Author: Michael Atiyah

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## K-theory

These notes are based on the course of lectures I gave at Harvard in the fall of 1964. They constitute a self-contained account of vector bundles and K-theory assuming only the rudiments of point-set topology and linear algebra. One of the features of the treatment is that no use is made of ordinary homology or cohomology theory. In fact, rational cohomology is defined in terms of K-theory.The theory is taken as far as the solution of the Hopf invariant problem and a start is mode on the J-homomorphism. In addition to the lecture notes proper, two papers of mine published since 1964 have been reproduced at the end. The first, dealing with operations, is a natural supplement to the material in Chapter III. It provides an alternative approach to operations which is less slick but more fundamental than the Grothendieck method of Chapter III, and it relates operations and filtration. Actually, the lectures deal with compact spaces, not cell-complexes, and so the skeleton-filtration does not figure in the notes. The second paper provides a new approach to K-theory and so fills an obvious gap in the lecture notes.
## Aspects of Boundary Problems in Analysis and Geometry

Boundary problems constitute an essential field of common mathematical interest, they lie in the center of research activities both in analysis and geometry. This book encompasses material from both disciplines, and focuses on their interactions which are particularly apparent in this field. Moreover, the survey style of the contributions makes the topics accessible to a broad audience with a background in analysis or geometry, and enables the reader to get a quick overview.
## Guide to Reprints

## A First Course in Sobolev Spaces

Sobolev spaces are a fundamental tool in the modern study of partial differential equations. In this book, Leoni takes a novel approach to the theory by looking at Sobolev spaces as the natural development of monotone, absolutely continuous, and BV functions of one variable. In this way, the majority of the text can be read without the prerequisite of a course in functional analysis. The first part of this text is devoted to studying functions of one variable. Several of the topics treated occur in courses on real analysis or measure theory. Here, the perspective emphasizes their applications to Sobolev functions, giving a very different flavor to the treatment. This elementary start to the book makes it suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students. Moreover, the one-variable part of the book helps to develop a solid background that facilitates the reading and understanding of Sobolev functions of several variables. The second part of the book is more classical, although it also contains some recent results. Besides the standard results on Sobolev functions, this part of the book includes chapters on BV functions, symmetric rearrangement, and Besov spaces. The book contains over 200 exercises.
## Mathematical Biology

Mathematics has always benefited from its involvement with developing sciences. Each successive interaction revitalises and enhances the field. Biomedical science is clearly the premier science of the foreseeable future. For the continuing health of their subject mathematicians must become involved with biology. With the example of how mathematics has benefited from and influenced physics, it is clear that if mathematicians do not become involved in the biosciences they will simply not be a part of what are likely to be the most important and exciting scientific discoveries of all time. Mathematical biology is a fast growing, well recognised, albeit not clearly defined, subject and is, to my mind, the most exciting modern application of mathematics. The increasing use of mathematics in biology is inevitable as biol ogy becomes more quantitative. The complexity of the biological sciences makes interdisciplinary involvement essential. For the mathematician, biology opens up new and exciting branches while for the biologist mathematical modelling offers another research tool commmensurate with a new powerful laboratory technique but only if used appropriately and its limitations recognised. However, the use of esoteric mathematics arrogantly applied to biological problems by mathemati cians who know little about the real biology, together with unsubstantiated claims as to how important such theories are, does little to promote the interdisciplinary involvement which is so essential. Mathematical biology research, to be useful and interesting, must be relevant biologically.
## Mathematical Methods of Classical Mechanics

This book constructs the mathematical apparatus of classical mechanics from the beginning, examining basic problems in dynamics like the theory of oscillations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The author emphasizes geometrical considerations and includes phase spaces and flows, vector fields, and Lie groups. Discussion includes qualitative methods of the theory of dynamical systems and of asymptotic methods like averaging and adiabatic invariance.
## Introduction to Plane Algebraic Curves

* Employs proven conception of teaching topics in commutative algebra through a focus on their applications to algebraic geometry, a significant departure from other works on plane algebraic curves in which the topological-analytic aspects are stressed *Requires only a basic knowledge of algebra, with all necessary algebraic facts collected into several appendices * Studies algebraic curves over an algebraically closed field K and those of prime characteristic, which can be applied to coding theory and cryptography * Covers filtered algebras, the associated graded rings and Rees rings to deduce basic facts about intersection theory of plane curves, applications of which are standard tools of computer algebra * Examples, exercises, figures and suggestions for further study round out this fairly self-contained textbook
## Syntactic Structures

## Guide to Reprints

## Mathematical Control Theory

Mathematical Control Theory: An Introduction presents, in a mathematically precise manner, a unified introduction to deterministic control theory. In addition to classical concepts and ideas, the author covers the stabilization of nonlinear systems using topological methods, realization theory for nonlinear systems, impulsive control and positive systems, the control of rigid bodies, the stabilization of infinite dimensional systems, and the solution of minimum energy problems. "Covers a remarkable number of topics....The book presents a large amount of material very well, and its use is highly recommended." --Bulletin of the AMS
## Novikov Conjectures, Index Theorems, and Rigidity: Volume 1

The Novikov conjecture is the single most important unsolved problem in the topology of high-dimensional non-simply connected manifolds. These two volumes give a snapshot of the status of work on the Novikov conjecture and related topics from many points of view: geometric topology, homotopy theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis. Volume 1 contains a detailed historical survey and bibliography of the Novikov conjecture and of related subsequent developments, including an annotated reprint (both in the original Russian and in English translation) of Novikov's original 1970 statement of his conjecture; an annotated problem list; the texts of several important unpublished classic papers by Milnor, Browder, and Kasparov; and research/survey papers on the Novikov conjecture by Ferry/Weinberger, Gromov, Mishchenko, Quinn, Ranicki, and Rosenberg. Volume 2 contains fundamental long research papers by G. Carlsson on "Bounded K-theory and the assembly map in algebraic K-theory" and by S. Ferry and E. Pedersen on "Epsilon surgery theory"; and shorter research and survey papers on various topics related to the Novikov conjecture, by Bekka, Cherix, Valette, Eichhorn, and others. These volumes will appeal to researchers interested in learning more about this intriguing area.
## Mathematical Demography

Mathematical demography is the centerpiece of quantitative social science. The founding works of this field from Roman times to the late Twentieth Century are collected here, in a new edition of a classic work by David R. Smith and Nathan Keyfitz. Commentaries by Smith and Keyfitz have been brought up to date and extended by Kenneth Wachter and Hervé Le Bras, giving a synoptic picture of the leading achievements in formal population studies. Like the original collection, this new edition constitutes an indispensable source for students and scientists alike, and illustrates the deep roots and continuing vitality of mathematical demography.
## Problem-Solving Through Problems

This is a practical anthology of some of the best elementary problems in different branches of mathematics. Arranged by subject, the problems highlight the most common problem-solving techniques encountered in undergraduate mathematics. This book teaches the important principles and broad strategies for coping with the experience of solving problems. It has been found very helpful for students preparing for the Putnam exam.
## Algebraic-Geometric Codes

## Computer Vision

Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications explores the variety of techniques commonly used to analyze and interpret images. It also describes challenging real-world applications where vision is being successfully used, both for specialized applications such as medical imaging, and for fun, consumer-level tasks such as image editing and stitching, which students can apply to their own personal photos and videos. More than just a source of “recipes,” this exceptionally authoritative and comprehensive textbook/reference also takes a scientific approach to basic vision problems, formulating physical models of the imaging process before inverting them to produce descriptions of a scene. These problems are also analyzed using statistical models and solved using rigorous engineering techniques. Topics and features: structured to support active curricula and project-oriented courses, with tips in the Introduction for using the book in a variety of customized courses; presents exercises at the end of each chapter with a heavy emphasis on testing algorithms and containing numerous suggestions for small mid-term projects; provides additional material and more detailed mathematical topics in the Appendices, which cover linear algebra, numerical techniques, and Bayesian estimation theory; suggests additional reading at the end of each chapter, including the latest research in each sub-field, in addition to a full Bibliography at the end of the book; supplies supplementary course material for students at the associated website, http://szeliski.org/Book/. Suitable for an upper-level undergraduate or graduate-level course in computer science or engineering, this textbook focuses on basic techniques that work under real-world conditions and encourages students to push their creative boundaries. Its design and exposition also make it eminently suitable as a unique reference to the fundamental techniques and current research literature in computer vision.
## K-Theory

From the Preface: K-theory was introduced by A. Grothendieck in his formulation of the Riemann- Roch theorem. For each projective algebraic variety, Grothendieck constructed a group from the category of coherent algebraic sheaves, and showed that it had many nice properties. Atiyah and Hirzebruch considered a topological analog defined for any compact space X, a group K{X) constructed from the category of vector bundles on X. It is this ''topological K-theory" that this book will study. Topological K-theory has become an important tool in topology. Using K- theory, Adams and Atiyah were able to give a simple proof that the only spheres which can be provided with H-space structures are S1, S3 and S7. Moreover, it is possible to derive a substantial part of stable homotopy theory from K-theory. The purpose of this book is to provide advanced students and mathematicians in other fields with the fundamental material in this subject. In addition, several applications of the type described above are included. In general we have tried to make this book self-contained, beginning with elementary concepts wherever possible; however, we assume that the reader is familiar with the basic definitions of homotopy theory: homotopy classes of maps and homotopy groups.Thus this book might be regarded as a fairly self-contained introduction to a "generalized cohomology theory".
## The Design of Everyday Things

The ultimate guide to human-centered design Even the smartest among us can feel inept as we fail to figure out which light switch or oven burner to turn on, or whether to push, pull, or slide a door. The fault, argues this ingenious-even liberating-book, lies not in ourselves, but in product design that ignores the needs of users and the principles of cognitive psychology. The problems range from ambiguous and hidden controls to arbitrary relationships between controls and functions, coupled with a lack of feedback or other assistance and unreasonable demands on memorization. The Design of Everyday Things shows that good, usable design is possible. The rules are simple: make things visible, exploit natural relationships that couple function and control, and make intelligent use of constraints. The goal: guide the user effortlessly to the right action on the right control at the right time. The Design of Everyday Things is a powerful primer on how--and why--some products satisfy customers while others only frustrate them.
## The Lefschetz Properties

This is a monograph which collects basic techniques, major results and interesting applications of Lefschetz properties of Artinian algebras. The origin of the Lefschetz properties of Artinian algebras is the Hard Lefschetz Theorem, which is a major result in algebraic geometry. However, for the last two decades, numerous applications of the Lefschetz properties to other areas of mathematics have been found, as a result of which the theory of the Lefschetz properties is now of great interest in its own right. It also has ties to other areas, including combinatorics, algebraic geometry, algebraic topology, commutative algebra and representation theory. The connections between the Lefschetz property and other areas of mathematics are not only diverse, but sometimes quite surprising, e.g. its ties to the Schur-Weyl duality. This is the first book solely devoted to the Lefschetz properties and is the first attempt to treat those properties systematically.
## Pioneers of Representation Theory

The year 1897 was marked by two important mathematical events: the publication of the first paper on representations of finite groups by Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (1849-1917) and the appearance of the first treatise in English on the theory of finite groups by William Burnside (1852-1927). Burnside soon developed his own approach to representations of finite groups. In the next few years, working independently, Frobenius and Burnside explored the new subject and its applications to finite group theory. They were soon joined in this enterprise by Issai Schur (1875-1941) and some years later, by Richard Brauer (1901-1977). These mathematicians' pioneering research is the subject of this book. It presents an account of the early history of representation theory through an analysis of the published work of the principals and others with whom the principals' work was interwoven. Also included are biographical sketches and enough mathematics to enable readers to follow the development of the subject. An introductory chapter contains some of the results involving characters of finite abelian groups by Lagrange, Gauss, and Dirichlet, which were part of the mathematical tradition from which Frobenius drew his inspiration. This book presents the early history of an active branch of mathematics. It includes enough detail to enable readers to learn the mathematics along with the history. The volume would be a suitable text for a course on representations of finite groups, particularly one emphasizing an historical point of view. Co-published with the London Mathematical Society. Members of the LMS may order directly from the AMS at the AMS member price. The LMS is registered with the Charity Commissioners.
## Introduction to Frustrated Magnetism

The field of highly frustrated magnetism has developed considerably and expanded over the last 15 years. Issuing from canonical geometric frustration of interactions, it now extends over other aspects with many degrees of freedom such as magneto-elastic couplings, orbital degrees of freedom, dilution effects, and electron doping. Its is thus shown here that the concept of frustration impacts on many other fields in physics than magnetism. This book represents a state-of-the-art review aimed at a broad audience with tutorial chapters and more topical ones, encompassing solid-state chemistry, experimental and theoretical physics.

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