Hubbard Brook

The Story of a Forest Ecosystem

Author: Richard T. Holmes,Gene E. Likens

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300203640

Category: Forest ecology

Page: 288

View: 8318

A beautifully illustrated overview and synthesis of how scientists have used a living forest as an experimental laboratory for more than 50 years For more than 50 years, the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in the White Mountains of New Hampshire has been one of the most intensely studied landscapes on earth. This book highlights many of the important ecological findings amassed during the long-term research conducted there, and considers their regional, national, and global implications. Richard T. Holmes and Gene E. Likens, active members of the research team at Hubbard Brook since its beginnings, explain the scientific processes employed in the forest-turned-laboratory. They describe such important findings as the discovery of acid rain, ecological effects of forest management practices, and the causes of population change in forest birds, as well as how disturbance events, pests and pathogens, and a changing climate affect forest and associated aquatic ecosystems. The authors show how such long-term, place-based ecological studies are relevant for informing many national, regional, and local environmental issues, such as air pollution, water quality, ecosystem management, and conservation.
Posted in Forest ecology

Pattern and Process in a Forested Ecosystem

Disturbance, Development and the Steady State Based on the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study

Author: F.Herbert Bormann,Gene E. Likens

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461262321

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 8124

The advent of ecosystem ecology has created great difficulties for ecologists primarily trained as biologists, since inevitably as the field grew, it absorbed components of other disciplines relatively foreign to most ecologists yet vital to the understanding of the structure and function of ecosystems. From the point of view of the biological ecologist struggling to understand the enormous complexity of the biological functions within an ecosystem, the added necessity of integrating biology with geochemis try, hydrology, micrometeorology, geomorphology, pedology, and applied sciences (like silviculture and land use management) often has appeared as an impossible requirement. Ecologists have frequently responded by limiting their perspective to biology with the result that the modeling of species interactions is sometimes considered as modeling ecosystems, or modeling the living fraction of the ecosystems is considered as modeling whole ecosystems. Such of course is not the case, since understanding the structure and function of ecosystems requires sound understanding of inanimate as well as animate processes and often neither can be under stood without the other. About 15 years ago, a view of ecology somewhat different from most then prevailing, coupled with a strong dose of naivete and a sense of exploration, lead us to believe that consideration of the inanimate side of ecosystem function rather than being just one more annoying complexity might provide exceptional advantages in the study of ecosystems. To examine this possibility, we took two steps which occurred more or less simultaneously.
Posted in Science

Seeking the Wolf Tree

Author: Natalie Cleavitt

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 163076146X

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 32

View: 5891

Old-time New England foresters coined the term “wolf tree” for trees they saw as having the ability to “eat” the sun and nutrients and prevent the growth of other trees. Today, however, we understand how wolf trees benefit wildlife. Join Aurora and Orion as they search for a wolf tree near Petersham, Massachusetts.
Posted in Juvenile Nonfiction

Long-Term Response of a Forest Watershed Ecosystem

Clearcutting in the Southern Appalachians

Author: Wayne T. Swank,Jackson R. Webster

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195370155

Category: Nature

Page: 272

View: 7218

A long-term study of the effects of clearcutting on forest and stream ecosystems.
Posted in Nature

Invasion Dynamics

Author: Cang Hui,David M. Richardson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191062537

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 7591

Humans have moved organisms around the world for centuries but it is only relatively recently that invasion ecology has grown into a mainstream research field. This book examines both the spread and impact dynamics of invasive species, placing the science of invasion biology on a new, more rigorous, theoretical footing, and proposing a concept of adaptive networks as the foundation for future research. Biological invasions are considered not as simple actions of invaders and reactions of invaded ecosystems, but as co-evolving complex adaptive systems with emergent features of network complexity and invasibility. Invasion Dynamics focuses on the ecology of invasive species and their impacts in recipient social-ecological systems. It discusses not only key advances and challenges within the traditional domain of invasion ecology, but introduces approaches, concepts, and insights from many other disciplines such as complexity science, systems science, and ecology more broadly. It will be of great value to invasion biologists analyzing spread and/or impact dynamics as well as other ecologists interested in spread processes or habitat management.
Posted in Science

Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem

Author: Gene E. Likens

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461478103

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 8668

The goal of this Third Edition is to update long-term data presented in earlier editions and to generate new syntheses and conclusions about the biogeochemistry of the Hubbard Brook Valley based on these longer-term data. There have been many changes, revelations, and exciting new insights generated from the longer data records. For example, the impact of acid rain peaked during the period of the HBES and is now declining. The longer-term data also posed challenges in that very marked changes in fluxes occurred in some components, such as hydrogen ion and sulfate deposition, calcium and nitrate export in stream water and biomass accumulation, during the almost 50 years of record. Thus, presenting “mean” or “average” conditions for many components for such a long period, when change was so prominent, do not make sense. In some cases, pentads or decades of time are compared to show these changes in a more smoothed and rational way for this long period. In some cases, a single period, often during periods of rapid change, such as acidification, is used to illustrate the main point(s). And, for some elements a unique mass balance approach, allowing the calculation of the Net Ecosystem Flux (NEF), is shown on an annual basis throughout the study.
Posted in Science

USDA Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges

Research for the Long Term

Author: Deborah C. Hayes,Susan L. Stout,Ralph H. Crawford,Anne P. Hoover

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1461418186

Category: Science

Page: 672

View: 8269

USDA Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) are scientific treasures, providing secure, protected research sites where complex and diverse ecological processes are studied over the long term. This book offers several examples of the dynamic interactions among questions of public concern or policy, EFR research, and natural resource management practices and policies. Often, trends observed – or expected -- in the early years of a research program are contradicted or confounded as the research record extends over decades. The EFRs are among the few areas in the US where such long-term research has been carried out by teams of scientists. Changes in society’s needs and values can also redirect research programs. Each chapter of this book reflects the interplay between the ecological results that emerge from a long-term research project and the social forces that influence questions asked and resources invested in ecological research. While these stories include summaries and syntheses of traditional research results, they offer a distinctly new perspective, a larger and more complete picture than that provided by a more typical 5-year study. They also provide examples of long-term research on EFRs that have provided answers for questions not even imagined at the time the study was installed.
Posted in Science

Fundamentals of Ecosystem Science

Author: Kathleen C. Weathers,David L. Strayer,Gene E. Likens

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080916805

Category: Nature

Page: 326

View: 2690

Ecosystem science has developed into a major part of contemporary ecology, and it is now applied to diagnose and solve a wide range of important environmental problems. Fundamentals of Ecosystem Science provides a compact and comprehensive introduction to modern ecosystem science. Written by a group of experts, this book covers major concepts of ecosystem science, biogeochemistry, and energetics. Addresses, contrasts, and compares both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems Combines general lessons, concepts, frameworks, and challenges in highly accessible synthesis chapters Presents firsthand case studies, written by leaders in the field, offering personal insights into how adopting an ecosystem approach led to innovations, new understanding, management changes, and policy solutions
Posted in Nature

The Hidden Forest

The Biography of an Ecosystem

Author: Jon R. Luoma

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780870710940

Category: Nature

Page: 228

View: 9436

Originally published: New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1999.
Posted in Nature

Living in the Environment: Principles, Connections, and Solutions

Author: G. Tyler Miller,Scott Spoolman

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1133169546

Category: Science

Page: 800

View: 8801

Sustainability is the integrating theme of this current and thought-provoking book. LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT provides the basic scientific tools for understanding and thinking critically about the environment. Co-authors G. Tyler Miller and Scott Spoolman inspire students to take a positive approach toward finding and implementing useful environmental solutions in their own lives and in their careers. Updated with the most up-to-date information, art, and Good News examples, the text engages and motivates students with vivid case studies and hands-on quantitative exercises. The concept-centered approach transforms complex environmental topics and issues into key concepts that students will understand and remember. Overall, by framing the concepts with goals for more sustainable lifestyles and human communities, students see how promising the future can be. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Posted in Science

The Ecosystem Concept in Natural Resource Management

Author: George Van Dyne

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323152244

Category: Nature

Page: 398

View: 5592

The Ecosystem Concept in Natural Resource Management focuses on the ecosystem concept and its application to natural resource management. It presents examples of research concepts on natural resource phenomena and discusses ecosystem implications for natural resource management. It also covers range, forest, watershed, fisheries, and wildlife resource science and management. Organized into four sections encompassing 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the meaning, origin, and importance of ecosystem concepts before proceeding with a discussion of field research projects that address the ecosystem concept and the ways in which the concept has been or can be useful in both research and management in natural resource sciences. More specifically, it explores major developments in the field of ecology in relation to natural resource management, with examples from forest ecology. It also introduces the reader to procedures for studying grassland ecosystems, the watershed-ecosystem concept and studies of nutrient cycles, ecosystem concepts in forestry, ecosystem models in watershed management, and the implementation of the ecosystem concept in training in the natural resource sciences. This book is a valuable resource for scientists, educators, technicians, and training resource managers, as well as students in resource management courses.
Posted in Nature

Ecological Parasitology

Reflections on 50 Years of Research in Aquatic Ecosystems

Author: Gerald Esch

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118874676

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 1121

Professor Gerald Esch has already published two books in what is becoming an informal series of essays exploring the way that discoveries about the biology of parasites have influenced ecological and evolutionary theories over a career that has spanned nearly 50 years. This book will be the third set of essays and will focus on key moments of discovery and explore how these achievements were due to collaboration, mentoring, and community building within the field of ecological parasitology. The book will not only describe case studies, pure science and biology but also act as a career guide for early-career ecologists emphasizing the importance of collaboration in the advancement of science.
Posted in Science

The Encyclopedia of Historic and Endangered Livestock and Poultry Breeds

Author: Janet Vorwald Dohner

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 030013813X

Category: NATURE

Page: 514

View: 1553

The hardy, multipurpose Dominique chickens that came to the New World with the Pilgrims and later travelled in pioneer saddlebags to help settle the West were once too numerous to count, by 1990 a mere 500 hens survived. This is but a single example of the diminishing diversity of farm animals: half of once-common livestock breeds are endangered, others are already extinct. The need to preserve farm animal diversity is increasingly urgent, says the author of this definitive book on endangered breeds of livestock and poultry. Farmyard animals may hold critical keys for our survival, Jan Dohner warns, and with each extinction, genetic traits of potentially vital importance to our agricultural future or to medical progress are forever lost. This comprehensive book features: * complete information on the history, characteristics, qualities, and traits of 138 endangered livestock breeds (goats, sheep, swine, cattle, horses, other equines) and 53 poultry breeds (chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese) * where these breeds may be seen today * the degree of rarity of each breed in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada * information on feral livestock populations * 160 colour photographs and over 80 black and white photos and historical illustrations
Posted in NATURE

A History of the Ecosystem Concept in Ecology

More Than the Sum of the Parts

Author: Frank Benjamin Golley

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300066425

Category: Science

Page: 254

View: 6401

The ecosystem concept - the idea that flora and fauna interact with the environment to form an ecological complex - has long been central to the public perception of ecology and to increasing awareness of environmental degradation. In this book an ecologist explains the ecosystem concept, tracing its evolution, describing how numerous American and European researchers contributed to its evolution, and discussing the explosive growth of ecosystem studies.
Posted in Science

New England Wild Flower Society's Flora Novae Angliae

A Manual for the Identification of Native and Naturalized Higher Vascular Plants of New England

Author: Arthur Haines,Elizabeth Farnsworth,New England Wild Flower Society

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300171544

Category: Nature

Page: 973

View: 9844

This comprehensive manual offers accurate, up-to-date, and clear information for identifying New England's remarkable array of tracheophytes (vascular plants, excluding mosses). With fully researched entries on some 3,500 native and nonnative species, the book is the first in decades to provide a complete and correct botanical reference for the region's noncultivated plants. The volume includes many new species not documented in New England before, while also excluding many species that have erroneously appeared in earlier manuals. Focusing on the taxonomy and distribution of New England plants, the manual is largely dedicated to identification keys and to species entries that provide scientific name, origin, regional conservation ranking, common name, synonyms, distribution, ecology, and other miscellaneous items of interest. Nearly one-third of the entries are accompanied by helpful black-and-white line illustrations. Additional special features: Precise distribution information, accurate to the state level Details on unusual plant groups not included in other sources Reliable and versatile keys for identification Tips on recognizing hybrid plants in the field A companion interactive teaching Web site (under development) Comprehensive glossary
Posted in Nature

Why Ecology Matters

Author: Charles J. Krebs

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022631829X

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 7039

Global temperatures and seawater levels rise; the world’s smallest porpoise species looms at the edge of extinction; and a tiny emerald beetle from Japan flourishes in North America—but why does it matter? Who cares? With this concise, accessible, and up-to-date book, Charles J. Krebs answers critics and enlightens students and environmental advocates alike, revealing not why phenomena like these deserve our attention, but why they demand it. Highlighting key principles in ecology—from species extinction to the sun’s role in powering ecosystems—each chapter introduces a general question, illustrates that question with real-world examples, and links it to pressing ecological issues in which humans play a central role, such as the spread of invasive species, climate change, overfishing, and biodiversity conservation. While other introductions to ecology are rooted in complex theory, math, or practice and relegate discussions of human environmental impacts and their societal implications to sidebars and appendices, Why Ecology Matters interweaves these important discussions throughout. It is a book rooted in our contemporary world, delving into ecological issues that are perennial, timeless, but could not be more timely.
Posted in Science

Dazzled and Deceived

Mimicry and Camouflage

Author: Peter Forbes

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300178964

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 8561

Posted in Science

Field Measurements for Forest Carbon Monitoring

A Landscape-Scale Approach

Author: Coeli M Hoover

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402085060

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 1116

In the summer of 2003, a workshop was held in Portsmouth, NH, to discuss land measurement techniques for the North American Carbon Program. Over 40 sci- tists representing government agencies, academia and nonprofit research organi- tions located in Canada, the US and Mexico participated. During the course of the workshop a number of topics were discussed, with an emphasis on the following: • The need for an intermediate tier of carbon measurements. This level of study would be more extensive than state-level inventories of the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program, but less detailed than intensive ecos- tem studies sites such as those in Long Term Ecological Research network. This tier would ideally provide a basis to link and scale remote sensing measurements and inventory data, and supply data required to parameterize existing models (see Wofsy and Harriss 2002, Denning et al. 2005). • The design criteria that such a network of sites should meet. The network and s- pling design should be standardized, but flexible enough to be applied across North America. The design also needs to be efficient enough to be implemented without the need for large field crews, yet robust enough to provide useful information. Finally, the spatial scale must permit easy linkage to remotely sensed data. • The key variables that should be measured at each site, and the frequency of measurement.
Posted in Science

The Great Reshuffling

Human Dimensions of Invasive Alien Species

Author: Jeffrey A. McNeely

Publisher: IUCN

ISBN: 2831706025

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 242

View: 6943

While the issue of invasive alien species (IAS) has important biological components, the human dimensions deserve much greater attention. Humans, with all their diversity of quirks, strengths, and weaknesses, are at the heart of the problem of IAS and, paradoxically, also at the heart of the solution. This compilation of papers delivered during a workshop on the human dimensions of the IAS problem, held in Cape Town, South Africa on 15-17 September 2000, covers some of the many causes, consequences and responses to this problem.
Posted in Body, Mind & Spirit

Effects of Acid Precipitation on Terrestrial Ecosystems

Author: Thomas C. Hutchinson,M. Havas

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461330335

Category: Science

Page: 654

View: 2652

This volume contains papers presented at a NATO Advanced Research Institute, sponsored by their Eco-Sciences Panel, on "The effects of acid precipitation on vegetation and soils," held at Toronto, Canada from May 22-26, 1978. The organizing expenses and greater part of the expenses of the speakers and chair~en were provided by N.A.T.O. The scientific programme was planned by T. C. Hutchinson together with an international planning committee of G. Abrahamsen (Norway), G. Likens (U.S.A.), F.E. Last (U.K.), C.O. Tamm (Sweden) and B. Ulrich (W. Germany). Many of the dimensions of the 'acid rain' problem are common to countries of northern Europe and North America. The developing awareness over the past ten years of the international nature of the acid rain phenomenon has lead to studies documenting damaging effects on susceptible freshwater bodies. Large areas of the Canadian Pre-Cambrian Shield, with its extension into the United States, and the granitic areas of southern Norwayand Sweden contain lakes which are in the process of acidification. The biological resources of these affected areas are of considerable national concern. However, while clearly damaging effects of acidification on freshwater systems have been well documented, the impact of acid precipitation on terrestrial systems has not been so well understood.
Posted in Science