Isolation of membranes and organelles from plant cells

Author: John Lloyd Hall,Anthony L. Moore

Publisher: Academic Pr


Category: Science

Page: 317

View: 4710

General principles of cell fractionation. Cell walls. Plasma membranes. Higher plant vacuoles and tonoplasts. Endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes. The golgi apparatus. Mitochondria and sub-mitochondrial particles. Chloroplasts. Microbodies. Nuclei. Partition in aqueous polymer two-phase systems - a rapid method for separation of membranes particles according to their surface properties.
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Cell Components

Author: Hans-Ferdinand Linskens,John F. Jackson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642825877

Category: Science

Page: 399

View: 6211

Modern Methods of Plant Analysis When the handbook Modern Methods of Plant Analysis was first introduced in 1954 the considerations were 1. the dependence of scientific progress in biology on the improvement of existing and the introduction of new methods; 2. the inavailability of many new analytical methods concealed in specialized journals not normally accessible to experimental plant biologists; 3. the fact that in the methods sections of papers the description of methods is frequently so compact, or even sometimes so incomplete, that experiments are difficult to reproduce. These considerations still stand today. The series was highly successful, seven volumes appearing between 1956 and 1964. Since today there is still a demand for the old series, the publisher has decided to resume publication of Modern Methods of Plant Analysis. It is hoped that the New Series will be as acceptable to those working in plant sciences and related fields as the early volumes undoubtedly were. It is difficult to single out the major reasons for success of any publication, but we believe that the methods published in the first series were up-to-date at the time and the descriptions as applied to plant material so complete in themselves that there was little need to consult other publications.
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Experimentelle Pflanzenphysiologie

Band 2 Einführung in die Anwendungen

Author: Peter Schopfer

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642613365

Category: Science

Page: 458

View: 6795

Diese Einführung in die Methoden enthält konkrete Anleitungen zur Durchführung von Experimenten, wie sie jeder Student im Rahmen seiner Praktika zur Pflanzenphysiologie zu absolvieren hat. Diese Experimente sind in zwei Kategorien eingeteilt: zuerst "Demonstrations-Experimente" als in der Regel einfach auszuführende Versuche zur Veranschaulichung bestimmter physiologischer Sachverhalte. Sie haben vor allem didaktischen Charakter und sind weitgehend deduktiv dargestellt. Im Gegensatz dazu stellt die andere Kategorie "Analytische Experimente" vor, für die eine induktive Darstellungsweise gewählt wurde. Das Thema dieser Versuche ist als "Problem" formuliert, und ihre Durchführung wird im Detail nur für ein "Grundexperiment" dargestellt, welches den prinzipiellen experimentellen Ansatz und die Methodenbeschreibung enthält. Mit diesen Anleitungen ist es dann möglich, die entsprechenden physiologischen oder methodischen Fragestellungen selbständig zu bearbeiten.
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Handbook of Chemical and Biological Plant Analytical Methods, 3 Volume Set

Author: Shilin Chen,Andrew Marston,Hermann Stuppner

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118874986

Category: Medical

Page: 1176

View: 1346

Plants and plant-derived compounds and drugs are becoming more and more popular with increasing numbers of scientists researching plant analysis. The quality control of herbal drugs is also becoming essential to avoid severe health problems, and in the future many more new drugs will be developed from plant sources. This three-volume Handbook, featuring 47 detailed review articles, is unique as it deals with chemical and biological methodologies for plant analysis. It presents the most important and most accurate methods which are available for plant analysis. This comprehensive work is divided into six sections as follows: Sample preparation and identification – discussing plant selection and collection, followed by extraction and sample preparation methodologies. Extraction and sample preparation methodologies Instrumentation for chemical analysis - several instrumentations for chemical plant analysis are presented with an emphasis on hyphenated techniques, e.g. the coupling between HPLC and mass spectroscometry, and HPLC with NMR. Strategies for selective classes of compounds – coverage of the most interesting classes of compounds such as polysaccharides, saponins, cardiotonic glycosides, alkaloids, terpenoids, lipids, volatile compounds and polyphenols ( flavonoids, xanthones, coumarins, naphthoquinones, anthraquinones, proanthocyanidins, etc.). Biological Analysis - includes phenotyping, DNA barcoding techniques, transcriptome analysis , microarray, metabolomics and proteomics. Drugs from Plants – covers the screening of plant extracts and strategies for the quick discovery of novel bioactive natural products. Safety assessment of herbal drugs is highly dependent on outstanding chromatographic and spectroscopic methods which are also featured here. This Handbook introduces to scientists involved in plant studies the current knowledge of methodologies in various fields of chemically- and biochemically-related topics in plant research. The content from this Handbook will publish online within the Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry via Wiley Online Library: Benefit from the introductory offer, valid until 30 November 2014! Introductory price: £425.00 / $695.00 / €550.00 List price thereafter: £495.00 / $795.00 / €640.00
Posted in Medical

The Plant Cell

Author: Paul Karl Stumpf,N. Edward Tolbert,Eric E. Conn

Publisher: Academic Pr

ISBN: 9780126754018

Category: Science

Page: 705

View: 2527

The general cell. The plasma membrane. Microtubules. Plasmodesmata. Cell vacuoles. The nucleus. The cell wall. The endomembrane system. Polyribosomes and protein synthesis. Microbodies. Mitochondria. Plastids. The cytoplasmic ground substance. Use of plant cell cultures in biochemistry. Choice of experimental organisms. Regulation of development and metabolism. Autotrophy by plant cells in culture. Uptake and transport studies. Isolation and characterization of organelles from plant cells in culture. Plant cells and protoplasts as genetic systems. The primary cell walls of flowering plants. The sugar nomenclature and abbreviations used. Methods used in the structural analysis of cell wall polysaccharides. The pectic polysaccharides. The hemicelluloses. Noncellulosic glucan. Cellulose. Cell wall protein. Interconnections between the primary cell wall polymers. Are the primary cell walls of different plants structurally related?. Biosynthesis of primary cell wall polymers. The future of primary cell wall research. The plasma membrane. Morphology as distinguished with the electron microscope. Purification of the plasma membrane. Chemical composition of the plasma membrane. Enzymatic composition of the plasma membrane. Functions. The cytosol. Definition and structure. Carbon metabolism. Nitrogen metabolism. Phosphate metabolism. Development, inheritance, and evolution of plastids and mitochondria. Organelle development and inheritance. Origin of the biochemical building blocks for organelle development. Origin of the genetic information for organelle development. Coordination of organelle development through induction by light and other substrates. Origin of present interrelationships among organelles during evolution. Biochemistry of the chloroplast. Morphology of higher plant chloroplasts. Fundamental energy process in photosynthesis. Carbon metabolism in the chloroplast. Energetics and shuttle mechanisms of the chloroplast. Storage of energy by starch accumulation. Assimilation of nitrogen. Sulfate reduction. Metabolism of lipids. Protein systhesis in the chloroplast. Plant mitochondria. Occurrence, form, and development. Structure and composition. Enzymes and enzymatic activities. Cellular and physiological interactions. Microbodies - peroxisomes and glyoxysomes. Morphological detection and description. Isolation procedures. Enzymes in microbodies - catalase. Metabolic pathways in leaf peroxisomes. Metabolic pathways in glyoxysomes. Other enzymes in microbodies. Microbody membranes and transport. Distribution of microbodies in plant tissues. Development and biogenesis of peroxisomes and glyoxysomes. Function. The endoplasmic reticulum. Structure, isolation, and composition of the ER. Biogenesis and degradation. Role of the ER in the biogenesis of cytoplasmic organelles. Role of the ER in the biosynthesis and secretion of extracellular molecules. Other biosynthetic and regulatory functions of the ER. Ribosomes. Ribosome structure and biogenesis. Polyribosomes. The golgi apparatus. Association with other cell components: the endomembrane concept. Biochemistry of plant golgi apparatus. Cytochemistry of plant golgi apparatus. Role in secretion. Role in membrane differentiation. Role in membrane flow. Physiology of the plant golgi apparatus. Golgi apparatus multiplication. The plant nucleus. The nucleus at interphase. Structure and functional aspects of interphase chromatin. Dynamic aspects of chromosomes during division and meiosis. Dynamic aspects of chromosomes in differentiation. The nucleolus. The nuclear envelope and nuclear pore complexes. Protein bodies. Protein body structure. Protein body composition. Changes in protein bodies during germination and early seedling growth. Development of seed protein bodies. Problems encountered in studies of protein bodies. Future research. Plant vacuoles. The lysosome concept. Vacuole development. Vacuole function. Methods for isolating vacuoles and tonoplasts. Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Cytological chemistry. Metabolism. Genetics. Viruses. Movement. Culture. Regulation. Development. Evolution.
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Plant Biochemistry

Author: Hans-Walter Heldt,Fiona Heldt

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0120883910

Category: Science

Page: 630

View: 5949

1 A Leaf Cell Consists of Several Metabolic Compartments 2 The Use of Energy from Sunlight by Photosynthesis is the Basis of Life on Earth 3 Photosynthesis is an Electron Transport Process 4 ATP is Generated by Photosynthesis 5 Mitochondria are the Power Station of the Cell 6 The Calvin Cycle Catalyzes Photosynthetic CO2 Assimilation 7 In the Photorespiratory Pathway Phosphoglycolate Formed by the Oxygenase Activity of RubisCo is Recycled 8 Photosynthesis Implies the Consumption of Water 9 Polysaccharides are Storage and Transport Forms of Carbohydrates Produced by Photosynthesis 10Nitrate Assimilation is Essential for the Synthesis of Organic Matter 11 Nitrogen Fixation Enables the Nitrogen in the Air to be Used for Plant Growth 12 Sulfate Assimilation Enables the Synthesis of Sulfur Containing Substances 13 Phloem Transport Distributes Photoassimilates to the Various Sites of Consumption and Storage 14 Products of Nitrate Assimilation are Deposited in Plants as Storage Proteins 15 Glycerolipids are Membrane Constituents and Function as Carbon Stores 16 Secondary Metabolites Fulfill Specific Ecological Functions in Plants 17 Large Diversity of Isoprenoids has Multiple Funtions in Plant Metabolism 18 Phenylpropanoids Comprise a Multitude of Plant Secondary Metabolites and Cell Wall Components 19 Multiple Signals Regulate the Growth and Development of Plant Organs and Enable Their Adaptation to Environmental Conditions 20 A Plant Cell has Three Different Genomes 21 Protein Biosynthesis Occurs at Different Sites of a Cell 22 Gene Technology Makes it Possible to Alter Plants to Meet Requirements of Agriculture, Nutrition, and Industry.
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Plant Cells and Their Organelles

Author: William V. Dashek,Gurbachan S. Miglani

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470976861

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 6500

Plant Cells and Their Organelles provides a comprehensive overview of the structure and function of plant organelles. The text focuses on subcellular organelles while also providing relevant background on plant cells, tissues and organs. Coverage of the latest methods of light and electron microscopy and modern biochemical procedures for the isolation and identification of organelles help to provide a thorough and up-to-date companion text to the field of plant cell and subcellular biology. The book is designed as an advanced text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students with student-friendly diagrams and clear explanations.
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Plant membranes

endo- and plasma membranes of plant cells

Author: David G. Robinson

Publisher: Wiley-Interscience


Category: Science

Page: 331

View: 4366

This monograph treats the isolation, structure, function, biogenesis, and turnover of plant cell membranes. Stresses the correlation of structure with function, with particular emphasis on biochemical investigation. Includes numerous electron micrographs.
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Plant Cell Biology

Author: William V Dashek,Marcia Harrison

Publisher: Science Publishers

ISBN: 9781578083763

Category: Science

Page: 494

View: 1127

While there are a few plant cell biology books that are currently available, these are expensive, methods-oriented monographs. The present volume is a textbook for "upper" undergraduate and beginning graduate students." This textbook stresses concepts and is inquiry-oriented. To this end, there is extensive use of original research literature. As we live in an era of literature explosion, one must be selective. These judgements will naturally vary with each investigator. Input was sought from colleagues in deciding the literature to include. In addition to provision of select research literature, this volume presents citations and summaries of certain laboratory methods. In this connection, the textbook stresses quantitative data to enhance the student?s analytical abilities. Thus the volume contains computer-spread sheets and references to statistical packages, e.g. Harvard Graphics and Statistica.
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Cell Biology

Organelle Structure and Function

Author: David E. Sadava

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 9780867202281

Category: Science

Page: 698

View: 1783

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Introduction to Plant Biotechnology

Author: H. S. Chawla

Publisher: Science Publishers

ISBN: 9781578082285

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 538

View: 9425

Plant biotechnology has created unprecedented opportunities for the manipulation of biological systems of plants. To understand biotechnology, it is essential to know the basic aspects of genes and their organization in the genome of plant cells. This text on the subject is aimed at students.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Subcellular Fractionation

A Practical Approach

Author: J. M. Graham,D. Rickwood

Publisher: IRL Press

ISBN: 0191591610

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 8238

Many investigations into the structure and function of cells and tissues require the isolation of a particular membrane or subcellular component (organelle). This book covers all the necessary aspects, from breaking up the cells (homogenization), via a variety of separation techniques (the isolation and fractionation chapters), to characterization of the separated organelles.
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Biological membranes

a practical approach

Author: John B. C. Findlay,W. Howard Evans

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780947946838

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 304

View: 9735

Each animal and plant cell can be constructed of at least ten distinctive types of membrane whose isolation and characterization are now feasible using the wide-ranging techniques presented in this book. Both newly developed and more established methods for the analysis of proteins and lipids and for the investigation of their topography are described in detail. Also provided are procedures for the reconstitution and characterization of membrane systems. Particular attention has been paid to immunological approaches for isolating and analyzing membranes and their components and for screening expression systems in molecular cloning. Those biophysical and physico-chemical techniques which have added much to our understanding of membrane structure and function are also included. The text therefore provides a comprehensive collection of modern techniques and approaches used in the study of biological membranes.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

Plant Cell Organelles

Author: J Pridham

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323158137

Category: Science

Page: 276

View: 2482

Plant Cell Organelles contains the proceedings of the Phytochemical Group Symposium held in London on April 10-12, 1967. Contributors explore most of the ideas concerning the structure, biochemistry, and function of the nuclei, chloroplasts, mitochondria, vacuoles, and other organelles of plant cells. This book is organized into 13 chapters and begins with an overview of the enzymology of plant cell organelles and the localization of enzymes using cytochemical techniques. The text then discusses the structure of the nuclear envelope, chromosomes, and nucleolus, along with chromosome sequestration and replication. The next chapters focus on the structure and function of the mitochondria of higher plant cells, biogenesis in yeast, carbon pathways, and energy transfer function. The book also considers the chloroplast, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi bodies, and the microtubules. The final chapters discuss protein synthesis in cell organelles; polysomes in plant tissues; and lysosomes and spherosomes in plant cells. This book is a valuable source of information for postgraduate workers, although much of the material could be used in undergraduate courses.
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Plant Cell Biology

From Astronomy to Zoology

Author: Randy O. Wayne

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080921273

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 1503

Plant Cell Biology is a semester long course for undergraduates and graduate students which integrates mathematics and physics, two years of chemistry, genetics, biochemistry and evolution disciplines. Having taught this course for over ten years, the author uses his expertise to relate the background established in plant anatomy, plant physiology, plant growth and development, plant taxonomy, plant biochemistry, and plant molecular biology courses to plant cell biology. This integration attempts to break down the barrier so plant cell biology is seen as an entrée into higher science. Distinguishing this book from papers that are often used for teaching the subject which use a single plant to demonstrate the techniques of molecular biology, this book covers all aspects of plant cell biology without emphasizing any one plant, organelle, molecule, or technique. Although most examples are biased towards plants, basic similarities between all living eukaryotic cells (animal and plant) are recognized and used to best illustrate for students cell processes. Thoroughly explains the physiological underpinnings of biological processes to bring original insight related to plants Includes examples throughout from physics, chemistry, geology, and biology to bring understanding to plant cell development, growth, chemistry and diseases Provides the essential tools for students to be able to evaluate and assess the mechanisms involved in cell growth, chromosome motion, membrane trafficking, and energy exchange Companion Web site provides support for all plant cell biology courses
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Molecular Plant Biology

A Practical Approach

Author: Dr. Chris Bowler

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199638185

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 8157

Volume Two focuses on experimental approaches for studies on gene expression, gene product analysis, with the final section devoted to emerging technologies. Topics covered include a range of techniques for transcript analysis, including In situ Hybridization and DNA microarrays. DNA-protein interaction methods are also covered in detail. Inducible gene expression in plants as well as expression and analysis of recombinant proteins, and analysis of protein import into chloroplasts are covered as well as techniques for fractionation of plant tissue for biochemical analyses and the study of protein-protein interactions with the yeast two-hybrid system. A range of approaches for using antibodies as tools are also described including the use of antibody phage display libraries. The final section on emerging technologies describes methodologies for calcium imaging and for the spatial and temporal analysis of reporter genes such as luciferase and green fluorescent protein. The final area covers a range of experimental procedures for moss, which is emerging as a new model organism.
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Plant Proteomics

Author: Jozef Samaj,Jay J. Thelen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540726179

Category: Science

Page: 369

View: 9151

Plant Proteomics highlights rapid progress in this field, with emphasis on recent work in model plant species, sub-cellular organelles, and specific aspects of the plant life cycle such as signaling, reproduction and stress physiology. Several chapters present a detailed look at diverse integrated approaches, including advanced proteomic techniques combined with functional genomics, bioinformatics, metabolomics and molecular cell biology, making this book a valuable resource for a broad spectrum of readers.
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Plant Cell Biology

Author: G.P. Gupta

Publisher: Discovery Publishing House

ISBN: 9788171418534


Page: 336

View: 3044

The last two decades the field of cell biology has undergone a veritable revolution, leading to major advances in our understanding of cell structure and function. The Convergence of cytological, genetic and biochemical approaches has generated a rich panorama of detail, the significance of which we are still attempting to unravel. The present title is being written as an introduction to this rapidly growing field. One of the major concerns of this title is to provide students with basic understanding of what a cell is and why the cell is the fundamental unit of life. Our approach throughout has been to focus on the major question involved and the experimental approaches utilized in addressing these questions. Contents: The Cell, Mechanical Events in Cells, Cell Membrane, Cell Wall, Cytology of Vacuoles, Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, Microtubules in Plant Cell, Duplication of Cells, Cytological Events of Cell Division.
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Protein Purification Protocols

Author: Paul Cutler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 159259655X

Category: Science

Page: 484

View: 8315

This new edition of Protein Purification Protocols completely updates the existing protocols to reflect recent advances and adds the enormous new array of proteomic techniques for protein isolation and analysis. These cutting-edge techniques include not only two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for analysis and characterization, but also analytical chromatography for multidimensional separations of proteins and peptides, and mass spectrometry for isolating proteins.
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