Introduction to Bayesian Statistics

Author: William M. Bolstad,James M. Curran

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118593227

Category: Mathematics

Page: 624

View: 9571

"...this edition is useful and effective in teaching Bayesian inference at both elementary and intermediate levels. It is a well-written book on elementary Bayesian inference, and the material is easily accessible. It is both concise and timely, and provides a good collection of overviews and reviews of important tools used in Bayesian statistical methods." There is a strong upsurge in the use of Bayesian methods in applied statistical analysis, yet most introductory statistics texts only present frequentist methods. Bayesian statistics has many important advantages that students should learn about if they are going into fields where statistics will be used. In this third Edition, four newly-added chapters address topics that reflect the rapid advances in the field of Bayesian statistics. The authors continue to provide a Bayesian treatment of introductory statistical topics, such as scientific data gathering, discrete random variables, robust Bayesian methods, and Bayesian approaches to inference for discrete random variables, binomial proportions, Poisson, and normal means, and simple linear regression. In addition, more advanced topics in the field are presented in four new chapters: Bayesian inference for a normal with unknown mean and variance; Bayesian inference for a Multivariate Normal mean vector; Bayesian inference for the Multiple Linear Regression Model; and Computational Bayesian Statistics including Markov Chain Monte Carlo. The inclusion of these topics will facilitate readers' ability to advance from a minimal understanding of Statistics to the ability to tackle topics in more applied, advanced level books. Minitab macros and R functions are available on the book's related website to assist with chapter exercises. Introduction to Bayesian Statistics, Third Edition also features: Topics including the Joint Likelihood function and inference using independent Jeffreys priors and join conjugate prior The cutting-edge topic of computational Bayesian Statistics in a new chapter, with a unique focus on Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods Exercises throughout the book that have been updated to reflect new applications and the latest software applications Detailed appendices that guide readers through the use of R and Minitab software for Bayesian analysis and Monte Carlo simulations, with all related macros available on the book's website Introduction to Bayesian Statistics, Third Edition is a textbook for upper-undergraduate or first-year graduate level courses on introductory statistics course with a Bayesian emphasis. It can also be used as a reference work for statisticians who require a working knowledge of Bayesian statistics.
Posted in Mathematics

Introduction to Bayesian Statistics

Author: Karl-Rudolf Koch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540727264

Category: Science

Page: 249

View: 5342

This book presents Bayes’ theorem, the estimation of unknown parameters, the determination of confidence regions and the derivation of tests of hypotheses for the unknown parameters. It does so in a simple manner that is easy to comprehend. The book compares traditional and Bayesian methods with the rules of probability presented in a logical way allowing an intuitive understanding of random variables and their probability distributions to be formed.
Posted in Science

A Student’s Guide to Bayesian Statistics

Author: Ben Lambert

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1526418266

Category: Social Science

Page: 520

View: 2537

Supported by a wealth of learning features, exercises, and visual elements as well as online video tutorials and interactive simulations, this book is the first student-focused introduction to Bayesian statistics. Without sacrificing technical integrity for the sake of simplicity, the author draws upon accessible, student-friendly language to provide approachable instruction perfectly aimed at statistics and Bayesian newcomers. Through a logical structure that introduces and builds upon key concepts in a gradual way and slowly acclimatizes students to using R and Stan software, the book covers: An introduction to probability and Bayesian inference Understanding Bayes' rule Nuts and bolts of Bayesian analytic methods Computational Bayes and real-world Bayesian analysis Regression analysis and hierarchical methods This unique guide will help students develop the statistical confidence and skills to put the Bayesian formula into practice, from the basic concepts of statistical inference to complex applications of analyses.
Posted in Social Science

Introduction to Applied Bayesian Statistics and Estimation for Social Scientists

Author: Scott M. Lynch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387712658

Category: Social Science

Page: 359

View: 3354

This book outlines Bayesian statistical analysis in great detail, from the development of a model through the process of making statistical inference. The key feature of this book is that it covers models that are most commonly used in social science research - including the linear regression model, generalized linear models, hierarchical models, and multivariate regression models - and it thoroughly develops each real-data example in painstaking detail.
Posted in Social Science

Bayesian Statistics

An Introduction

Author: Peter M. Lee

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118359771

Category: Mathematics

Page: 488

View: 9601

Bayesian Statistics is the school of thought that combines priorbeliefs with the likelihood of a hypothesis to arrive at posteriorbeliefs. The first edition of Peter Lee’s book appeared in1989, but the subject has moved ever onwards, with increasingemphasis on Monte Carlo based techniques. This new fourth edition looks at recent techniques such asvariational methods, Bayesian importance sampling, approximateBayesian computation and Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo(RJMCMC), providing a concise account of the way in which theBayesian approach to statistics develops as well as how itcontrasts with the conventional approach. The theory is built upstep by step, and important notions such as sufficiency are broughtout of a discussion of the salient features of specificexamples. This edition: Includes expanded coverage of Gibbs sampling, including morenumerical examples and treatments of OpenBUGS, R2WinBUGS andR2OpenBUGS. Presents significant new material on recent techniques such asBayesian importance sampling, variational Bayes, ApproximateBayesian Computation (ABC) and Reversible Jump Markov Chain MonteCarlo (RJMCMC). Provides extensive examples throughout the book to complementthe theory presented. Accompanied by a supporting website featuring new material andsolutions. More and more students are realizing that they need to learnBayesian statistics to meet their academic and professional goals.This book is best suited for use as a main text in courses onBayesian statistics for third and fourth year undergraduates andpostgraduate students.
Posted in Mathematics

Bayes' Rule

A Tutorial Introduction to Bayesian Analysis

Author: James V. Stone

Publisher: Sebtel Press

ISBN: 0956372848

Category: Bayesian statistical decision theory

Page: 170

View: 9682

In this richly illustrated book, a range of accessible examples are used to show how Bayes' rule is actually a natural consequence of commonsense reasoning. The tutorial style of writing, combined with a comprehensive glossary, makes this an ideal primer for the novice who wishes to become familiar with the basic principles of Bayesian analysis.
Posted in Bayesian statistical decision theory

Reasoning with Data

An Introduction to Traditional and Bayesian Statistics Using R

Author: Jeffrey M. Stanton

Publisher: Guilford Publications

ISBN: 1462530273

Category: Computers

Page: 325

View: 6650

Engaging and accessible, this book teaches readers how to use inferential statistical thinking to check their assumptions, assess evidence about their beliefs, and avoid overinterpreting results that may look more promising than they really are. It provides step-by-step guidance for using both classical (frequentist) and Bayesian approaches to inference. Statistical techniques covered side by side from both frequentist and Bayesian approaches include hypothesis testing, replication, analysis of variance, calculation of effect sizes, regression, time series analysis, and more. Students also get a complete introduction to the open-source R programming language and its key packages. Throughout the text, simple commands in R demonstrate essential data analysis skills using real-data examples. The companion website provides annotated R code for the book's examples, in-class exercises, supplemental reading lists, and links to online videos, interactive materials, and other resources. Pedagogical Features: *Playful, conversational style and gradual approach; suitable for students without strong math backgrounds. *End-of-chapter exercises based on real data supplied in the free R package. *Technical Explanation and Equation/Output boxes. *Appendices on how to install R and work with the sample datasets.
Posted in Computers

A First Course in Bayesian Statistical Methods

Author: Peter D. Hoff

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387924076

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

View: 310

A self-contained introduction to probability, exchangeability and Bayes’ rule provides a theoretical understanding of the applied material. Numerous examples with R-code that can be run "as-is" allow the reader to perform the data analyses themselves. The development of Monte Carlo and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods in the context of data analysis examples provides motivation for these computational methods.
Posted in Mathematics

Introduction to Bayesian Econometrics

Author: Edward Greenberg

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107015316

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 249

View: 9882

This textbook explains the basic ideas of subjective probability and shows how subjective probabilities must obey the usual rules of probability to ensure coherency. It defines the likelihood function, prior distributions and posterior distributions. It explains how posterior distributions are the basis for inference and explores their basic properties. Various methods of specifying prior distributions are considered, with special emphasis on subject-matter considerations and exchange ability. The regression model is examined to show how analytical methods may fail in the derivation of marginal posterior distributions. The remainder of the book is concerned with applications of the theory to important models that are used in economics, political science, biostatistics and other applied fields. New to the second edition is a chapter on semiparametric regression and new sections on the ordinal probit, item response, factor analysis, ARCH-GARCH and stochastic volatility models. The new edition also emphasizes the R programming language.
Posted in Business & Economics

Think Bayes

Author: Allen Downey

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 1491945443

Category: Computers

Page: 210

View: 8360

If you know how to program with Python and also know a little about probability, you’re ready to tackle Bayesian statistics. With this book, you'll learn how to solve statistical problems with Python code instead of mathematical notation, and use discrete probability distributions instead of continuous mathematics. Once you get the math out of the way, the Bayesian fundamentals will become clearer, and you’ll begin to apply these techniques to real-world problems. Bayesian statistical methods are becoming more common and more important, but not many resources are available to help beginners. Based on undergraduate classes taught by author Allen Downey, this book’s computational approach helps you get a solid start. Use your existing programming skills to learn and understand Bayesian statistics Work with problems involving estimation, prediction, decision analysis, evidence, and hypothesis testing Get started with simple examples, using coins, M&Ms, Dungeons & Dragons dice, paintball, and hockey Learn computational methods for solving real-world problems, such as interpreting SAT scores, simulating kidney tumors, and modeling the human microbiome.
Posted in Computers

Introduction to Bayesian Estimation and Copula Models of Dependence

Author: Arkady Shemyakin,Alexander Kniazev

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118959019

Category: Mathematics

Page: 352

View: 702

Presents an introduction to Bayesian statistics, presents an emphasis on Bayesian methods (prior and posterior), Bayes estimation, prediction, MCMC,Bayesian regression, and Bayesian analysis of statistical modelsof dependence, and features a focus on copulas for risk management Introduction to Bayesian Estimation and Copula Models of Dependence emphasizes the applications of Bayesian analysis to copula modeling and equips readers with the tools needed to implement the procedures of Bayesian estimation in copula models of dependence. This book is structured in two parts: the first four chapters serve as a general introduction to Bayesian statistics with a clear emphasis on parametric estimation and the following four chapters stress statistical models of dependence with a focus of copulas. A review of the main concepts is discussed along with the basics of Bayesian statistics including prior information and experimental data, prior and posterior distributions, with an emphasis on Bayesian parametric estimation. The basic mathematical background of both Markov chains and Monte Carlo integration and simulation is also provided. The authors discuss statistical models of dependence with a focus on copulas and present a brief survey of pre-copula dependence models. The main definitions and notations of copula models are summarized followed by discussions of real-world cases that address particular risk management problems. In addition, this book includes: • Practical examples of copulas in use including within the Basel Accord II documents that regulate the world banking system as well as examples of Bayesian methods within current FDA recommendations • Step-by-step procedures of multivariate data analysis and copula modeling, allowing readers to gain insight for their own applied research and studies • Separate reference lists within each chapter and end-of-the-chapter exercises within Chapters 2 through 8 • A companion website containing appendices: data files and demo files in Microsoft® Office Excel®, basic code in R, and selected exercise solutions Introduction to Bayesian Estimation and Copula Models of Dependence is a reference and resource for statisticians who need to learn formal Bayesian analysis as well as professionals within analytical and risk management departments of banks and insurance companies who are involved in quantitative analysis and forecasting. This book can also be used as a textbook for upper-undergraduate and graduate-level courses in Bayesian statistics and analysis. ARKADY SHEMYAKIN, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Mathematics and Director of the Statistics Program at the University of St. Thomas. A member of the American Statistical Association and the International Society for Bayesian Analysis, Dr. Shemyakin's research interests include informationtheory, Bayesian methods of parametric estimation, and copula models in actuarial mathematics, finance, and engineering. ALEXANDER KNIAZEV, PhD, is Associate Professor and Head of the Department of Mathematics at Astrakhan State University in Russia. Dr. Kniazev's research interests include representation theory of Lie algebras and finite groups, mathematical statistics, econometrics, and financial mathematics.
Posted in Mathematics

Introduction to WinBUGS for Ecologists

Bayesian Approach to Regression, ANOVA, Mixed Models and Related Analyses

Author: Marc Kery

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780123786067

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 2398

Introduction to WinBUGS for Ecologists introduces applied Bayesian modeling to ecologists using the highly acclaimed, free WinBUGS software. It offers an understanding of statistical models as abstract representations of the various processes that give rise to a data set. Such an understanding is basic to the development of inference models tailored to specific sampling and ecological scenarios. The book begins by presenting the advantages of a Bayesian approach to statistics and introducing the WinBUGS software. It reviews the four most common statistical distributions: the normal, the uniform, the binomial, and the Poisson. It describes the two different kinds of analysis of variance (ANOVA): one-way and two- or multiway. It looks at the general linear model, or ANCOVA, in R and WinBUGS. It introduces generalized linear model (GLM), i.e., the extension of the normal linear model to allow error distributions other than the normal. The GLM is then extended contain additional sources of random variation to become a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) for a Poisson example and for a binomial example. The final two chapters showcase two fairly novel and nonstandard versions of a GLMM. The first is the site-occupancy model for species distributions; the second is the binomial (or N-) mixture model for estimation and modeling of abundance. Introduction to the essential theories of key models used by ecologists Complete juxtaposition of classical analyses in R and Bayesian analysis of the same models in WinBUGS Provides every detail of R and WinBUGS code required to conduct all analyses Companion Web Appendix that contains all code contained in the book and additional material (including more code and solutions to exercises)
Posted in Science

The BUGS Book

A Practical Introduction to Bayesian Analysis

Author: David Lunn,Chris Jackson,Nicky Best,Andrew Thomas,David Spiegelhalter

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466586664

Category: Mathematics

Page: 399

View: 4959

Bayesian statistical methods have become widely used for data analysis and modelling in recent years, and the BUGS software has become the most popular software for Bayesian analysis worldwide. Authored by the team that originally developed this software, The BUGS Book provides a practical introduction to this program and its use. The text presents complete coverage of all the functionalities of BUGS, including prediction, missing data, model criticism, and prior sensitivity. It also features a large number of worked examples and a wide range of applications from various disciplines. The book introduces regression models, techniques for criticism and comparison, and a wide range of modelling issues before going into the vital area of hierarchical models, one of the most common applications of Bayesian methods. It deals with essentials of modelling without getting bogged down in complexity. The book emphasises model criticism, model comparison, sensitivity analysis to alternative priors, and thoughtful choice of prior distributions—all those aspects of the "art" of modelling that are easily overlooked in more theoretical expositions. More pragmatic than ideological, the authors systematically work through the large range of "tricks" that reveal the real power of the BUGS software, for example, dealing with missing data, censoring, grouped data, prediction, ranking, parameter constraints, and so on. Many of the examples are biostatistical, but they do not require domain knowledge and are generalisable to a wide range of other application areas. Full code and data for examples, exercises, and some solutions can be found on the book’s website.
Posted in Mathematics

Bayesian Methods for Ecology

Author: Michael A. McCarthy

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113946387X

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 7306

The interest in using Bayesian methods in ecology is increasing, however many ecologists have difficulty with conducting the required analyses. McCarthy bridges that gap, using a clear and accessible style. The text also incorporates case studies to demonstrate mark-recapture analysis, development of population models and the use of subjective judgement. The advantages of Bayesian methods, are also described here, for example, the incorporation of any relevant prior information and the ability to assess the evidence in favour of competing hypotheses. Free software is available as well as an accompanying web-site containing the data files and WinBUGS codes. Bayesian Methods for Ecology will appeal to academic researchers, upper undergraduate and graduate students of Ecology.
Posted in Science

An Introduction to Bayesian Analysis

Theory and Methods

Author: Jayanta K. Ghosh,Mohan Delampady,Tapas Samanta

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387354336

Category: Mathematics

Page: 354

View: 8988

This is a graduate-level textbook on Bayesian analysis blending modern Bayesian theory, methods, and applications. Starting from basic statistics, undergraduate calculus and linear algebra, ideas of both subjective and objective Bayesian analysis are developed to a level where real-life data can be analyzed using the current techniques of statistical computing. Advances in both low-dimensional and high-dimensional problems are covered, as well as important topics such as empirical Bayes and hierarchical Bayes methods and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques. Many topics are at the cutting edge of statistical research. Solutions to common inference problems appear throughout the text along with discussion of what prior to choose. There is a discussion of elicitation of a subjective prior as well as the motivation, applicability, and limitations of objective priors. By way of important applications the book presents microarrays, nonparametric regression via wavelets as well as DMA mixtures of normals, and spatial analysis with illustrations using simulated and real data. Theoretical topics at the cutting edge include high-dimensional model selection and Intrinsic Bayes Factors, which the authors have successfully applied to geological mapping. The style is informal but clear. Asymptotics is used to supplement simulation or understand some aspects of the posterior.
Posted in Mathematics

Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics

Author: William M. Bolstad

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118209923

Category: Mathematics

Page: 336

View: 1107

A hands-on introduction to computational statistics from a Bayesian point of view Providing a solid grounding in statistics while uniquely covering the topics from a Bayesian perspective, Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics successfully guides readers through this new, cutting-edge approach. With its hands-on treatment of the topic, the book shows how samples can be drawn from the posterior distribution when the formula giving its shape is all that is known, and how Bayesian inferences can be based on these samples from the posterior. These ideas are illustrated on common statistical models, including the multiple linear regression model, the hierarchical mean model, the logistic regression model, and the proportional hazards model. The book begins with an outline of the similarities and differences between Bayesian and the likelihood approaches to statistics. Subsequent chapters present key techniques for using computer software to draw Monte Carlo samples from the incompletely known posterior distribution and performing the Bayesian inference calculated from these samples. Topics of coverage include: Direct ways to draw a random sample from the posterior by reshaping a random sample drawn from an easily sampled starting distribution The distributions from the one-dimensional exponential family Markov chains and their long-run behavior The Metropolis-Hastings algorithm Gibbs sampling algorithm and methods for speeding up convergence Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling Using numerous graphs and diagrams, the author emphasizes a step-by-step approach to computational Bayesian statistics. At each step, important aspects of application are detailed, such as how to choose a prior for logistic regression model, the Poisson regression model, and the proportional hazards model. A related Web site houses R functions and Minitab macros for Bayesian analysis and Monte Carlo simulations, and detailed appendices in the book guide readers through the use of these software packages. Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics is an excellent book for courses on computational statistics at the upper-level undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also a valuable reference for researchers and practitioners who use computer programs to conduct statistical analyses of data and solve problems in their everyday work.
Posted in Mathematics

Bayesian Inference

With Ecological Applications

Author: William A Link,Richard J Barker

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080889808

Category: Science

Page: 354

View: 6585

This text is written to provide a mathematically sound but accessible and engaging introduction to Bayesian inference specifically for environmental scientists, ecologists and wildlife biologists. It emphasizes the power and usefulness of Bayesian methods in an ecological context. The advent of fast personal computers and easily available software has simplified the use of Bayesian and hierarchical models . One obstacle remains for ecologists and wildlife biologists, namely the near absence of Bayesian texts written specifically for them. The book includes many relevant examples, is supported by software and examples on a companion website and will become an essential grounding in this approach for students and research ecologists. Engagingly written text specifically designed to demystify a complex subject Examples drawn from ecology and wildlife research An essential grounding for graduate and research ecologists in the increasingly prevalent Bayesian approach to inference Companion website with analytical software and examples Leading authors with world-class reputations in ecology and biostatistics
Posted in Science

Bayesian Methods for Hackers

Probabilistic Programming and Bayesian Inference

Author: Cameron Davidson-Pilon

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 0133902927

Category: Computers

Page: 256

View: 9340

Master Bayesian Inference through Practical Examples and Computation–Without Advanced Mathematical Analysis Bayesian methods of inference are deeply natural and extremely powerful. However, most discussions of Bayesian inference rely on intensely complex mathematical analyses and artificial examples, making it inaccessible to anyone without a strong mathematical background. Now, though, Cameron Davidson-Pilon introduces Bayesian inference from a computational perspective, bridging theory to practice–freeing you to get results using computing power. Bayesian Methods for Hackers illuminates Bayesian inference through probabilistic programming with the powerful PyMC language and the closely related Python tools NumPy, SciPy, and Matplotlib. Using this approach, you can reach effective solutions in small increments, without extensive mathematical intervention. Davidson-Pilon begins by introducing the concepts underlying Bayesian inference, comparing it with other techniques and guiding you through building and training your first Bayesian model. Next, he introduces PyMC through a series of detailed examples and intuitive explanations that have been refined after extensive user feedback. You’ll learn how to use the Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm, choose appropriate sample sizes and priors, work with loss functions, and apply Bayesian inference in domains ranging from finance to marketing. Once you’ve mastered these techniques, you’ll constantly turn to this guide for the working PyMC code you need to jumpstart future projects. Coverage includes • Learning the Bayesian “state of mind” and its practical implications • Understanding how computers perform Bayesian inference • Using the PyMC Python library to program Bayesian analyses • Building and debugging models with PyMC • Testing your model’s “goodness of fit” • Opening the “black box” of the Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to see how and why it works • Leveraging the power of the “Law of Large Numbers” • Mastering key concepts, such as clustering, convergence, autocorrelation, and thinning • Using loss functions to measure an estimate’s weaknesses based on your goals and desired outcomes • Selecting appropriate priors and understanding how their influence changes with dataset size • Overcoming the “exploration versus exploitation” dilemma: deciding when “pretty good” is good enough • Using Bayesian inference to improve A/B testing • Solving data science problems when only small amounts of data are available Cameron Davidson-Pilon has worked in many areas of applied mathematics, from the evolutionary dynamics of genes and diseases to stochastic modeling of financial prices. His contributions to the open source community include lifelines, an implementation of survival analysis in Python. Educated at the University of Waterloo and at the Independent University of Moscow, he currently works with the online commerce leader Shopify.
Posted in Computers

Doing Bayesian Data Analysis

A Tutorial Introduction with R

Author: John Kruschke

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780123814869

Category: Mathematics

Page: 672

View: 935

There is an explosion of interest in Bayesian statistics, primarily because recently created computational methods have finally made Bayesian analysis tractable and accessible to a wide audience. Doing Bayesian Data Analysis, A Tutorial Introduction with R and BUGS, is for first year graduate students or advanced undergraduates and provides an accessible approach, as all mathematics is explained intuitively and with concrete examples. It assumes only algebra and ‘rusty’ calculus. Unlike other textbooks, this book begins with the basics, including essential concepts of probability and random sampling. The book gradually climbs all the way to advanced hierarchical modeling methods for realistic data. The text provides complete examples with the R programming language and BUGS software (both freeware), and begins with basic programming examples, working up gradually to complete programs for complex analyses and presentation graphics. These templates can be easily adapted for a large variety of students and their own research needs.The textbook bridges the students from their undergraduate training into modern Bayesian methods. Accessible, including the basics of essential concepts of probability and random sampling Examples with R programming language and BUGS software Comprehensive coverage of all scenarios addressed by non-bayesian textbooks- t-tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and comparisons in ANOVA, multiple regression, and chi-square (contingency table analysis). Coverage of experiment planning R and BUGS computer programming code on website Exercises have explicit purposes and guidelines for accomplishment
Posted in Mathematics

Bayesian Computation with R

Author: Jim Albert

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387922989

Category: Mathematics

Page: 300

View: 9818

There has been dramatic growth in the development and application of Bayesian inference in statistics. Berger (2000) documents the increase in Bayesian activity by the number of published research articles, the number of books,andtheextensivenumberofapplicationsofBayesianarticlesinapplied disciplines such as science and engineering. One reason for the dramatic growth in Bayesian modeling is the availab- ity of computational algorithms to compute the range of integrals that are necessary in a Bayesian posterior analysis. Due to the speed of modern c- puters, it is now possible to use the Bayesian paradigm to ?t very complex models that cannot be ?t by alternative frequentist methods. To ?t Bayesian models, one needs a statistical computing environment. This environment should be such that one can: write short scripts to de?ne a Bayesian model use or write functions to summarize a posterior distribution use functions to simulate from the posterior distribution construct graphs to illustrate the posterior inference An environment that meets these requirements is the R system. R provides a wide range of functions for data manipulation, calculation, and graphical d- plays. Moreover, it includes a well-developed, simple programming language that users can extend by adding new functions. Many such extensions of the language in the form of packages are easily downloadable from the Comp- hensive R Archive Network (CRAN).
Posted in Mathematics