Author: George Grätzer

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ISBN: 9783034800181

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## Lattice Theory: Foundation

This book started with Lattice Theory, First Concepts, in 1971. Then came General Lattice Theory, First Edition, in 1978, and the Second Edition twenty years later. Since the publication of the first edition in 1978, General Lattice Theory has become the authoritative introduction to lattice theory for graduate students and the standard reference for researchers. The First Edition set out to introduce and survey lattice theory. Some 12,000 papers have been published in the field since then; so Lattice Theory: Foundation focuses on introducing the field, laying the foundation for special topics and applications. Lattice Theory: Foundation, based on the previous three books, covers the fundamental concepts and results. The main topics are distributivity, congruences, constructions, modularity and semimodularity, varieties, and free products. The chapter on constructions is new, all the other chapters are revised and expanded versions from the earlier volumes. Almost 40 “diamond sections’’, many written by leading specialists in these fields, provide a brief glimpse into special topics beyond the basics. “Lattice theory has come a long way... For those who appreciate lattice theory, or who are curious about its techniques and intriguing internal problems, Professor Grätzer's lucid new book provides a most valuable guide to many recent developments. Even a cursory reading should provide those few who may still believe that lattice theory is superficial or naive, with convincing evidence of its technical depth and sophistication.” Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society “Grätzer’s book General Lattice Theory has become the lattice theorist’s bible.” Mathematical Reviews
## Lattice Theory: Foundation

This book started with Lattice Theory, First Concepts, in 1971. Then came General Lattice Theory, First Edition, in 1978, and the Second Edition twenty years later. Since the publication of the first edition in 1978, General Lattice Theory has become the authoritative introduction to lattice theory for graduate students and the standard reference for researchers. The First Edition set out to introduce and survey lattice theory. Some 12,000 papers have been published in the field since then; so Lattice Theory: Foundation focuses on introducing the field, laying the foundation for special topics and applications. Lattice Theory: Foundation, based on the previous three books, covers the fundamental concepts and results. The main topics are distributivity, congruences, constructions, modularity and semimodularity, varieties, and free products. The chapter on constructions is new, all the other chapters are revised and expanded versions from the earlier volumes. Almost 40 “diamond sections’’, many written by leading specialists in these fields, provide a brief glimpse into special topics beyond the basics. “Lattice theory has come a long way... For those who appreciate lattice theory, or who are curious about its techniques and intriguing internal problems, Professor Grätzer's lucid new book provides a most valuable guide to many recent developments. Even a cursory reading should provide those few who may still believe that lattice theory is superficial or naive, with convincing evidence of its technical depth and sophistication.” Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society “Grätzer’s book General Lattice Theory has become the lattice theorist’s bible.” Mathematical Reviews
## General Lattice Theory

In 20 years, tremendous progress has been made in Lattice Theory. Nevertheless, the change is in the superstructure not in the foundation. Accordingly, I decided to leave the book unchanged and add appendices to record the change. In the first appendix: Retrospective, I briefly review developments from the point of view of this book, specifically, the major results of the last 20 years and solutions of the problems proposed in this book. It is remarkable how many difficult problems have been solved! I was lucky in getting an exceptional group of people to write the other appendices: Brian A. Davey and Hilary A. Priestley on distributive lattices and duality, Friedrich Wehrung on continuous geometries, Marcus Greferath and Stefan E. Schmidt on projective lattice geometries, Peter Jipsen and Henry Rose on varieties, Ralph Freese on free lattices, Bernhard Ganter and Rudolf Wille on formal concept analysis; Thomas Schmidt collaborated with me on congruence lattices. Many of these same people are responsible for the definitive books on the same subjects. I changed very little in the book proper. The diagrams have been redrawn and the book was typeset in ~1EX. To bring the notation up-to-date, I substituted ConL for C(L), IdL for I(L), and so on. Almost 200 mathematicians helped me with this project, from correcting typos to writing long essays on the topics that should go into Retrospective. The last section of Retrospective lists the major contributors. My deeply felt thanks to all of them.
## Lattice Theory: Special Topics and Applications

George Grätzer's Lattice Theory: Foundation is his third book on lattice theory (General Lattice Theory, 1978, second edition, 1998). In 2009, Grätzer considered updating the second edition to reflect some exciting and deep developments. He soon realized that to lay the foundation, to survey the contemporary field, to pose research problems, would require more than one volume and more than one person. So Lattice Theory: Foundation provided the foundation. Now we complete this project with Lattice Theory: Special Topics and Applications, in two volumes, written by a distinguished group of experts, to cover some of the vast areas not in Foundation. This second volume is divided into ten chapters contributed by K. Adaricheva, N. Caspard, R. Freese, P. Jipsen, J.B. Nation, N. Reading, H. Rose, L. Santocanale, and F. Wehrung.
## Lattice Theory

This three-volume-set comprises the complete lattice theory project. Volume 1 of the set, Lattice Theory: Foundation, is the revised and enlarged third edition of General Lattice Theory. It focuses on introducing the field and covers the fundamental concepts and results. The two Special Topics and Applications volumes (volumes 2 and 3 of the set), jointly edited by George Grätzer and Friedrich Wehrung, update the reader on some of the vast areas not in Foundation. Volume 1 is divided into three parts. Part I. Topology and Lattices includes two chapters by Klaus Keimel, Jimmie Lawson and Ales Pultr, Jiri Sichler. Part II. Special Classes of Finite Lattices comprises four chapters by Gabor Czedli, George Grätzer and Joseph P. S. Kung. Part III. Congruence Lattices of Infinite Lattices and Beyond includes four chapters by Friedrich Wehrung and George Grätzer. Volume 2 is divided into ten chapters contributed by K. Adaricheva, N. Caspard, R. Freese, P. Jipsen, J.B. Nation, N. Reading, H. Rose, L. Santocanale, and F. Wehrung.
## Lattice Theory

This outstanding text is written in clear language and enhanced with many exercises, diagrams, and proofs. It discusses historical developments and future directions and provides an extensive bibliography and references. 1971 edition.
## Introduction to Lattices and Order

This new edition of Introduction to Lattices and Order presents a radical reorganization and updating, though its primary aim is unchanged. The explosive development of theoretical computer science in recent years has, in particular, influenced the book's evolution: a fresh treatment of fixpoints testifies to this and Galois connections now feature prominently. An early presentation of concept analysis gives both a concrete foundation for the subsequent theory of complete lattices and a glimpse of a methodology for data analysis that is of commercial value in social science. Classroom experience has led to numerous pedagogical improvements and many new exercises have been added. As before, exposure to elementary abstract algebra and the notation of set theory are the only prerequisites, making the book suitable for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students. It will also be a valuable resource for anyone who meets ordered structures.
## Undecidable Theories

## Lattice Theory

Since its original publication in 1940, this book has been revised and modernized several times, most notably in 1948 (second edition) and in 1967 (third edition). The material is organized into four main parts: general notions and concepts of lattice theory (Chapters I-V), universal algebra (Chapters VI-VII), applications of lattice theory to various areas of mathematics (Chapters VIII-XII), and mathematical structures that can be developed using lattices (Chapters XIII-XVII). At the end of the book there is a list of 166 unsolved problems in lattice theory, many of which still remain open. It is excellent reading, and ... the best place to start when one wishes to explore some portion of lattice theory or to appreciate the general flavor of the field. --Bulletin of the AMS
## Semigroups in Complete Lattices

This monograph provides a modern introduction to the theory of quantales. First coined by C.J. Mulvey in 1986, quantales have since developed into a significant topic at the crossroads of algebra and logic, of notable interest to theoretical computer science. This book recasts the subject within the powerful framework of categorical algebra, showcasing its versatility through applications to C*- and MV-algebras, fuzzy sets and automata. With exercises and historical remarks at the end of each chapter, this self-contained book provides readers with a valuable source of references and hints for future research. This book will appeal to researchers across mathematics and computer science with an interest in category theory, lattice theory, and many-valued logic.
## An Introduction to Mathematical Cryptography

This self-contained introduction to modern cryptography emphasizes the mathematics behind the theory of public key cryptosystems and digital signature schemes. The book focuses on these key topics while developing the mathematical tools needed for the construction and security analysis of diverse cryptosystems. Only basic linear algebra is required of the reader; techniques from algebra, number theory, and probability are introduced and developed as required. This text provides an ideal introduction for mathematics and computer science students to the mathematical foundations of modern cryptography. The book includes an extensive bibliography and index; supplementary materials are available online. The book covers a variety of topics that are considered central to mathematical cryptography. Key topics include: classical cryptographic constructions, such as Diffie–Hellmann key exchange, discrete logarithm-based cryptosystems, the RSA cryptosystem, and digital signatures; fundamental mathematical tools for cryptography, including primality testing, factorization algorithms, probability theory, information theory, and collision algorithms; an in-depth treatment of important cryptographic innovations, such as elliptic curves, elliptic curve and pairing-based cryptography, lattices, lattice-based cryptography, and the NTRU cryptosystem. The second edition of An Introduction to Mathematical Cryptography includes a significant revision of the material on digital signatures, including an earlier introduction to RSA, Elgamal, and DSA signatures, and new material on lattice-based signatures and rejection sampling. Many sections have been rewritten or expanded for clarity, especially in the chapters on information theory, elliptic curves, and lattices, and the chapter of additional topics has been expanded to include sections on digital cash and homomorphic encryption. Numerous new exercises have been included.
## Probabilistic Lattices

There are many books on lattice theory in the field, but none interfaces with the foundations of probability. This book does. It also develops new probability theories with rigorous foundations for decision theory and applies them to specific well-known problematic examples. There is only one other book that attempts this. It uses quantum probability theory from physics. The new probability theories developed in this book are different; they are not borrowed from physics but are explicitly designed for decision theory.
## Foundations of Crystallography with Computer Applications, Second Edition

Taking a straightforward, logical approach that emphasizes symmetry and crystal relationships, Foundations of Crystallography with Computer Applications, Second Edition provides a thorough explanation of the topic for students studying the solid state in chemistry, physics, materials science, geological sciences, and engineering. It is also written for scientists who want to teach themselves. Computers are an essential part of crystallography, and computer-based exercises are integrated into this book. The material is presented with the goal of creating an understanding of how atoms are arranged in crystals and how crystal systems are related to each other. See What’s New in the Second Edition: Eight new chapters that give detailed crystallographic analyses of one crystal chosen for each crystal system Numerous molecular examples and suggestions for student projects Coverage of special topics that naturally arise in the treatment of the crystals Suggestions for student projects with date that can be found in the free Teaching Subset of the Cambridge Structural Database Point group and space group diagrams have been color coded using a new scheme devised by the author to emphasize the change of handedness of the symmetry operations All the Starter Programs have been rewritten and improved, and a new one has been added in Chapter 6 on the graphing of intensity vs. 2θ for powder diffraction data New appendices contain detailed information about the 32 three-dimensional point groups and the 10 two-dimensional point groups The book explains the individual entities, such as symmetry operations, and also explains how they fit together in a larger context. Coverage includes lattices, symmetry operations, metric matrices, point groups, space groups, reciprocal lattices, properties of x-rays, and electron density maps, all leading to a formal description of the crystal structures and an interpretation of the published crystallographic data. The author connects general properties such as the piezoelectric effect, compressibility, thermal expansion, and Mosely’s relationship in ordering the elements of the periodic table giving students a thorough foundation in the subject.
## Foundations of Quantum Programming

Foundations of Quantum Programming discusses how new programming methodologies and technologies developed for current computers can be extended to exploit the unique power of quantum computers, which promise dramatic advantages in processing speed over currently available computer systems. Governments and industries around the globe are now investing vast amounts of money with the expectation of building practical quantum computers. Drawing upon years of experience and research in quantum computing research and using numerous examples and illustrations, Mingsheng Ying has created a very useful reference on quantum programming languages and important tools and techniques required for quantum programming, making the book a valuable resource for academics, researchers, and developers. Demystifies the theory of quantum programming using a step-by-step approach Covers the interdisciplinary nature of quantum programming by providing examples from many different fields including, engineering, computer science, medicine, and life sciences Includes techniques and tools to solve complex control flow patterns and synchronize computations Presents a coherent and self-contained treatment that will be valuable for academics and industrial researchers and developers
## Formal Concept Analysis

Formal concept analysis has been developed as a field of applied mathematics based on the mathematization of concept and concept hierarchy. It thereby allows us to mathematically represent, analyze, and construct conceptual structures. The formal concept analysis approach has been proven successful in a wide range of application fields. This book constitutes a comprehensive and systematic presentation of the state of the art of formal concept analysis and its applications. The first part of the book is devoted to foundational and methodological topics. The contributions in the second part demonstrate how formal concept analysis is successfully used outside of mathematics, in linguistics, text retrieval, association rule mining, data analysis, and economics. The third part presents applications in software engineering.
## The Congruences of a Finite Lattice

This is a self-contained exposition by one of the leading experts in lattice theory, George Grätzer, presenting the major results of the last 70 years on congruence lattices of finite lattices, featuring the author's signature Proof-by-Picture method. Key features: * Insightful discussion of techniques to construct "nice" finite lattices with given congruence lattices and "nice" congruence-preserving extensions * Contains complete proofs, an extensive bibliography and index, and over 140 illustrations * This new edition includes two new parts on Planar Semimodular Lattices and The Order of Principle Congruences, covering the research of the last 10 years The book is appropriate for a one-semester graduate course in lattice theory, and it is a practical reference for researchers studying lattices. Reviews of the first edition: "There exist a lot of interesting results in this area of lattice theory, and some of them are presented in this book. [This] monograph...is an exceptional work in lattice theory, like all the contributions by this author. ... The way this book is written makes it extremely interesting for the specialists in the field but also for the students in lattice theory. Moreover, the author provides a series of companion lectures which help the reader to approach the Proof-by-Picture sections." (Cosmin Pelea, Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Mathematica, Vol. LII (1), 2007) "The book is self-contained, with many detailed proofs presented that can be followed step-by-step. [I]n addition to giving the full formal details of the proofs, the author chooses a somehow more pedagogical way that he calls Proof-by-Picture, somehow related to the combinatorial (as opposed to algebraic) nature of many of the presented results. I believe that this book is a much-needed tool for any mathematician wishing a gentle introduction to the field of congruences representations of finite lattices, with emphasis on the more 'geometric' aspects." —Mathematical Reviews
## Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices

This is a classic exposition on the dynamics of crystal lattices, co-written by one of the founders of quantum mechanics. It deals with the general statistical mechanics of ideal lattices, and moves on to long lattice waves, thermal, and optical properties of crystals.
## Algorithmic Number Theory: Efficient algorithms

Algorithmic Number Theory provides a thorough introduction to the design and analysisof algorithms for problems from the theory of numbers. Although not an elementary textbook, itincludes over 300 exercises with suggested solutions. Every theorem not proved in the text or leftas an exercise has a reference in the notes section that appears at the end of each chapter. Thebibliography contains over 1,750 citations to the literature. Finally, it successfully blendscomputational theory with practice by covering some of the practical aspects of algorithmimplementations.The subject of algorithmic number theory represents the marriage of number theorywith the theory of computational complexity. It may be briefly defined as finding integer solutionsto equations, or proving their non-existence, making efficient use of resources such as time andspace. Implicit in this definition is the question of how to efficiently represent the objects inquestion on a computer. The problems of algorithmic number theory are important both for theirintrinsic mathematical interest and their application to random number generation, codes forreliable and secure information transmission, computer algebra, and other areas.Publisher's Note:Volume 2 was not written. Volume 1 is, therefore, a stand-alone publication.
## Lattice Gauge Theories

This book provides a broad introduction to gauge field theories formulated on a space-time lattice, and in particular of QCD. It serves as a textbook for advanced graduate students, and also provides the reader with the necessary analytical and numerical techniques to carry out research on his own. Although the analytic calculations are sometimes quite demanding and go beyond an introduction, they are discussed in sufficient detail, so that the reader can fill in the missing steps. The book also introduces the reader to interesting problems which are currently under intensive investigation. Whenever possible, the main ideas are exemplified in simple models, before extending them to realistic theories. Special emphasis is placed on numerical results obtained from pioneering work. These are displayed in a great number of figures. Beyond the necessary amendments and slight extensions of some sections in the third edition, the fourth edition includes an expanded section on Calorons — a subject which has been under intensive investigation during the last twelve years.
## Lattice

Written by the author of the lattice system, this book describes lattice in considerable depth, beginning with the essentials and systematically delving into specific low levels details as necessary. No prior experience with lattice is required to read the book, although basic familiarity with R is assumed. The book contains close to 150 figures produced with lattice. Many of the examples emphasize principles of good graphical design; almost all use real data sets that are publicly available in various R packages. All code and figures in the book are also available online, along with supplementary material covering more advanced topics.

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Author: George Grätzer

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