actions are ubiquitous in 20th century mathematics, and where the object on which a group acts is not a vector space, we have learned to replace it by one that is {e. g. , a cohomology group, tangent space, etc. }. As a consequence, many mathematicians other than specialists in the field {or even those who think they might want to be} come in contact with the subject in various ways. It is for such people that this text is designed. To put it another way, we intend this as a book for beginners to learn from and not as a reference. This idea essentially determines the choice of material covered here. As simple as is the definition of representation theory given above, it fragments considerably when we try to get more specific.
## Semi-Simple Lie Algebras and Their Representations

Designed to acquaint students of particle physics already familiar with SU(2) and SU(3) with techniques applicable to all simple Lie algebras, this text is especially suited to the study of grand unification theories. 1984 edition.
## Lie Groups

This book is intended for a one-year graduate course on Lie groups and Lie algebras. The book goes beyond the representation theory of compact Lie groups, which is the basis of many texts, and provides a carefully chosen range of material to give the student the bigger picture. The book is organized to allow different paths through the material depending on one's interests. This second edition has substantial new material, including improved discussions of underlying principles, streamlining of some proofs, and many results and topics that were not in the first edition. For compact Lie groups, the book covers the Peter–Weyl theorem, Lie algebra, conjugacy of maximal tori, the Weyl group, roots and weights, Weyl character formula, the fundamental group and more. The book continues with the study of complex analytic groups and general noncompact Lie groups, covering the Bruhat decomposition, Coxeter groups, flag varieties, symmetric spaces, Satake diagrams, embeddings of Lie groups and spin. Other topics that are treated are symmetric function theory, the representation theory of the symmetric group, Frobenius–Schur duality and GL(n) × GL(m) duality with many applications including some in random matrix theory, branching rules, Toeplitz determinants, combinatorics of tableaux, Gelfand pairs, Hecke algebras, the "philosophy of cusp forms" and the cohomology of Grassmannians. An appendix introduces the reader to the use of Sage mathematical software for Lie group computations.
## Naive Lie Theory

In this new textbook, acclaimed author John Stillwell presents a lucid introduction to Lie theory suitable for junior and senior level undergraduates. In order to achieve this, he focuses on the so-called "classical groups'' that capture the symmetries of real, complex, and quaternion spaces. These symmetry groups may be represented by matrices, which allows them to be studied by elementary methods from calculus and linear algebra. This naive approach to Lie theory is originally due to von Neumann, and it is now possible to streamline it by using standard results of undergraduate mathematics. To compensate for the limitations of the naive approach, end of chapter discussions introduce important results beyond those proved in the book, as part of an informal sketch of Lie theory and its history. John Stillwell is Professor of Mathematics at the University of San Francisco. He is the author of several highly regarded books published by Springer, including The Four Pillars of Geometry (2005), Elements of Number Theory (2003), Mathematics and Its History (Second Edition, 2002), Numbers and Geometry (1998) and Elements of Algebra (1994).

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