The Endtimes of Human Rights

Author: Stephen Hopgood

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801469295

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 9311

"We are living through the endtimes of the civilizing mission. The ineffectual International Criminal Court and its disastrous first prosecutor, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, along with the failure in Syria of the Responsibility to Protect are the latest pieces of evidence not of transient misfortunes but of fatal structural defects in international humanism. Whether it is the increase in deadly attacks on aid workers, the torture and 'disappearing' of al-Qaeda suspects by American officials, the flouting of international law by states such as Sri Lanka and Sudan, or the shambles of the Khmer Rouge tribunal in Phnom Penh, the prospect of one world under secular human rights law is receding. What seemed like a dawn is in fact a sunset. The foundations of universal liberal norms and global governance are crumbling."—from The Endtimes of Human Rights In a book that is at once passionate and provocative, Stephen Hopgood argues, against the conventional wisdom, that the idea of universal human rights has become not only ill adapted to current realities but also overambitious and unresponsive. A shift in the global balance of power away from the United States further undermines the foundations on which the global human rights regime is based. American decline exposes the contradictions, hypocrisies and weaknesses behind the attempt to enforce this regime around the world and opens the way for resurgent religious and sovereign actors to challenge human rights. Historically, Hopgood writes, universal humanist norms inspired a sense of secular religiosity among the new middle classes of a rapidly modernizing Europe. Human rights were the product of a particular worldview (Western European and Christian) and specific historical moments (humanitarianism in the nineteenth century, the aftermath of the Holocaust). They were an antidote to a troubling contradiction—the coexistence of a belief in progress with horrifying violence and growing inequality. The obsolescence of that founding purpose in the modern globalized world has, Hopgood asserts, transformed the institutions created to perform it, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross and recently the International Criminal Court, into self-perpetuating structures of intermittent power and authority that mask their lack of democratic legitimacy and systematic ineffectiveness. At their best, they provide relief in extraordinary situations of great distress; otherwise they are serving up a mixture of false hope and unaccountability sustained by “human rights” as a global brand. The Endtimes of Human Rights is sure to be controversial. Hopgood makes a plea for a new understanding of where hope lies for human rights, a plea that mourns the promise but rejects the reality of universalism in favor of a less predictable encounter with the diverse realities of today’s multipolar world.
Posted in Political Science

Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice

Author: Jack Donnelly

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801467497

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 5773

In the third edition of his classic work, revised extensively and updated to include recent developments on the international scene, Jack Donnelly explains and defends a richly interdisciplinary account of human rights as universal rights. He shows that any conception of human rights-and the idea of human rights itself-is historically specific and contingent. Since publication of the first edition in 1989, Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice has justified Donnelly's claim that "conceptual clarity, the fruit of sound theory, can facilitate action. At the very least it can help to unmask the arguments of dictators and their allies."
Posted in Political Science

The Debasement of Human Rights

How Politics Sabotage the Ideal of Freedom

Author: Aaron Rhodes

Publisher: Encounter Books

ISBN: 1594039801

Category: Political Science

Page: 296

View: 7921

The idea of human rights began as a call for individual freedom from tyranny, yet today it is exploited to rationalize oppression and promote collectivism. How did this happen? Aaron Rhodes, recognized as “one of the leading human rights activists in the world” by the University of Chicago, reveals how an emancipatory ideal became so debased. Rhodes identifies the fundamental flaw in the Universal Declaration of Human of Rights, the basis for many international treaties and institutions. It mixes freedom rights rooted in natural law—authentic human rights—with “economic and social rights,” or claims to material support from governments, which are intrinsically political. As a result, the idea of human rights has lost its essential meaning and moral power. The principles of natural rights, first articulated in antiquity, were compromised in a process of accommodation with the Soviet Union after World War II, and under the influence of progressivism in Western democracies. Geopolitical and ideological forces ripped the concept of human rights from its foundations, opening it up to abuse. Dissidents behind the Iron Curtain saw clearly the difference between freedom rights and state-granted entitlements, but the collapse of the USSR allowed demands for an expanding array of economic and social rights to gain legitimacy without the totalitarian stigma. The international community and civil society groups now see human rights as being defined by legislation, not by transcendent principles. Freedoms are traded off for the promise of economic benefits, and the notion of collective rights is used to justify restrictions on basic liberties. We all have a stake in human rights, and few serious observers would deny that the concept has lost clarity. But no one before has provided such a comprehensive analysis of the problem as Rhodes does here, joining philosophy and history with insights from his own extensive work in the field.
Posted in Political Science

Christian Human Rights

Author: Samuel Moyn

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 081224818X

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 4691

In Christian Human Rights, Samuel Moyn asserts that the rise of human rights after World War II was prefigured and inspired by a defense of the dignity of the human person that first arose in Christian churches and religious thought in the years just prior to the outbreak of the war. The Roman Catholic Church and transatlantic Protestant circles dominated the public discussion of the new principles in what became the last European golden age for the Christian faith. At the same time, West European governments after World War II, particularly in the ascendant Christian Democratic parties, became more tolerant of public expressions of religious piety. Human rights rose to public prominence in the space opened up by these dual developments of the early Cold War. Moyn argues that human dignity became central to Christian political discourse as early as 1937. Pius XII's wartime Christmas addresses announced the basic idea of universal human rights as a principle of world, and not merely state, order. By focusing on the 1930s and 1940s, Moyn demonstrates how the language of human rights was separated from the secular heritage of the French Revolution and put to use by postwar democracies governed by Christian parties, which reinvented them to impose moral constraints on individuals, support conservative family structures, and preserve existing social hierarchies. The book ends with a provocative chapter that traces contemporary European struggles to assimilate Muslim immigrants to the continent's legacy of Christian human rights.
Posted in Political Science

The Idea of Human Rights

Author: Charles R. Beitz

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199604371

Category: Law

Page: 256

View: 7927

Human rights have become one of the most important moral concepts in global political life over the last 60 years. Charles Beitz, one of the world's leading philosophers, offers a compelling new examination of the idea of a human right.
Posted in Law

Surrogacy, Law and Human Rights

Author: Assoc Prof Paula Gerber,Ms Katie O'Byrne

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472451244

Category: Law

Page: 240

View: 323

This book examines the effect on domestic and international law, and on human rights law and theory, of the impact of the sharp increase in the use of surrogacy. Featuring a wide range of views from academics and practitioners around the world, the contributors present critical analysis of the current regulation of surrogacy and consider what could be done to further protect the rights of all persons involved in surrogacy arrangements.
Posted in Law

Not Enough

Human Rights in an Unequal World

Author: Samuel Moyn

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674737563

Category: History

Page: 276

View: 1404

Jacobin legacy: the origins of social justice -- National welfare and the universal declaration -- FDR's second bill -- Globalizing welfare after empire -- Basic needs and human rights -- Global ethics from equality to subsistence -- Human rights in the neoliberal maelstrom
Posted in History

Corporate Human Rights Violations

Global Prospects for Legal Action

Author: Stefanie Khoury,David Whyte

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317216067

Category: Political Science

Page: 210

View: 7792

This book develops an analysis of the historical, political and legal contexts behind current demands by NGOs and the United Nations Human Rights Council to hold corporations accountable for their human rights violations. Based on an analysis of the range of mechanisms of accountability that currently exist, it argues that that those demands are a response to the failure of neo-liberal policies that have dominated the practice of politics and law since the emergence of this debate in its current form in the 1970s. Offering a new approach to understanding how struggles for hegemony are refracted through a range of legal challenges to corporate human rights violations, the book offers a fresh perspective for understanding how those struggles are played out in the global sphere. In order to analyse the prospects for using human rights law to challenge the right of corporations to author human rights violations, the book explores the development of a range of political initiatives in the UN, the uses of tort law in domestic courts, and the uses of human rights law at the European Court of Human Rights and at the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. This book will be essential reading for all those interested in how international institutions and NGOs are both shaping and being shaped by global struggles against corporate power.
Posted in Political Science

Measuring Human Rights

Author: Todd Landman,Edzia Carvalho

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135270856

Category: Law

Page: 176

View: 5548

The measurement of human rights has long been debated within the various academic disciplines that focus on human rights, as well as within the larger international community of practitioners working in the field of human rights. Written by leading experts in the field, this is the most up-to-date and comprehensive book on how to measure human rights. Measuring Human Rights: draws explicitly on the international law of human rights to derive the content of human rights that ought to be measured contains a comprehensive methodological framework for operationalizing this human rights content into human rights measures includes separate chapters on the methods, strengths and biases of different human rights measures, including events-based, standards-based, survey-based, and socio-economic and administrative statistics covers measures of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights includes a complete bibliography, as well as sources and locations for data sets useful for the measurement of human rights. This volume offers a significant and timely addition to this important area of work in the field of human rights, and will be of interest to academics and NGOs, INGOs, international governmental organizations, international financial institutions, and national governments themselves.
Posted in Law

Human Rights in New Zealand

Emerging Faultlines

Author: Judy McGregor,Sylvia Bell,Margaret Wilson

Publisher: Bridget Williams Books

ISBN: 0947492755

Category: Political Science

Page: 252

View: 2209

'The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted while the world remained deeply shocked by the atrocities committed during the Second World War, was an inspirational creation. ... It is hard to conceive of this document being adopted today. Like most other nations, New Zealand has succumbed to a kind of world-weary acceptance that full enjoyment of universal human rights remains a distant dream.' Preface, Dame Silvia Cartwright, PCNZM, DBE, QSO New Zealand is proud of its human rights record with good reason. It was the first country in the world to give women the vote and it played a prominent part in the establishment of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. New Zealand recently took a leading role in the creation of the world’s newest human rights treaty, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. But just how good are things in practice? Are our governments living up to the promises they make when they ratify human rights treaties? Human Rights in New Zealand is a comprehensive survey of the seven major international human rights treaties which New Zealand has signed and ratified, as well as the Universal Periodic Review. Based on four years of research, undertaken with the support of the New Zealand Law Foundation, this book concludes that significant faultlines are emerging in the human rights landscape. It sets out an agenda for change with recommendations for practical action.
Posted in Political Science

Mobilizing for Human Rights

International Law in Domestic Politics

Author: Beth A. Simmons

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521885108

Category: Law

Page: 451

View: 5362

Beth Simmons demonstrates through a combination of statistical analysis and case studies that the ratification of treaties generally leads to better human rights practices. She argues that international human rights law should get more practical and rhetorical support from the international community as a supplement to broader efforts to address conflict, development, and democratization.
Posted in Law

Freedom

Short Stories Celebrating the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Author: Amnesty International

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 1845968573

Category: Political Science

Page: 448

View: 6093

Inspired by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), which starts memorably with Article 1: we are all born free and equal, Freedom is an enthralling anthology of short stories by some of the world's top writers. Most of the stories have been written especially for this anthology by a renowned array of internationally acclaimed writers, including Paulo Coelho, Yann Martel, AL Kennedy, Ali Smith, Amit Chaudhuri, Ariel Dorfman, Helen Dunmore, Marina Lewycka, Walter Mosley, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, James Meek, Kate Atkinson, David Mitchell, Hector Aguilar Camin, Ishmael Beah, Boris Akunin, Alice Pung and Banana Yoshimoto. Each acclaimed contributor has chosen one of the thirty UDHR rights as the basic inspiration for his or her story, and the result is an anthology that contains a complete mix of thoughtful, serious, funny and thrilling stories that provide some completely unexpected takes on the issue of human rights. Published in association with Amnesty International, Freedom is an eclectic collection that will prompt readers to engage imaginatively with what human rights mean for all of us.
Posted in Political Science

The Novel of Human Rights

Author: James Dawes

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674989473

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 240

View: 1625

James Dawes defines a new, dynamic American literary genre, which takes as its theme a range of atrocities at home and abroad. This vibrant and modern genre incorporates key debates within the human rights movement in the U.S. and in turn influences the ideas and rhetoric of that discourse.
Posted in Literary Criticism

Human Rights and Incarceration

Author: Elizabeth Stanley

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319953990

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 1438

Posted in

The Mass Appeal of Human Rights

Author: Joel R. Pruce

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319920758

Category: Political Science

Page: 180

View: 2914

This book narrates the integration of consumer culture into transnational human rights advocacy and explores its political impact. By examining tactics that include benefit concerts, graphic imagery of suffering, and branded outreach campaigns, the book details the evolution of human rights into a mainstream moral cause. Drawing inspiration from the critical theory of the Frankfurt School, the author argues that these strategies are effective in attracting masses of supporters but weaken the viability of human rights by commodifying its practices. Consumer capitalism co-opts the public’s moral awakening and transforms its desire for global engagement into components of a lifestyle expressed through market transactions and commercial relationships, rather than political commitments. Reclaiming human rights as a subversive idea can reconnect the practice of human rights with its principles and generate a movement bound to the radical spirit of human rights.
Posted in Political Science

Business and Human Rights

History, Law and Policy - Bridging the Accountability Gap

Author: Nadia Bernaz

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317233859

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 314

View: 5463

Business corporations can and do violate human rights all over the world, and they are often not held to account. Emblematic cases and situations such as the state of the Niger Delta and the collapse of the Rana Plaza factory are examples of corporate human rights abuses which are not adequately prevented and remedied. Business and human rights as a field seeks to enhance the accountability of business – companies and businesspeople – in the human rights area, or, to phrase it differently, to bridge the accountability gap. Bridging the accountability gap is to be understood as both setting standards and holding corporations and businesspeople to account if violations occur. Adopting a legal perspective, this book presents the ways in which this dual undertaking has been and could be further carried out in the future, and evaluates the extent to which the various initiatives in the field bridge the corporate accountability gap. It looks at the historical background of the field of business and human rights, and examines salient periods, events and cases. The book then goes on to explore the relevance of international human rights law and international criminal law for global business. International soft law and policy initiatives which have blossomed in recent years are evaluated along with private modes of regulation. The book also examines how domestic law, especially the domestic law of multinational companies’ home countries, can be used to prevent and redress corporate related human rights violations.
Posted in Business & Economics

Human Rights, Inc.

The World Novel, Narrative Form, and International Law

Author: Joseph Slaughter

Publisher: Fordham Univ Press

ISBN: 0823228193

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 436

View: 3638

In this timely study of the historical, ideological, and formal interdependencies of the novel and human rights, Joseph Slaughter demonstrates that the twentieth-century rise of world literatureand international human rights law are related phenomena. Slaughter argues that international law shares with the modern novel a particular conception of the human individual. The Bildungsroman, the novel of coming of age, fills out this image, offering a conceptual vocabulary, a humanist social vision, and a narrative grammar for what the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and early literary theorists both call the free and full development of the human personality. Revising our received understanding of the relationship between law and literature, Slaughter suggests that this narrative form has acted as a cultural surrogate for the weak executive authority of international law, naturalizing the assumptions and conditions that make human rights appear commonsensical. As a kind of novelistic correlative to human rights law, the Bildungsroman has thus been doing some of the sociocultural work of enforcement that the law cannot do for itself. This analysis of the cultural work of law and of the social work of literature challenges traditional Eurocentric histories of both international law and the dissemination of the novel. Taking his point of departure in Goethe's Wilhelm Meister, Slaughter focuses on recent postcolonial versions of the coming-of-age story to show how the promise of human rights becomes legible in narrative and how the novel and the law are complicit in contemporary projects of globalization: in colonialism, neoimperalism, humanitarianism, and the spread of multinational consumer capitalism.Slaughter raises important practical and ethical questions that we must confront in advocating for human rights and reading world literature-imperatives that, today more than ever, are intertwined.
Posted in Literary Criticism

World Poverty and Human Rights

Author: Thomas W. Pogge

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 0745641431

Category: Philosophy

Page: 352

View: 820

Thomas Pogge tries to explain how most of the population of this planet can excuse world poverty. A mere one or two % of the wealth of the richer nations could help in eradicating much of the poverty but there's a slim chance of that happening.
Posted in Philosophy

Race and Human Rights

Author: Curtis Stokes

Publisher: MSU Press

ISBN: 0870139584

Category: Political Science

Page: 371

View: 2528

The terrorist attacks against U.S. targets on September 11, 2001, and the subsequent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, sparked an intense debate about "human rights." According to contributors to this provocative book, the discussion of human rights to date has been far too narrow. They argue that any conversation about human rights in the United States must include equal rights for all residents. Essays examine the historical and intellectual context for the modern debate about human rights, the racial implications of the war on terrorism, the intersection of racial oppression, and the national security state. Others look at the Pinkerton detective agency as a forerunner of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the role of Africa in post–World War II American attempts at empire-building, and the role of immigration as a human rights issue.
Posted in Political Science

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Author: Eleanor Roosevelt

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781557094551

Category: Political Science

Page: 49

View: 773

In 1948, Eleanor Roosevelt served as chairwoman of the United Nations committee to create this declaration of moral conscience, now used by Amnest International as their founding document. This edition is in six languages: English, Spanish, French, Chinese, Russian, and Arabic.
Posted in Political Science