Liberals under Autocracy

Modernization and Civil Society in Russia, 1866–1904

Author: Anton A. Fedyashin

Publisher: University of Wisconsin Pres

ISBN: 0299284336

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 6985

With its rocky transition to democracy, post-Soviet Russia has made observers wonder whether a moderating liberalism could ever succeed in such a land of extremes. But in Liberals under Autocracy, Anton A. Fedyashin looks back at the vibrant Russian liberalism that flourished in the country’s late imperial era, chronicling its contributions to the evolution of Russia’s rich literary culture, socioeconomic thinking, and civil society. For five decades prior to the revolutions of 1917, The Herald of Europe (Vestnik Evropy) was the flagship journal of Russian liberalism, garnering a large readership. The journal articulated a distinctively Russian liberal agenda, one that encouraged social and economic modernization and civic participation through local self-government units (zemstvos) that defended individual rights and interests—especially those of the peasantry—in the face of increasing industrialization. Through the efforts of four men who turned The Herald into a cultural nexus in the imperial capital of St. Petersburg, the publication catalyzed the growing influence of journal culture and its formative effects on Russian politics and society. Challenging deep-seated assumptions about Russia’s intellectual history, Fedyashin’s work casts the country’s nascent liberalism as a distinctly Russian blend of self-governance, populism, and other national, cultural traditions. As such, the book stands as a contribution to the growing literature on imperial Russia's nonrevolutionary, intellectual movements that emphasized the role of local politics in both successful modernization and the evolution of civil society in an extraparliamentary environment.
Posted in History

Liberalism in Pre-revolutionary Russia

State, Nation, Empire

Author: Susanna Rabow-Edling

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351370308

Category: History

Page: 138

View: 7528

Nineteenth-century Russian intellectuals were faced with a dilemma. They had to choose between modernizing their country, thus imitating the West, or reaffirming what was perceived as their country's own values and thereby risk remaining socially underdeveloped and unable to compete with Western powers. Scholars have argued that this led to the emergence of an anti-Western, anti-modern ethnic nationalism. In this innovative book, Susanna Rabow-Edling shows that there was another solution to the conflicting agendas of modernization and cultural authenticity – a Russian liberal nationalism. This nationalism took various forms during the long nineteenth century, but aimed to promote reforms through a combination of liberalism, nationalism and imperialism.
Posted in History

The Radical Right in Late Imperial Russia

Dreams of a True Fatherland?

Author: George Gilbert

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317373022

Category: Social Science

Page: 282

View: 1620

The revolutionary movements in late tsarist Russia inspired a reaction by groups on the right. Although these groups were ostensibly defending the status quo, they were in fact, as this book argues, very radical in many ways. This book discusses these radical rightist groups, showing how they developed considerable popular appeal across the whole Russian Empire, securing support from a wide cross-section of society. The book considers the nature and organisation of the groups, their ideologies and polices on particular issues and how they changed over time. The book concludes by examining how and why the groups lost momentum and support in the years immediately before the First World War, and briefly explores how far present day rightist groups in Russia are connected to this earlier movement.
Posted in Social Science

Was Revolution Inevitable?

Turning Points of the Russian Revolution

Author: Tony Brenton

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190658916

Category:

Page: 384

View: 6913

Communism's rise and eventual fall in Eastern Europe is one of the great stories of the 20th century. Within this context, the Russian Revolution's role and legacy overshadows all else. In Was Revolution Inevitable?, former British Ambassador to Russia Sir Tony Brenton has gathered essays by leading historians to trace the events that led to the overthrow of the Tsarist regime and to pinpoint moments when those events could have unfolded in a drastically different way. What would the world be like had Fanny Kaplan succeeded in assassinating Vladimir Lenin in 1918? What if the Bolsheviks had never imposed the brutal "War Communism" initiatives that devastated the Russian peasants? What if Rasputin had talked Nicholas II out of involvement in World War One, which effectively led to the Revolution and sealed the demise of the Romanov dynasty? Preeminent scholars, including Orlando Figes, Richard Pipes, Douglas Smith, and Martin Sixsmith, ruminate on these questions and many others, assembling a series of pivotal moments that reveal what might have gone differently, and, if so, what the repercussions would have been. The contributors take a variety of approaches, from imagining an alternate history, to carefully studying a precarious moment of contingency, to disproving popular imagined alternatives. All of the chapters, however, shed light on Lenin's rise to power and the proliferation of his agenda, while assessing the influence of the revolution's pivotal moments on Russian-and global-politics. Provocative and illuminating, Was Revolution Inevitable? provides an in-depth exploration of the conflict that for nearly a century has shaped world history. The Russian Revolution put totalitarian communism into power, fueled Nazism and the Second World War, and forged one of the West's greatest antagonists. Here is a book that scrutinizes how the past, present, and future of global history could have been remarkably different had the events of 1917 unfolded differently and in the process deepens our understanding of what did happen and why.
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The Russian Liberals and the Revolution of 1905

Author: Peter Enticott

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317245512

Category: Social Science

Page: 222

View: 1134

There is a widespread notion that Russia is forever fated to be an authoritarian country where liberalism and democracy can never make real progress. However, at the beginning of the twentieth century there was an extremely influential “liberationist” movement which culminated in the formation of a modern, Western-style liberal party, the Constitutional Democrats or “Kadets”. The book provides a comprehensive history of the rise of the Kadets, focusing, in particular, on the revolutionary years 1905-06. It outlines how they dominated the first Duma elected by the people and analyses their policies, social composition and political tactics. The book challenges the view (shared by many historians) that the Kadets were inherently extreme, doctrinaire or unwilling to compromise, and argues that their eventual failure was primarily due to the intransigence of the old régime. The Russian Liberals and the Revolution of 1905 illustrates, in detail, that the Kadets offered a moderate alternative to reaction on the one hand and revolution on the other.
Posted in Social Science

A liberal world order in crisis

choosing between imposition and restraint

Author: Georg Sorensen

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801463300

Category: Political Science

Page: 149

View: 1094

The collapse of the bipolar international system near the end of the twentieth century changed political liberalism from a regional system with aspirations of universality to global ideological dominance as the basic vision of how international life should be organized. Yet in the last two decades liberal democracies have not been able to create an effective and legitimate liberal world order. In A Liberal World Order in Crisis, Georg Sorensen suggests that this is connected to major tensions between two strains of liberalism: a "liberalism of imposition" affirms the universal validity of liberal values and is ready to use any means to secure the worldwide expansion of liberal principles. A "liberalism of restraint" emphasizes nonintervention, moderation, and respect for others. This book is the first comprehensive discussion of how tensions in liberalism create problems for the establishment of a liberal world order. The book is also the first skeptical liberal statement to appear since the era of liberal optimism-based in anticipation of the end of history-in the 1990s. Sorensen identifies major competing analyses of world order and explains why their focus on balance-of-power competition, civilizational conflict, international terrorism, and fragile states is insufficient.
Posted in Political Science

Comparing Political Regimes

A Thematic Introduction to Comparative Politics

Author: Alan Siaroff

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 9781442600126

Category: Political Science

Page: 347

View: 7518

"Instead of the typical disparate mixture of themes and/or countries, Siaroff offers a unified analysis. The text is clear, thoughtful and well-written, and contains a wealth of data including excellent original tables and figures." - Peter Kingstone, University of Connecticut
Posted in Political Science

Wie Demokratien sterben

Und was wir dagegen tun können

Author: Steven Levitsky,Daniel Ziblatt

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 3641222915

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 7161

Ausgezeichnet mit dem NDR Kultur Sachbuchpreis 2018 als bestes Sachbuch des Jahres Demokratien sterben mit einem Knall oder mit einem Wimmern. Der Knall, also das oft gewaltsame Ende einer Demokratie durch einen Putsch, einen Krieg oder eine Revolution, ist spektakulärer. Doch das Dahinsiechen einer Demokratie, das Sterben mit einem Wimmern, ist alltäglicher – und gefährlicher, weil die Bürger meist erst aufwachen, wenn es zu spät ist. Mit Blick auf die USA, Lateinamerika und Europa zeigen die beiden Politologen Steven Levitsky und Daniel Ziblatt, woran wir erkennen, dass demokratische Institutionen und Prozesse ausgehöhlt werden. Und sie sagen, an welchen Punkten wir eingreifen können, um diese Entwicklung zu stoppen. Denn mit gezielter Gegenwehr lässt sich die Demokratie retten – auch vom Sterbebett.
Posted in Political Science

Russia and the New States of Eurasia

The Politics of Upheaval

Author: Karen Dawisha,Bruce Parrott

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521458955

Category: History

Page: 437

View: 779

This book surveys the possibilities for future alignments both among the new states of the former Soviet Union, and between the new states and their neighbours.
Posted in History

Über Tyrannei

Zwanzig Lektionen für den Widerstand

Author: Timothy Snyder

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406711472

Category: Political Science

Page: 127

View: 777

Wir sind nicht klüger als die Menschen, die erlebt haben, wie überall in Europa die Demokratie unterging und Faschismus, Nationalsozialismus und Kommunismus kamen. Aber einen Vorteil haben wir. Wir können aus ihren Erfahrungen lernen. „Leiste keinen vorauseilenden Gehorsam.“ So lautet die erste von 20 Lektionen für den Widerstand, mit denen Timothy Snyder die Bürger der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika vorbereitet auf das, was gestern noch unvorstellbar zu sein schien: einen Präsidenten, der das Gesicht der Demokratie verstümmelt und eine rechtsradikale Tyrannei errichtet. Doch nicht nur in den USA sind Populismus und autoritäres Führertum auf dem Vormarsch. Auch in Europa rückt die Gefahr von rechts immer näher – als ob es das 20. Jahrhundert und seine blutigen Lehren niemals gegeben hätte. Snyders historische Lektionen, die international Aufsehen erregt haben, sind ein Leitfaden für alle, die jetzt handeln wollen - und nicht erst, wenn es zu spät ist. Lektion 8: „Setze ein Zeichen.“ Dieses Buch tut es. Tun Sie es auch.
Posted in Political Science

Russia Under Yeltsin And Putin

Neo-Liberal Autocracy

Author: Boris Kagarlitsky

Publisher: Pluto Press

ISBN: 9780745315072

Category: History

Page: 312

View: 1817

This passionate, pitiless analysis of post-Soviet Russia should be read by all interested in that country's present and future. Library Journal"It is a sorry tale, told with passion and competence." The IndependentRussia has undergone more seismic changes over the last 100 years than almost any other country. The 1917 Revolution, the rapid industrialisation of the 1930s, the following devastation of the Second World War, and the present return to Capitalism has seen the deep impoverishment of the entire population. The key questions which Kagarlitsky addresses are how to understand these changes, and how to characterise the complex process of reform, revolution and counter revolution. In a country with such a turbulent and violent political history, what path should development take, and what lies ahead? Looking in detail at the nature of Russian society and politics since 1990, Kagarlitsky offers an introductory political analysis of the major political and economic developments that have taken place under President Yeltsin, and the legacy he bequeathed so unexpectedly to his successor Putin. He focuses on the role of the media in post-Soviet Russia, corporate structures and their influence on social conflict, the formation of the oligarchy and the role of the left in modern Russia. This is a valuable source for anyone requiring a basic understanding of post-Soviet Russia and a clear historical guide for all students of contemporary Russian history.
Posted in History

Eleanor Marx

A Life

Author: Rachel Holmes

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1408843234

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 528

View: 8635

Unrestrained by convention, lion-hearted and free, Eleanor Marx (1855-98) was an exceptional woman. Hers was the first English translation of Flaubert's Mme Bovary. She pioneered the theatre of Henrik Ibsen. She was the first woman to lead the British dock workers' and gas workers' trades unions. For years she worked tirelessly for her father, Karl Marx, as personal secretary and researcher. Later she edited many of his key political works, and laid the foundations for his biography. But foremost among her achievements was her pioneering feminism. For her, sexual equality was a necessary precondition for a just society. Drawing strength from her family and their wide circle, including Friedrich Engels and Wilhelm Liebknecht, Eleanor Marx set out into the world to make a difference ? her favourite motto: 'Go ahead!' With her closest friends - among them, Olive Schreiner, Havelock Ellis, George Bernard Shaw, Will Thorne and William Morris - she was at the epicentre of British socialism. She was also the only Marx to claim her Jewishness. But her life contained a deep sadness: she loved a faithless and dishonest man, the academic, actor and would-be playwright Edward Aveling. Yet despite the unhappiness he brought her, Eleanor Marx never wavered in her political life, ceaselessly campaigning and organising until her untimely end, which ? with its letters, legacies, secrets and hidden paternity ? reads in part like a novel by Wilkie Collins, and in part like the modern tragedy it was. Rachel Holmes has gone back to original sources to tell the story of the woman who did more than any other to transform British politics in the nineteenth century, who was unafraid to live her contradictions.
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

Europadämmerung

Ein Essay

Author: Ivan Krastev

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518752189

Category: Political Science

Page: 143

View: 1580

Nach 1989 waren Landkarten plötzlich nicht länger in Mode. Die Grenzen sollten geöffnet werden für Menschen, Güter, Kapital und Ideen. An die Stelle der alten Karten traten Graphiken, welche die ökonomische Verflechtung innerhalb der EU illustrierten. Heute erleben wir einen ideologischen Gezeitenwechsel: Wo die Mehrheit der Europäer noch vor einigen Jahren optimistisch auf die Globalisierung blickte, empfinden sie Migration und die Rückkehr der Geopolitik als Quelle der Unsicherheit. Ivan Krastev untersucht die Ursachen für diesen Wandel und erörtert, welche Formen die europäische Desintegration annehmen könnte. Ein Zerfall der EU, so Krastev, wäre eine Tragödie, die den Kontinent zu internationaler Bedeutungslosigkeit verurteilen würde.
Posted in Political Science

Diskriminierte Bürger und emanzipierte "Fremdstämmige"

Juden an deutschen und russischen Universitäten

Author: Trude Maurer

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783701102648

Category: Discrimination in higher education

Page: 119

View: 4912

Posted in Discrimination in higher education

Russia in the Nineteenth Century: Autocracy, Reform, and Social Change, 1814-1914

Autocracy, Reform, and Social Change, 1814-1914

Author: A. I. U. Polunov,Thomas C. Owen,L. G Zakharova

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317460499

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 304

View: 8535

This is a comprehensive interpretive history of Russia from the defeat of Napoleon to the eve of World War I. It is the first such work by a post-Soviet Russian scholar to appear in English. Drawing on the latest Russian and Western historical scholarship, Alexander Polunov examines the decay of the two central institutions of tsarist Russia: serfdom and autocracy. Polunov explains how the major social groups - the gentry, merchants, petty townspeople, peasants, and ethnic minorities - reacted to the Great Reforms, and why, despite the emergence of a civil society and capitalist institutions, a reformist, evolutionary path did not become an alternative to the Revolution of 1917. He provides detailed portraits of many tsarist bureaucrats and political reformers, complete with quotations from their writings, to explain how the principle of autocracy, although significantly weakened by the Great Reforms in mid-century, reasserted itself under the last two emperors. Polunov stresses the relevance, for Russians in the post-Soviet period, of issues that remained unresolved in the pre-Revolutionary period, such as the question of private property in land and the relationship between state regulation and private initiative in the economy.
Posted in Business & Economics

Democratizing or Reconfiguring Predatory Autocracy? Myths and Realities in Africa Today

Myths and Realities in Africa Today

Author: Tatah Mentan

Publisher: African Books Collective

ISBN: 9956558575

Category: Political Science

Page: 78

View: 6296

The celebrations that heralded democratic change in the 1990s in Africa have gradually faded into muffled cries of anger and attendant violence of despair. Almost everywhere on the continent so-called democratic leaders are openly subverting the people's will and disregarding national constitutions. Ordinary people find themselves removed from the centres of power, marginalized and reduced to helpless and hopeless onlookers as political leaders, their friends and families noisily enjoy the spoils of impunity. From Nigeria to Zimbabwe, Kenya to the Ivory Coast and Uganda to Cameroon, the writing is on the wall. The experiment with democracy has blatantly taken a dangerous nosedive. There is a crisis of honest, committed and democratic leadership, in spite of the advancements in education and intellectualism of the populace, and despite the influences of globalization and new understandings of governance. In this brief volume, Tatah Mentan makes an incisive diagnosis of how the "security forces" brutally crush protests against bids to stay in power through corrupt electoral practices as well as how opposition voices have been hunted down and crushed or intimidated into graveyard silence. This is a clarion call for Africans to embrace the values of People Power in synch with the dictates of the current global imperatives. There is no place for visionless leadership. Africans need to raise their voices to recapture their freedom.
Posted in Political Science

Die Demokratie und ihre Feinde

Wer gestaltet die neue Weltordnung?

Author: Robert Kagan

Publisher: Siedler Verlag

ISBN: 3641033713

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 7691

Plädoyer für eine demokratische Weltordnung Robert Kagan bringt die weltpolitische Situation seit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges auf den Punkt. Den demokratischen Staaten steht mit Russland, China und Iran eine wachsende Zahl nach Macht und Einfluss strebender autokratischer Regime gegenüber. Gleichzeitig werden die Werte des Westens vom Herrschaftsanspruch radikaler Islamisten bedroht. Leidenschaftlich und pointiert stellt uns Kagan vor die Alternative, entweder die Welt im Sinne unserer freiheitlich-demokratischen Vorstellungen zu formen oder uns in einer neuen Weltordnung einzurichten, die andere gestaltet haben. Nach dem Ende des Kalten Krieges keimte die Hoffnung, das Ende der Geschichte sei gekommen, eine friedvolle Zukunft liege vor uns. Diese Hoffnung war trügerisch. Die Jugoslawienkriege, der Kosovo-Konflikt und der 11. September zeigten auf brutale Weise, dass Nationalismen, ethnische Zugehörigkeiten und Religion die Völker nach wie vor trennen und in blutige Konflikte stürzen. Auch Großmachtansprüche gehören keineswegs der Vergangenheit an. Russland, China und Iran lassen ihre Muskeln spielen. Eindringlich ruft Robert Kagan die demokratischen Staaten dazu auf, sich zusammenzuschließen und gemeinsam für Demokratie und liberale Werte einzustehen. Die Geschichte ist zurückgekehrt, die hochfliegenden optimistischen Träume, die man nach dem Mauerfall und dem Zusammenbruch des Ostblocks gehegt hatte, sind ausgeträumt. Die Demokraten dürfen die Welt nicht den Despoten und Autokraten überlassen, sondern müssen aktiv an der Gestaltung einer neuen Weltordnung mitwirken. Kagan ist einer der scharfsinnigsten politischen Denker in den USA.
Posted in Social Science

Die neuen Paten

Trump, Putin, Erdogan, Orbán & Co. - Wie die autoritären Herrscher und ihre mafiosen Clans uns bedrohen

Author: Jürgen Roth

Publisher: Heyne Verlag

ISBN: 3641220513

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 4145

Wenn Mafiamethoden offizielle Regierungspolitik werden Sie sind die »neuen Paten«: rechtspopulistische und rechtsradikale Politiker wie Viktor Orbán in Ungarn, Recep Tayyip Erdogan in der Türkei, Wladimir Putin in Russland, Donald Trump in den USA. Ihr Ziel: eine neue politische Ordnung. Ihr ideologisches Arsenal: Nationalismus, Rassismus und Religion. Sie sind demokratisch gewählt, doch sie unterwerfen den Staat und seine Institutionen, um sich selbst, ihre Familien und Gefolgsleute hemmungslos zu bereichern – mit Mafiamethoden. Die Grenze zwischen den klassischen Aktivitäten des Staates und denen des organisierten Verbrechens verschwimmt, Mafia-Staaten entstehen. Weit nach Deutschland hinein reichen die Verbindungen: Hier werden Allianzen geschmiedet, Geschäfte gemacht, Profite eingestrichen. Erstmals deckt Jürgen Roth die Strukturen und Hintergründe auf – und die Verflechtungen dieser autoritären Herrscher mit der Mafia und der organisierten Kriminalität.
Posted in Political Science

Faschismus

Eine Warnung

Author: Madeleine Albright

Publisher: Dumont Buchverlag

ISBN: 3832184104

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 9390

»Manche mögen dieses Buch und besonders seinen Titel alarmierend finden. Gut!« MADELEINE ALBRIGHT Weltweit kommt es zu einem Wiedererstarken anti-demokratischer, repressiver und zerstörerischer Kräfte. Die ehemalige amerikanische Außenministerin Madeleine Albright zeigt, welche großen Ähnlichkeiten diese mit dem Faschismus des 20. Jahrhunderts haben. Die faschistischen Tendenzen treten wieder in Erscheinung und greifen in Europa, Teilen Asiens und den Vereinigten Staaten um sich. Albrights Familie stammt aus Prag und floh zweimal: zuerst vor den Nationalsozialisten, später vor dem kommunistischen Regime. Auf Grundlage dieser Erlebnisse und der Erfahrungen, die sie im Laufe ihrer diplomatischen Karriere sammelte, zeichnet sie die Gründe für die Rückkehr des Faschismus nach. Sie identifiziert die Faktoren, die zu seinem Aufstieg beitragen und warnt eindringlich vor den Folgen. Doch Madeleine Albright bietet auch klare Lösungsansätze an, etwa die Veränderung der Arbeitsbedingungen und das Verständnis für die Bedürfnisse der Menschen nach Kontinuität und moralischer Beständigkeit. Sie zeigt, dass allein die Demokratie politische und gesellschaftliche Konflikte mit Rationalität und offenen Diskussionen lösen kann.
Posted in Political Science

The Origins of Free Peoples

Author: Jason Caro

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1441165894

Category: Political Science

Page: 174

View: 6540

The Origins of Free Peoples posits demonstrates that free peoples are always being liberated and are never already free. Free peoples make freedom paramount over justice, equality, or other value values. The history of such peoples is different from their origins, which are always underway as free people must construct both their history and their Others. It is not simply that they become threatened; they must face the correct kind of threat. The book examines how freedom is discussed in classic and contemporary Anglo-American texts which argue , arguing the notion that freedom is natural and needs only to be guaranteed by limited government. Using a Continental and postmodernist approach, the book offers an alternative conceptualization of the discourses and practices of freedom represented in the writings of theorists such as Locke, Rawls, Benn, and Swanton. With its distinctive position in the discussion of freedom, The Origins of Free Peoples will appeal to social political theorists, political philosophers as well as to those looking to understand the main factors needed to genuinely liberate a people.
Posted in Political Science