Heretics and Colonizers

Forging Russia's Empire in the South Caucasus

Author: Nicholas B. Breyfogle

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801442421

Category: History

Page: 347

View: 7414

Breyfogle explores the dynamic intersection of Russian borderland colonization and popular religious culture among Russia's religious sectarians: Dukhobors, Molokans, and Subbotniks.
Posted in History

Resettling the Borderlands

State Relocations and Ethnic Conflict in the South Caucasus

Author: Farid Shafiyev

Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP

ISBN: 0773553738

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 7572

Until the arrival of the Russian Empire in the early nineteenth century, the South Caucasus was traditionally contested by two Muslim empires, the Ottomans and the Persians. Over the following two centuries, Orthodox Christian Russia – and later the officially atheist Soviet Union – expanded into the densely populated Muslim towns and villages and began a long process of resettlement, deportation, and interventionist population management in an attempt to incorporate the region into its own lands and culture. Exploring the policies and implementations of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, Resettling the Borderlands investigates the nexus between imperial practices, foreign policy, religion, and ethnic conflicts. Taking a comparative approach, Farid Shafiyev looks at the most active phases of resettlement, when the state imported and relocated waves of German, Russian sectarian, and Armenian settlers into the South Caucasus and deported thousands of others. He also offers insights on the complexities of empire-building and managing space and people in the Muslim borderlands to reveal the impact of demographic changes on the Armenian–Azerbaijani conflict. Combining in-depth and original analysis of archival material with a clear and accessible narrative, Resettling the Borderlands provides a new interpretation of the colonial policies, ideologies, and strategic visions in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.
Posted in History

Migration and Membership Regimes in Global and Historical Perspective

An Introduction

Author: N.A

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004251154

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 9734

Migration and Membership RegimesM brings together ten essays on the history of settlement and migration in an analytical framework which reconceptualises the migrant-state relationship and explores the variety of membership regimes on five continents and over two millennia.
Posted in Social Science

Broad Is My Native Land

Repertoires and Regimes of Migration in Russia’s Twentieth Century

Author: Lewis H. Siegelbaum,Leslie Page Moch

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801455138

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 9875

Whether voluntary or coerced, hopeful or desperate, people moved in unprecedented numbers across Russia's vast territory during the twentieth century. Broad Is My Native Land is the first history of late imperial, Soviet, and post-Soviet Russia through the lens of migration. Lewis H. Siegelbaum and Leslie Page Moch tell the stories of Russians on the move, capturing the rich variety of their experiences by distinguishing among categories of migrants—settlers, seasonal workers, migrants to the city, career and military migrants, evacuees and refugees, deportees, and itinerants. So vast and diverse was Russian political space that in their journeys, migrants often crossed multiple cultural, linguistic, and administrative borders. By comparing the institutions and experiences of migration across the century and placing Russia in an international context, Siegelbaum and Moch have made a magisterial contribution to both the history of Russia and the study of global migration. The authors draw on three kinds of sources: letters to authorities (typically appeals for assistance); the myriad forms employed in communication about the provision of transportation, food, accommodation, and employment for migrants; and interviews with and memoirs by people who moved or were moved, often under the most harrowing of circumstances. Taken together, these sources reveal the complex relationship between the regimes of state control that sought to regulate internal movement and the tactical repertoires employed by the migrants themselves in their often successful attempts to manipulate, resist, and survive these official directives.
Posted in History

Islam and the European Empires

Author: David Motadel

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191030260

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 3501

At the height of the imperial age, European powers ruled over most parts of the Islamic world. The British, French, Russian, and Dutch empires each governed more Muslims than any independent Muslim state. European officials believed Islam to be of great political significance, and were quite cautious when it came to matters of the religious life of their Muslim subjects. In the colonies, they regularly employed Islamic religious leaders and institutions to bolster imperial rule. At the same time, the European presence in Muslim lands was confronted by religious resistance movements and Islamic insurgency. Across the globe, from the West African savanna to the shores of Southeast Asia, Muslim rebels called for holy war against non-Muslim intruders. Islam and the European Empires presents the first comparative account of the engagement of all major European empires with Islam. Bringing together fifteen of the world's leading scholars in the field, the volume explores a wide array of themes, ranging from the accommodation of Islam under imperial rule to Islamic anti-colonial resistance. A truly global history of empire, the volume makes a major contribution not only to our knowledge of the intersection of Islam and imperialism, but also more generally to our understanding of religion and power in the modern world.
Posted in History

Orthodox Christianity in Imperial Russia

A Source Book on Lived Religion

Author: Heather J. Coleman

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253013186

Category: Religion

Page: 352

View: 2366

From sermons and clerical reports to personal stories of faith, this book of translated primary documents reveals the lived experience of Orthodox Christianity in 19th- and early 20th-century Russia. These documents allow us to hear the voices of educated and uneducated writers, of clergy and laity, nobles and merchants, workers and peasants, men and women, Russians and Ukrainians. Orthodoxy emerges here as a multidimensional and dynamic faith. Beyond enhancing our understanding of Orthodox Christianity as practiced in Imperial Russia, this thoughtfully edited volume offers broad insights into the relationship between religious narrative and social experience and reveals religion's central place in the formation of world views and narrative traditions.
Posted in Religion

Stalin

Paradoxes of Power, 1878-1928

Author: Stephen Kotkin

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 0698170105

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 976

View: 3101

A magnificent new biography that revolutionizes our understanding of Stalin and his world It has the quality of myth: a poor cobbler’s son, a seminarian from an oppressed outer province of the Russian empire, reinvents himself as a top leader in a band of revolutionary zealots. When the band seizes control of the country in the aftermath of total world war, the former seminarian ruthlessly dominates the new regime until he stands as absolute ruler of a vast and terrible state apparatus, with dominion over Eurasia. While still building his power base within the Bolshevik dictatorship, he embarks upon the greatest gamble of his political life and the largest program of social reengineering ever attempted: the collectivization of all agriculture and industry across one sixth of the earth. Millions will die, and many more millions will suffer, but the man will push through to the end against all resistance and doubts. Where did such power come from? In Stalin, Stephen Kotkin offers a biography that, at long last, is equal to this shrewd, sociopathic, charismatic dictator in all his dimensions. The character of Stalin emerges as both astute and blinkered, cynical and true believing, people oriented and vicious, canny enough to see through people but prone to nonsensical beliefs. We see a man inclined to despotism who could be utterly charming, a pragmatic ideologue, a leader who obsessed over slights yet was a precocious geostrategic thinker—unique among Bolsheviks—and yet who made egregious strategic blunders. Through it all, we see Stalin’s unflinching persistence, his sheer force of will—perhaps the ultimate key to understanding his indelible mark on history. Stalin gives an intimate view of the Bolshevik regime’s inner geography of power, bringing to the fore fresh materials from Soviet military intelligence and the secret police. Kotkin rejects the inherited wisdom about Stalin’s psychological makeup, showing us instead how Stalin’s near paranoia was fundamentally political, and closely tracks the Bolshevik revolution’s structural paranoia, the predicament of a Communist regime in an overwhelmingly capitalist world, surrounded and penetrated by enemies. At the same time, Kotkin demonstrates the impossibility of understanding Stalin’s momentous decisions outside of the context of the tragic history of imperial Russia. The product of a decade of intrepid research, Stalin is a landmark achievement, a work that recasts the way we think about the Soviet Union, revolution, dictatorship, the twentieth century, and indeed the art of history itself. Stalin: Waiting for Hitler, 1929-1941 will be published by Penguin Press in October 2017
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

Rebels, Mavericks, and Heretics In Biology

Author: Oren Harman

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300150547

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 412

View: 638

This book is the first devoted to modern biology's innovators and iconoclasts: men and women who challenged prevailing notions in their fields. Some of these scientists were Nobel Prize winners, some were considered cranks or gadflies, some were in fact wrong. The stories of these stubborn dissenters are individually fascinating. Taken together, they provide unparalleled insights into the role of dissent and controversy in science and especially the growth of biological thought over the past century. Each of the book's nineteen specially commissioned chapters offers a detailed portrait of the intellectual rebellion of a particular scientist working in a major area of biology--genetics, evolution, embryology, ecology, biochemistry, neurobiology, and virology as well as others. An introduction by the volume's editors and an epilogue by R. C. Lewontin draw connections among the case studies and illuminate the nonconforming scientist's crucial function of disturbing the comfort of those in the majority. By focusing on the dynamics and impact of dissent rather than on winners who are credited with scientific advances, the book presents a refreshingly original perspective on the history of the life sciences. Scientists featured in this volume: Alfred Russel Wallace Hans DrieschWilhelm JohannsenRaymond Arthur DartC. D. DarlingtonRichard GoldschmidtBarbara McClintockOswald T. AveryRoger SperryLeon CroizatVero Copner Wynne-EdwardsPeter MitchellHoward TeminMotoo KimuraWilliam D. HamiltonCarl WoeseStephen Jay GouldThelma RowellDaniel S. Simberloff
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

Heretics in the Temple

Americans who Reject the Nation's Legal Faith

Author: David Ray Papke

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814766323

Category: Law

Page: 201

View: 8700

For the half-century duration of the Cold War, the fallout shelter was a curiously American preoccupation. Triggered in 1961 by a hawkish speech by John F. Kennedy, the fallout shelter controversy--"to dig or not to dig," as Business Week put it at the time--forced many Americans to grapple with deeply disturbing dilemmas that went to the very heart of their self-image about what it meant to be an American, an upstanding citizen, and a moral human being. Given the much-touted nuclear threat throughout the 1960s and the fact that 4 out of 5 Americans expressed a preference for nuclear war over living under communism, what's perhaps most striking is how few American actually built backyard shelters. Tracing the ways in which the fallout shelter became an icon of popular culture, Kenneth D. Rose also investigates the troubling issues the shelters raised: Would a post-war world even be worth living in? Would shelter construction send the Soviets a message of national resolve, or rather encourage political and military leaders to think in terms of a "winnable" war? Investigating the role of schools, television, government bureaucracies, civil defense, and literature, and rich in fascinating detail--including a detailed tour of the vast fallout shelter in Greenbriar, Virginia, built to harbor the entire United States Congress in the event of nuclear armageddon--One Nation, Underground goes to the very heart of America's Cold War experience.
Posted in Law

Eurasian Environments

Nature and Ecology in Imperial Russian and Soviet History

Author: Nicholas Breyfogle

Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press

ISBN: 0822986337

Category: History

Page: 422

View: 1171

Through a series of essays, Eurasian Environments prompts us to rethink our understanding of tsarist and Soviet history by placing the human experience within the larger environmental context of flora, fauna, geology, and climate. This book is a broad look at the environmental history of Eurasia, specifically examining steppe environments, hydraulic engineering, soil and forestry, water pollution, fishing, and the interaction of the environment and disease vectors. Throughout, the authors place the history of Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union in a trans-chronological, comparative context, seamlessly linking the local and the global. The chapters are rooted in the ecological and geological specificities of place and community while unveiling the broad patterns of human-nature relationships across the planet. Eurasian Environments brings together an international group scholars working on issues of tsarist/Soviet environmental history in an effort to showcase the wave of fascinating and field-changing research currently being written.
Posted in History

Die Verdammten dieser Erde

Author: Frantz Fanon,Jean-Paul Sartre

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783518371688

Category: Afrika - Entkolonialisierung

Page: 266

View: 6879

Posted in Afrika - Entkolonialisierung

Damnable Heresy

William Pynchon, the Indians, and the First Book Banned (and Burned) in Boston

Author: David M. Powers

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 1625648707

Category: History

Page: 268

View: 5680

Misunderstandings between races, hostilities between cultures. Anxiety from living in a time of war in one's own land. Being accused of profiteering when food was scarce. Unruly residents in a remote frontier community. Charged with speaking the unspeakable and publishing the unprintable. All of this can be found in the life of one man--William Pynchon, the Puritan entrepreneur and founder of Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1636. Two things in particular stand out in Pynchon's pioneering life: he enjoyed extraordinary and uniquely positive relationships with Native peoples, and he wrote the first book banned--and burned--in Boston. Now for the first time, this book provides a comprehensive account of Pynchon's story, beginning in England, through his New England adventures, to his return home. Discover the fabric of his times and the roles Pynchon played in the Puritan venture in Old England and New England.
Posted in History

Русский край, чужая вера: Этноконфессиональная политика империи в Литве и Белоруссии при Александре II

Author: Михаил Долбилов

Publisher: Новое Литературное Обозрение

ISBN: 5444803054

Category: Religion

Page: N.A

View: 7852

Опираясь на христианские и нехристианские конфессии в повседневных делах управления, власти Российской империи в то же самое время соперничали с главами религиозных сообществ за духовную лояльность населения. В монографии М. Долбилова сплетение опеки и репрессии, дисциплинирования и дискредитации в имперской конфессиональной инженерии рассматривается с разных точек зрения. Прежде всего — в его взаимосвязи с политикой русификации, которая проводилась в обширном, этнически пестром Северо-Западном крае накануне и после Январского восстания 1863 года. Царская веротерпимость была ограниченным ресурсом, который постоянно перераспределялся между конфессиями. Почему гонения на католиков так и не увенчались отказом католичеству в высоком статусе среди «иностранных вероисповеданий» империи? Каким образом юдофобия, присущая многим чиновникам, сочеталась с попытками приспособить систему государственного образования для евреев к традиционной религиозности? Поиску ответов на эти и другие вопросы, сфокусированные на отношениях государства, религии и национализма, посвящена данная книга.
Posted in Religion

The Blessing of Africa

The Bible and African Christianity

Author: Keith Augustus Burton

Publisher: InterVarsity Press

ISBN: 0830827625

Category: History

Page: 294

View: 6300

Keith A. Burton traces the story of biblical Africa and the place of the Bible in the land of Ham. He ends with an examination of the modern era and the achievements of African Christianity. This invigorating work places the story of the Bible and African Christianity in a wider global context and challenges readers to think differently about history and the biblical world.
Posted in History

Against Wind and Tide

The African American Struggle against the Colonization Movement

Author: Ousmane K. Power-Greene

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 147983825X

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 1371

Against Wind and Tide tells the story of African American’s battle against the American Colonization Society (ACS), founded in 1816 with the intention to return free blacks to its colony Liberia. Although ACS members considered free black colonization in Africa a benevolent enterprise, most black leaders rejected the ACS, fearing that the organization sought forced removal. As Ousmane K. Power-Greene’s story shows, these African American anticolonizationists did not believe Liberia would ever be a true “black American homeland.” In this study of anticolonization agitation, Power-Greene draws on newspapers, meeting minutes, and letters to explore the concerted effort on the part of nineteenth century black activists, community leaders, and spokespersons to challenge the American Colonization Society’s attempt to make colonization of free blacks federal policy. The ACS insisted the plan embodied empowerment. The United States, they argued, would never accept free blacks as citizens, and the only solution to the status of free blacks was to create an autonomous nation that would fundamentally reject racism at its core. But the activists and reformers on the opposite side believed that the colonization movement was itself deeply racist and in fact one of the greatest obstacles for African Americans to gain citizenship in the United States. Power-Greene synthesizes debates about colonization and emigration, situating this complex and enduring issue into an ever broader conversation about nation building and identity formation in the Atlantic world.
Posted in History

Schatten über dem Kongo

die Geschichte eines der großen, fast vergessenen Menschheitsverbrechen

Author: Adam Hochschild

Publisher: Klett-Cotta

ISBN: 9783608919738

Category:

Page: 494

View: 2166

Posted in

Religion, Race, and the Making of Confederate Kentucky, 1830–1880

Author: Luke E. Harlow

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139915800

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 8482

This book sheds new light on the role of religion in the nineteenth-century slavery debates. In it, Luke E. Harlow argues that ongoing conflict over the meaning of Christian 'orthodoxy' constrained the political and cultural horizons available for defenders and opponents of American slavery. The central locus of these debates was Kentucky, a border slave state with a long-standing antislavery presence. Although white Kentuckians famously cast themselves as moderates in the period and remained with the Union during the Civil War, their religious values showed no moderation on the slavery question. When the war ultimately brought emancipation, white Kentuckians found themselves in lockstep with the rest of the Confederate South. Racist religion thus paved the way for the making of Kentucky's Confederate memory of the war, as well as a deeply entrenched white Democratic Party in the state.
Posted in History