Laser-Based Measurements for Time and Frequency Domain Applications

A Handbook

Author: Pasquale Maddaloni,Marco Bellini,Paolo De Natale

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1439841535

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 764

View: 2733

Foreword by Nobel laureate Professor Theodor W. Hänsch of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Based on the authors’ experimental work over the last 25 years, Laser-Based Measurements for Time and Frequency Domain Applications: A Handbook presents basic concepts, state-of-the-art applications, and future trends in optical, atomic, and molecular physics. It provides all the background information on the main kinds of laser sources and techniques, offers a detailed account of the most recent results obtained for time- and frequency-domain applications of lasers, and develops the theoretical framework necessary for understanding the experimental applications. After a historical introduction, the book describes the basic concepts and mathematical tools required for studying the physics of oscillators. It then discusses microwave and optical resonators, crucial aspects of operation and fundamental properties of lasers, and precision spectroscopy and absolute frequency metrology. It also focuses on microwave and optical frequency standards and explores current and potential research directions. Accessible to scientists, postdoc researchers, and advanced undergraduate students, this self-contained book gives a wide-ranging, balanced overview of the areas—including frequency standards and clocks, ultra-high-precision spectroscopy, quantum information, and environmental metrology—revolutionized by the recent advent of optical frequency comb synthesizers (OFCSs) based on femtosecond mode-locked lasers. The book is also a useful guide to cutting-edge research for manufacturers of advanced laser systems and optical devices.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Advanced Biophotonics

Tissue Optical Sectioning

Author: Ruikang K. Wang,Valery V Tuchin

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1439895821

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 733

View: 340

Despite a number of books on biophotonics imaging for medical diagnostics and therapy, the field still lacks a comprehensive imaging book that describes state-of-the-art biophotonics imaging approaches intensively developed in recent years. Addressing this shortfall, Advanced Biophotonics: Tissue Optical Sectioning presents contemporary methods and applications of biophotonics imaging. Gathering research otherwise scattered in numerous physical, chemical, biophysical, and biomedical journals, the book helps researchers, bioengineers, and medical doctors understand major recent bioimaging technologies and the underlying biophotonics science. Well-known international experts explore a variety of "hot" biomedical optics and biophotonics problems, including the use of photoacoustic imaging to investigate the molecular and cellular processes in living systems. The book also covers Monte Carlo modeling, tissue optics and tissue optical clearing, nonlinear optical microscopy, various aspects of optical coherence tomography, multimodal tomography, adaptive optics, and signal imaging. With 58 color images, this book represents a valuable contribution to the biomedical and biophotonics literature. Designed for researchers and practitioners in biophotonics, the book is also a useful resource for scientists in laser physics and technology, fiber optics, spectroscopy, materials science, biology, and medicine as well as students studying biomedical physics and engineering, biomedical optics, and biophotonics.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Handbook of Silicon Photonics

Author: Laurent Vivien,Lorenzo Pavesi

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1439836116

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 851

View: 7504

The development of integrated silicon photonic circuits has recently been driven by the Internet and the push for high bandwidth as well as the need to reduce power dissipation induced by high data-rate signal transmission. To reach these goals, efficient passive and active silicon photonic devices, including waveguide, modulators, photodetectors, multiplexers, light sources, and various subsystems, have been developed that take advantage of state-of-the-art silicon technology. Suitable for both specialists and newcomers, Handbook of Silicon Photonics presents a coherent and comprehensive overview of this field from the fundamentals to integrated systems and applications. It covers a broad spectrum of materials and applications, emphasizing passive and active photonic devices, fabrication, integration, and the convergence with CMOS technology. The book’s self-contained chapters are written by international experts from academia and various photonics-related industries. The handbook starts with the basics of silicon as an optical material. It then describes the building blocks needed to drive integrated silicon photonic circuits and explains how these building blocks are incorporated in complex photonic/electronic circuits. The book also presents applications of silicon photonics in numerous fields, including biophotonics and photovoltaics. With many illustrations, including some in color, this handbook provides an up-to-date reference to the broad and rapidly changing area of silicon photonics. It shows how basic science and innovative technological applications are pushing the field forward.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Handbook of Optical Dimensional Metrology

Author: Kevin Harding

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1439854823

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 506

View: 2319

Due to their speed, data density, and versatility, optical metrology tools play important roles in today’s high-speed industrial manufacturing applications. Handbook of Optical Dimensional Metrology provides useful background information and practical examples to help readers understand and effectively use state-of-the-art optical metrology methods. The book first builds a foundation for evaluating optical measurement methods. It explores the many terms of optical metrology and compares it to other forms of metrology, such as mechanical gaging, highlighting the limitations and errors associated with each mode of measurement at a general level. This comparison is particularly helpful to current industry users who operate the most widely applied mechanical tools. The book then focuses on each application area of measurement, working down from large area to medium-sized to submicron measurements. It describes the measurement of large objects on the scale of buildings, the measurement of durable manufactured goods such as aircraft engines and appliances, and the measurement of fine features on the micron and nanometer scales. In each area, the book covers fast, coarse measures as well as the finest measurements possible. Best practices and practical examples for each technology aid readers in effectively using the methods. Requiring no prior expertise in optical dimensional metrology, this handbook helps engineers and quality specialists understand the capabilities and limitations of optical metrology methods. It also shows them how to successfully apply optical metrology to a vast array of current engineering and scientific problems.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Astrophysics, Clocks and Fundamental Constants

Author: Savely G. Karshenboim,Ekkehard Peik

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540219675

Category: Science

Page: 346

View: 8041

In 1937 the question of a possible temporal variation of the fundamental constants was raised by Paul Dirac in his "large number hypothesis." Today it appears in the context of the search for a unified theory of the fundamental interactions. It touches both fundamental and applied physics, as the postulated unalterability of the constants is the foundation for modern metrology. The book presents reviews written by leading experts in the field. Focussing on the question of variations of the fundamental "constants" in time or space, the chapters cover the theoretical framework in which variations are expected and the search for variations of quantities such as the fine-structure constant, the electron/proton mass ratio, g-factors of proton and neutron etc. in astrophysical and geophysical observations and in precision experiments with atomic clocks and frequency standards.
Posted in Science

Fluorescence Lifetime Spectroscopy and Imaging

Principles and Applications in Biomedical Diagnostics

Author: Laura Marcu,Paul M. W. French,Daniel S. Elson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439861676

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 570

View: 2720

During the past two decades, there has been an increasing appreciation of the significant value that lifetime-based techniques can add to biomedical studies and applications of fluorescence. Bringing together perspectives of different research communities, Fluorescence Lifetime Spectroscopy and Imaging: Principles and Applications in Biomedical Diagnostics explores the remarkable advances in time-resolved fluorescence techniques and their role in a wide range of biological and clinical applications. Broadly accessible, the book captures the state-of-the-art of fluorescence lifetime metrology and imaging and provides current perspectives on their applications to biomedical studies of intact tissues and medical diagnosis. The text introduces these techniques within the wider context of fluorescence spectroscopy and describes basic principles underlying current instrumentation for fluorescence lifetime imaging and metrology (FLIM). It also covers the wide range of methods, including single channel (point) spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, and single- and multi-photon excitation. Edited by pioneers in this field, with contributions from leading experts, the book includes an overview of complementary techniques that help researchers beginning FLIM research. It offers a comprehensive treatment of fundamental principles, instrumentation, analytical methods, and applications. It also provides an overview of the label-free contrast available from lifetime measurements of tissue autofluorescence and the prospects for exploiting this for clinical applications and biomedical research including drug discovery.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb: Principle, Operation and Applications

Author: Jun Ye,Steven T. Cundiff

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387237917

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 362

View: 3806

Over the last few years, there has been a convergence between the fields of ultrafast science, nonlinear optics, optical frequency metrology, and precision laser spectroscopy. These fields have been developing largely independently since the birth of the laser, reaching remarkable levels of performance. On the ultrafast frontier, pulses of only a few cycles long have been produced, while in optical spectroscopy, the precision and resolution have reached one part in Although these two achievements appear to be completely disconnected, advances in nonlinear optics provided the essential link between them. The resulting convergence has enabled unprecedented advances in the control of the electric field of the pulses produced by femtosecond mode-locked lasers. The corresponding spectrum consists of a comb of sharp spectral lines with well-defined frequencies. These new techniques and capabilities are generally known as “femtosecond comb technology. ” They have had dramatic impact on the diverse fields of precision measurement and extreme nonlinear optical physics. The historical background for these developments is provided in the Foreword by two of the pioneers of laser spectroscopy, John Hall and Theodor Hänsch. Indeed the developments described in this book were foreshadowed by Hänsch’s early work in the 1970s when he used picosecond pulses to demonstrate the connection between the time and frequency domains in laser spectroscopy. This work complemented the advances in precision laser stabilization developed by Hall.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopies

Author: Roger van Zee,J. Patrick Looney

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080531415

Category: Science

Page: 342

View: 2019

"Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy" discusses the use of optical resonators and lasers to make sensitive spectroscopic measurements. This volume is written by the researcchers who pioneered these methods. The book reviews both the theory and practice behind these spectroscopic tools and discusses the scientific discoveries uncovered by these techniques. It begins with a chapter on the use of optical resonators for frequency stabilization of lasers, which is followed by in-depth chapters discussing cavity ring-down spectroscopy, frequency-modulated, cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, intracavity spectroscopies, microresonators and cavity-enhanced comb filters. This book is aimed towards a reader with a background in optics and spectroscopy, but who is unfamiliar with the methods discussed in the book. *Practical implementation information Comprehensive review of cavity-enhanced methods *Written by the researchers who pioneered these spectroscopies *Discusses cavity-enhanced optical instrumentation Reviews scientific discoveries unearthed using these methods
Posted in Science

Laser Spectroscopy

Techniques and Applications

Author: E. Roland Menzel

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780824792657

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 9517

This work describes experimental techniques using laser spectroscopy and presents specific practical applications for this technology in many fields, including physics, engineering, chemistry, medicine and bioscience. The general spectroscopic features of molecules are delineated; transition metal and rare earth complexes are examined; and transition selection rules are explained.
Posted in Science

Time-Frequency Domain for Segmentation and Classification of Non-stationary Signals

The Stockwell Transform Applied on Bio-signals and Electric Signals

Author: Ali Moukadem,Djaffar Ould Abdeslam,Alain Dieterlen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118908708

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 160

View: 2143

This book focuses on signal processing algorithms based on the timefrequency domain. Original methods and algorithms are presented which are able to extract information from non-stationary signals such as heart sounds and power electric signals. The methods proposed focus on the time-frequency domain, and most notably the Stockwell Transform for the feature extraction process and to identify signatures. For the classification method, the Adaline Neural Network is used and compared with other common classifiers. Theory enhancement, original applications and concrete implementation on FPGA for real-time processing are also covered in this book.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Diffuse Optical Tomography

Principles and Applications

Author: Huabei Jiang

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439847589

Category: Science

Page: 375

View: 7305

Written by an authority involved in the field since its nascent stages, Diffuse Optical Tomography: Principles and Applications is a long-awaited profile of a revolutionary imaging method. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) provides spatial distributions of intrinsic tissue optical properties or molecular contrast agents through model-based reconstruction algorithms using NIR measurements along or near the boundary of tissue. Despite the practical value of DOT, many engineers from electrical or applied mathematics backgrounds do not have a sufficient understanding of its vast clinical applications and portability value, or its uncommon advantages as a tool for obtaining functional, cellular, and molecular parameters. A collection of the author’s research and experience, this book fuses historical perspective and experiential anecdotes with fundamental principles and vital technical information needed to successfully apply this technology—particularly in medical imaging. This reference finally outlines how to use DOT to create experimental image systems and adapt the results of laboratory studies for use in clinical applications including: Early-stage detection of breast tumors and prostate cancer "Real-time" functional brain imaging Joint imaging to treat progressive diseases such as arthritis Monitoring of tumor response New contrast mechanisms and multimodality methods This book covers almost every aspect of DOT—including reconstruction algorithms based on nonlinear iterative Newton methods, instrumentation and calibration methods in both continuous-wave and frequency domains, and important issues of imaging contrast and spatial resolution. It also addresses phantom experiments and the development of various image-enhancing schemes, and it describes reconstruction methods based on contrast agents and fluorescence DOT. Offering a concise description of the particular problems involved in optical tomography, this reference illustrates DOT’s fundamental foundations and the principle of image reconstruction. It thoroughly explores computational methods, forward mathematical models, and inverse strategies, clearly illustrating solutions to key equations.
Posted in Science

Femtosecond Laser Spectroscopy

Author: Peter Hannaford

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387232935

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 334

View: 2495

The embryonic development of femtoscience stems from advances made in the generation of ultrashort laser pulses. Beginning with mode-locking of glass lasers in the 1960s, the development of dye lasers brought the pulse width down from picoseconds to femtoseconds. The breakthrough in solid state laser pulse generation provided the current reliable table-top laser systems capable of average power of about 1 watt, and peak power density of easily watts per square centimeter, with pulse widths in the range of four to eight femtoseconds. Pulses with peak power density reaching watts per square centimeter have been achieved in laboratory settings and, more recently, pulses of sub-femtosecond duration have been successfully generated. As concepts and methodologies have evolved over the past two decades, the realm of ultrafast science has become vast and exciting and has impacted many areas of chemistry, biology and physics, and other fields such as materials science, electrical engineering, and optical communication. In molecular science the explosive growth of this research is for fundamental reasons. In femtochemistry and femtobiology chemical bonds form and break on the femtosecond time scale, and on this scale of time we can freeze the transition states at configurations never before seen. Even for n- reactive physical changes one is observing the most elementary of molecular processes. On a time scale shorter than the vibrational and rotational periods the ensemble behaves coherently as a single-molecule trajectory.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Author: Joseph R. Lakowicz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387463124

Category: Science

Page: 954

View: 4212

The third edition of this established classic text reference builds upon the strengths of its very popular predecessors. Organized as a broadly useful textbook Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 3rd edition maintains its emphasis on basics, while updating the examples to include recent results from the scientific literature. The third edition includes new chapters on single molecule detection, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, novel probes and radiative decay engineering. Includes a link to Springer Extras to download files reproducing all book artwork, for easy use in lecture slides. This is an essential volume for students, researchers, and industry professionals in biophysics, biochemistry, biotechnology, bioengineering, biology and medicine.
Posted in Science

Visions of Discovery

New Light on Physics, Cosmology, and Consciousness

Author: Raymond Y. Chiao

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521882397

Category: Religion

Page: 794

View: 823

World-leading researchers, including Nobel Laureates, explore the most basic questions of science, philosophy, and the nature of existence.
Posted in Religion

Few-Cycle Laser Pulse Generation and Its Applications

Author: Franz X. Kärtner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540201151

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 448

View: 5635

This book covers the physics, technology and applications of short pulse laser sources that generate pulses with durations of only a few optical cycles. The basic design considerations for the different systems such as lasers, parametric amplifiers and external compression techniques which have emerged over the last decade are discussed to give researchers and graduate students a thorough introduction to this field. The existence of these sources has opened many new fields of research that were not possible before. These are UV and EUV generation from table-top systems using high-harmonic generation, frequency metrology enabling optical frequency counting, high-resolution optical coherence tomography, strong-field ultrafast solid-state processes and ultrafast spectroscopy, to mention only a few. Many new applications will follow. The book attempts to give a comprehensive, while not excessive, introduction to this exciting new field that serves both experienced researchers and graduate students entering the field. The first half of the book covers the current physical principles, processes and design guidelines to generate pulses in the optical range comprising only a few cycles of light. Such as the generation of relatively low energy pulses at high repetition rates directly from the laser, parametric generation of medium energy pulses and high-energy pulses at low repetition rates using external compression in hollow fibers. The applications cover the revolution in frequency metrology and high-resolution laser spectroscopy to electric field synthesis in the optical range as well as the emerging field of high-harmonic generation and attosecond science, high-resolution optical imaging and novel ultrafast dynamics in semiconductors. These fields benefit from the strong electric fields accompanying these pulses in solids and gases during events comprising only a few cycles of light.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Principles of Lasers

Author: Orazio Svelto

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306457487

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 605

View: 6388

This book is motivated by the very favorable reception given to the previous editions as well as by the considerable range of new developments in the laser field since the publication of the third edition in 1989. These new developments include, among others, quantum-well and muitiple-quantum-welliasers, diode-pumped solid-state lasers, new concepts for both stable and unstable resonators, femtosecond lasers, ultra-high-brightness lasers, etc. This edition thus represents a radically revised version of the preceding edition, amounting essentially to a new book in its own right. However, the basic aim has remained the same, namely to provide a broad and unified description of laser behavior at the simplest level which is compatible with a correct physical understanding. The book is therefore intended as a textbook for a senior-level or first-year graduate course and/or as a reference book. The most relevant additions or changes to this edition can be summarized as follows: 1. A much-more detailed description of Amplified Spontaneous Emission has been given (Chapter 2) and a novel simplified treatment of this phenomenon, both for homogeneous and inhomogeneous lines, has been introduced (Appendix C). 2. A major fraction of a new chapter (Chapter 3) is dedicated to the interaction of radiation with semiconductor media, either in a bulk form or in a quantum-confined structure (quantum-well, quantum-wire and quantum dot). 3.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Issues in Medical Lasers, Imaging, and Devices Research and Application: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464965846

Category: Medical

Page: 672

View: 6211

Issues in Medical Lasers, Imaging, and Devices Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Medical Lasers, Imaging, and Devices Research and Application. The editors have built Issues in Medical Lasers, Imaging, and Devices Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Medical Lasers, Imaging, and Devices Research and Application in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Medical Lasers, Imaging, and Devices Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at
Posted in Medical

Fluorescence Spectroscopy in Biology

Advanced Methods and their Applications to Membranes, Proteins, DNA, and Cells

Author: Martin Hof,Rudolf Hutterer,V. Fidler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540223382

Category: Science

Page: 305

View: 6384

Posted in Science

Translational Multimodality Optical Imaging

Author: Fred S. Azar,Xavier Intes

Publisher: Artech House

ISBN: 1596933089

Category: Medical

Page: 386

View: 2489

Supported with 119 illustrations, this milestone work discusses key optical imaging techniques in self-contained chapters; describes the integration of optical imaging techniques with other modalities like MRI, X-ray imaging, and PET imaging; provides a software platform for multimodal integration; presents cutting-edge computational and data processing techniques that ensure rapid, cost-effective, and precise quantification and characterization of the clinical data; covers advances in photodynamic therapy and molecular imaging, and reviews key clinical studies in optical imaging along with regulatory and business issues.
Posted in Medical