Lasers, Clocks and Drag-Free Control

Exploration of Relativistic Gravity in Space

Author: Hansjörg Dittus,Claus Lämmerzahl,Slava G. Turyshev

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540343776

Category: Science

Page: 642

View: 3096

Written by international experts, this book explores the possibilities for the next 20 years in conducting gravitational experiments in space that would make the most of the new and much-improved existing capabilities. They start from the premise that over the next decade the gravitational physics community will benefit from dramatic improvements in many technologies critical to the tests of gravity. This volume contains a comprehensive presentation of the theory, technology, missions and projects on relativistic gravity in space.
Posted in Science

Space-Time Reference Systems

Author: Michael Soffel,Ralf Langhans

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642302262

Category: Science

Page: 314

View: 2680

The high accuracy of modern astronomical spatial-temporal reference systems has made them considerably complex. This book offers a comprehensive overview of such systems. It begins with a discussion of ‘The Problem of Time’, including recent developments in the art of clock making (e.g., optical clocks) and various time scales. The authors address the definitions and realization of spatial coordinates by reference to remote celestial objects such as quasars. After an extensive treatment of classical equinox-based coordinates, new paradigms for setting up a celestial reference system are introduced that no longer refer to the translational and rotational motion of the Earth. The role of relativity in the definition and realization of such systems is clarified. The topics presented in this book are complemented by exercises (with solutions). The authors offer a series of files, written in Maple, a standard computer algebra system, to help readers get a feel for the various models and orders of magnitude. Beyond astrometry, the main fields of application of high-precision astronomical spatial-temporal reference systems and frames are navigation (GPS, interplanetary spacecraft navigation) and global geodynamics, which provide a high-precision Celestial Reference System and its link to any terrestrial spatial-temporal reference system. Mankind’s urgent environmental questions can only be answered in the context of appropriate reference systems in which both aspects, space and time, are realized with a sufficiently high level of accuracy. This book addresses all those interested in high-precision reference systems and the various techniques (GPS, Very Long Baseline Interferometry, Satellite Laser Ranging, Lunar Laser Ranging) necessary for their realization, including the production and dissemination of time signals.
Posted in Science

Optical Nano and Micro Actuator Technology

Author: George K. Knopf,Yukitoshi Otani

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351833510

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 664

View: 887

In Optical Nano and Micro Actuator Technology, leading engineers, material scientists, chemists, physicists, laser scientists, and manufacturing specialists offer an in-depth, wide-ranging look at the fundamental and unique characteristics of light-driven optical actuators. They discuss how light can initiate physical movement and control a variety of mechanisms that perform mechanical work at the micro- and nanoscale. The book begins with the scientific background necessary for understanding light-driven systems, discussing the nature of light and the interaction between light and NEMS/MEMS devices. It then covers innovative optical actuator technologies that have been developed for many applications. The book examines photoresponsive materials that enable the design of optically driven structures and mechanisms and describes specific light-driven technologies that permit the manipulation of micro- and nanoscale objects. It also explores applications in optofluidics, bioMEMS and biophotonics, medical device design, and micromachine control. Inspiring the next generation of scientists and engineers to advance light-driven technologies, this book gives readers a solid grounding in this emerging interdisciplinary area. It thoroughly explains the scientific language and fundamental principles, provides a holistic view of optical nano and micro actuator systems, and illustrates current and potential applications of light-driven systems.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Recent Developments in Gravitation and Cosmology

3rd Mexican Meeting on Mathematical and Experimental Physics

Author: Alfredo Macias,Claus Lämmerzahl,Abel Camacho,Dario Nuñez

Publisher: Amer Inst of Physics

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 315

View: 4497

The Third Mexican Meeting on Mathematical and Experimental Physics brought together scientists from many different fields. The Meeting was divided into three Symposia: (i) Physical Chemistry, (ii) Biological Physics, (iii) Gravitation and Cosmology. This proceedings presents the papers of the Gravitation and Cosmology Symposium. The main goal of the Gravitation and Cosmology Symposium was to present the perspectives of scientists in the fields of cosmology and gravitation regarding their current work as well as the anticipated development of their research fields in the near future.
Posted in Science

The Eleventh Marcel Grossmann Meeting

On Recent Developments in Theoretical and Experimental General Relativity, Gravitation and Relativistic Field Theories, Proceedings of the MG11 Meetin

Author: Hagen Kleinert,Robert T. Jantzen

Publisher: World Scientific Pub Co Inc

ISBN: 9789812834263

Category: Science

Page: 3120

View: 4277

The Marcel Grossmann Meetings are three-yearly forums that meet to discuss recent advances in gravitation, general relativity and relativistic field theories, emphasizing their mathematical foundations, physical predictions and experimental tests. These meetings aim to facilitate the exchange of ideas among scientists, to deepen our understanding of spacetime structures, and to review the status of ongoing experiments and observations testing Einstein's theory of gravitation either from ground or space-based experiments. Since the first meeting in 1975 in Trieste, Italy, which was established by Remo Ruffini and Abdus Salam, the range of topics presented at these meetings has gradually widened to accommodate issues of major scientific interest, and attendance has grown to attract more than 900 participants from over 80 countries.This proceedings volume of the eleventh meeting in the series, held in Berlin in 2006, highlights and records the developments and applications of Einsteins theory in diverse areas ranging from fundamental field theories to particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology, made possible by unprecedented technological developments in experimental and observational techniques from space, ground and underground observatories. It provides a broad sampling of the current work in the field, especially relativistic astrophysics, including many reviews by leading figures in the research community.
Posted in Science

Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics

A Publication of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Devoted to the Technology of Dynamics and Control

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Airplanes

Page: N.A

View: 1281

Posted in Airplanes

Laser Interferometer Space Antenna

6th International LISA Symposium

Author: Stephen M. Merkowitz,Jeffrey C. Livas

Publisher: American Inst. of Physics

ISBN: 9780735403727

Category: Science

Page: 719

View: 4965

LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) is a joint NASA/ESA mission to detect and observe gravitational waves in space. Topics discussed in this sixth symposium include: fundamental gravitational physics and astrophysics of LISA, gravitational data analysis, LISA instrumentation, LISA Pathfinder, and ground-based gravitational wave antennas.
Posted in Science

Highlights in Space

Progress in Space Science, Technology and Applications

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Astronautics

Page: N.A

View: 3321

Posted in Astronautics

Fundamental Physics in Space

Proceedings of the H0.1 Symposium of COSPAR Scientific Commission H which was Held During the Thirty-second COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Nagoya, Japan, 12-19 July, 1998

Author: Stefano Vitale

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Astrophysics

Page: 156

View: 2591

Posted in Astrophysics

Optical Nanomanipulation

Author: David L Andrews,David S Bradshaw

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 168174466X

Category: Science

Page: 107

View: 9031

This book provides a broad introductory survey of this remarkable field, aiming to establish and clearly differentiate its physical principles, and also to provide a snapshot portrait of many of the most prominent current applications. Primary emphasis is placed on developing an understanding of the fundamental photonic origin behind the mechanism that operates in each type of effect. To this end, the first few chapters introduce and develop core theory, focusing on the physical significance and source of the most salient parameters, and revealing the detailed interplay between the key material and optical properties. Where appropriate, both classical and photonic (quantum mechanical) representations are discussed. The number of equations is purposely kept to a minimum, and only a broad background in optical physics is assumed. With copious examples and illustrations, each of the subsequent chapters then sets out to explain and exhibit the main features and uses of the various distinct types of mechanism that can be involved in optical nanomanipulation, including some of the very latest developments. To complete the scene, we also briefly discuss applications to larger, biological particles. Overall, this book aims to deliver to the non-specialist an amenable introduction to the technically more advanced literature on individual manipulation methods. Full references to the original research papers are given throughout, and an up-to-date bibliography is provided for each chapter, which directs the reader to other selected, more specialised sources.
Posted in Science

Optical Trapping and Manipulation of Neutral Particles Using Lasers

Author: Arthur Ashkin

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated

ISBN: 9789810240578

Category: Science

Page: 915

View: 6911

This important volume contains selected papers and extensive commentaries on laser trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using radiation pressure forces. Such techniques apply to a variety of small particles, such as atoms, molecules, macroscopic dielectric particles, living cells, and organelles within cells. These optical methods have had a revolutionary impact on the fields of atomic and molecular physics, biophysics, and many aspects of nanotechnology.In atomic physics, the trapping and cooling of atoms down to nanokelvins and even picokelvin temperatures are possible. These are the lowest temperatures in the universe. This made possible the first demonstration of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic and molecular vapors. Some of the applications are high precision atomic clocks, gyroscopes, the measurement of gravity, cryptology, atomic computers, cavity quantum electrodynamics and coherent atom lasers.A major application in biophysics is the study of the mechanical properties of the many types of motor molecules, mechanoenzymes, and other macromolecules responsible for the motion of organelles within cells and the locomotion of entire cells. Unique in vitro and in vivo assays study the driving forces, stepping motion, kinetics, and efficiency of these motors as they move along the cell's cytoskeleton. Positional and temporal resolutions have been achieved, making possible the study of RNA and DNA polymerases, as they undergo their various copying, backtracking, and error correcting functions on a single base pair basis.Many applications in nanotechnology involve particle and cell sorting, particle rotation, microfabrication of simple machines, microfluidics, and other micrometer devices. The number of applications continues to grow at a rapid rate.The author is the discoverer of optical trapping and optical tweezers. With his colleagues, he first demonstrated optical levitation, the trapping of atoms, and tweezer trapping and manipulation of living cells and biological particles.This is the only review volume covering the many fields of optical trapping and manipulation. The intention is to provide a selective guide to the literature and to teach how optical traps really work.
Posted in Science

Fundamental physics in space

Author: COSPAR. Scientific Commission SC-H.

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Cosmic physics

Page: 7

View: 5034

Posted in Cosmic physics

Fundamental Physics

Author: Mester J. (John)

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Gravitation

Page: 6

View: 7888

Posted in Gravitation

Gravitation and Cosmology

2nd Mexican Meeting on Mathematical and Experimental Physics

Author: Alfredo Macias,Claus Laemmerzahl,Dario Nunez

Publisher: American Inst. of Physics

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 259

View: 1903

The Second Mexican Meeting on Mathematical and Experimental Physics brought together scientists from many different fields. The Meeting was divided into three Symposia: (i) Materials Science and Applied Physics, (ii) Statistical Physics and Beyond, (iii) Gravitation and Cosmology. This proceedings presents the papers of the Gravitation and Cosmology Symposium. The main goal of the Gravitation and Cosmology Symposium was to present the perspectives of scientists in the fields of cosmology and gravitation regarding their current work as well as the anticipated development of their research fields in the near future.
Posted in Science

Mass and Motion in General Relativity

Author: Luc Blanchet,Alessandro Spallicci,Bernard Whiting

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048130153

Category: Science

Page: 626

View: 4915

From the infinitesimal scale of particle physics to the cosmic scale of the universe, research is concerned with the nature of mass. While there have been spectacular advances in physics during the past century, mass still remains a mysterious entity at the forefront of current research. Our current perspective on gravitation has arisen over millennia, through the contemplation of falling apples, lift thought experiments and notions of stars spiraling into black holes. In this volume, the world’s leading scientists offer a multifaceted approach to mass by giving a concise and introductory presentation based on insights from their respective fields of research on gravity. The main theme is mass and its motion within general relativity and other theories of gravity, particularly for compact bodies. Within this framework, all articles are tied together coherently, covering post-Newtonian and related methods as well as the self-force approach to the analysis of motion in curved space-time, closing with an overview of the historical development and a snapshot on the actual state of the art. All contributions reflect the fundamental role of mass in physics, from issues related to Newton’s laws, to the effect of self-force and radiation reaction within theories of gravitation, to the role of the Higgs boson in modern physics. High-precision measurements are described in detail, modified theories of gravity reproducing experimental data are investigated as alternatives to dark matter, and the fundamental problem of reconciling any theory of gravity with the physics of quantum fields is addressed. Auxiliary chapters set the framework for theoretical contributions within the broader context of experimental physics. The book is based upon the lectures of the CNRS School on Mass held in Orléans, France, in June 2008. All contributions have been anonymously refereed and, with the cooperation of the authors, revised by the editors to ensure overall consistency.
Posted in Science

One Hundred Years Of General Relativity: From Genesis And Empirical Foundations To Gravitational Waves, Cosmology And Quantum Gravity -

Author: Ni Wei-tou

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814678511

Category: Science

Page: 636

View: 788

The aim of this two-volume title is to give a comprehensive review of one hundred years of development of general relativity and its scientific influences. This unique title provides a broad introduction and review to the fascinating and profound subject of general relativity, its historical development, its important theoretical consequences, gravitational wave detection and applications to astrophysics and cosmology. The series focuses on five aspects of the theory: The first three topics are covered in Volume 1 and the remaining two are covered in Volume 2. While this is a two-volume title, it is designed so that each volume can be a standalone reference volume for the related topic.
Posted in Science

High Time Resolution Astrophysics

Author: Don Phelan,Oliver Ryan,Andrew Shearer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402065183

Category: Science

Page: 350

View: 4518

This is quite simply the first volume of its kind dedicated to the area of high time resolution astrophysics. High time resolution astrophysics (HTRA) is an important new window on the universe and a vital tool in understanding a range of phenomena from diverse objects and radiative processes. Underlining this science foundation, technological developments in both instrumentation and detectors are described.
Posted in Science