Hardware/Software Co-Design for Data Flow Dominated Embedded Systems

Author: Ralf Niemann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792382997

Category: Computers

Page: 223

View: 2680

The design process of embedded systems has changed substantially in recent years. One of the main reasons for this change is the pressure to shorten time-to-market when designing digital systems. To shorten the product cycles, programmable processes are used to implement more and more functionality of the embedded system. Therefore, nowadays, embedded systems are very often implemented by heterogeneous systems consisting of ASICs, processors, memories and peripherals. As a consequence, the research topic of hardware/software co-design, dealing with the problems of designing these heterogeneous systems, has gained great importance. Hardware/Software Co-design for Data Flow Dominated Embedded Systems introduces the different tasks of hardware/software co-design including system specification, hardware/software partitioning, co-synthesis and co-simulation. The book summarizes and classifies state-of-the-art co-design tools and methods for these tasks. In addition, the co-design tool COOL is presented which solves the co-design tasks for the class of data-flow dominated embedded systems. In Hardware/Software Co-design for Data Flow Dominated Embedded Systems the primary emphasis has been put on the hardware/software partitioning and the co-synthesis phase and their coupling. In contrast to many other publications in this area, a mathematical formulation of the hardware/software partitioning problem is given. This problem formulation supports target architectures consisting of multiple processors and multiple ASICs. Several novel approaches are presented and compared for solving the partitioning problem, including an MILP approach, a heuristic solution and an approach based on genetic algorithms. The co-synthesis phase is based on the idea of controlling the system by means of a static run-time scheduler implemented in hardware. New algorithms are introduced which generate a complete set of hardware and software specifications required to implement heterogeneous systems. All of these techniques are described in detail and exemplified. Hardware/Software Co-design for Data Flow Dominated Embedded Systems is intended to serve students and researchers working on hardware/software co-design. At the same time the variety of presented techniques automating the design tasks of hardware/software systems will be of interest to industrial engineers and designers of digital systems. From the foreword by Peter Marwedel: Niemann's method should be known by all persons working in the field. Hence, I recommend this book for everyone who is interested in hardware/software co-design.
Posted in Computers

Hardware/Software Co-Design for Data Flow Dominated Embedded Systems

Author: Ralf Niemann

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781441950642

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 224

View: 1322

Many of the modern applications of microelectronics require hugeamounts of computations. Despite all recent improvements in fabrication technologies, some of these computations have to be performed in hardware in order to meet deadlines. However, controlling computations by software is frequently pre ferred due to the larger flexibility. Hence, in general, modern applications re quire a mix of software-based and hardware-based computations. Applications using this mix can be designed with the help of hardware/software co-design systems. Many such co-design systems have been described so far (references can be found in this book), but many of these are based on heuristics. In this book, Niemann describes a co-design system which is based on sound modeling techniques. This system has the following salient features: • Precise cost and performance figures Design decisions for implementing a certain function in hardware or software are based on 'cost and performance figures for the different design alterna tives. Hence, good designs can only be expected if these figures are accurate. In order to achieve excellent accuracy, Niemann takes a new approach: the cost of software implementations is derived from the data available about the target processors and from knowledge about the code size. the performance of software implement at ions is computed by compiling the given function and then using static analysis for computing worst case execution times. the cost of hardware implementation is estimated by running higher-Ievel synthesis tools. the performance of hardware implementations is again computed by us ing static analysis.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Hardware-Software Co-Design of Embedded Systems

The POLIS Approach

Author: F. Balarin,Paolo Giusto,Attila Jurecska,Claudio Passerone,Ellen Sentovich,Bassam Tabbara,M. Chiodo,Harry Hsieh,Luciano Lavagno,Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli,Kei Suzuki

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461561272

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 297

View: 6164

Embedded systems are informally defined as a collection of programmable parts surrounded by ASICs and other standard components, that interact continuously with an environment through sensors and actuators. The programmable parts include micro-controllers and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs). Embedded systems are often used in life-critical situations, where reliability and safety are more important criteria than performance. Today, embedded systems are designed with an ad hoc approach that is heavily based on earlier experience with similar products and on manual design. Use of higher-level languages such as C helps structure the design somewhat, but with increasing complexity it is not sufficient. Formal verification and automatic synthesis of implementations are the surest ways to guarantee safety. Thus, the POLIS system which is a co-design environment for embedded systems is based on a formal model of computation. POLIS was initiated in 1988 as a research project at the University of California at Berkeley and, over the years, grew into a full design methodology with a software system supporting it. Hardware-Software Co-Design of Embedded Systems: The POLIS Approach is intended to give a complete overview of the POLIS system including its formal and algorithmic aspects. Hardware-Software Co-Design of Embedded Systems: The POLIS Approach will be of interest to embedded system designers (automotive electronics, consumer electronics and telecommunications), micro-controller designers, CAD developers and students.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Hardware/Software Co-Design

Principles and Practice

Author: Jørgen Staunstrup,Wayne Wolf

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792380139

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 396

View: 7970

Introduction to Hardware-Software Co-Design presents a number of issues of fundamental importance for the design of integrated hardware software products such as embedded, communication, and multimedia systems. This book is a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of hardware/software co-design. Co-design is still a new field but one which has substantially matured over the past few years. This book, written by leading international experts, covers all the major topics including: fundamental issues in co-design; hardware/software co-synthesis algorithms; prototyping and emulation; target architectures; compiler techniques; specification and verification; system-level specification. Special chapters describe in detail several leading-edge co-design systems including Cosyma, LYCOS, and Cosmos. Introduction to Hardware-Software Co-Design contains sufficient material for use by teachers and students in an advanced course of hardware/software co-design. It also contains extensive explanation of the fundamental concepts of the subject and the necessary background to bring practitioners up-to-date on this increasingly important topic.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Co-verification of Hardware and Software for ARM SoC Design

Author: Jason Andrews

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080476902

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 288

View: 9250

Hardware/software co-verification is how to make sure that embedded system software works correctly with the hardware, and that the hardware has been properly designed to run the software successfully -before large sums are spent on prototypes or manufacturing. This is the first book to apply this verification technique to the rapidly growing field of embedded systems-on-a-chip(SoC). As traditional embedded system design evolves into single-chip design, embedded engineers must be armed with the necessary information to make educated decisions about which tools and methodology to deploy. SoC verification requires a mix of expertise from the disciplines of microprocessor and computer architecture, logic design and simulation, and C and Assembly language embedded software. Until now, the relevant information on how it all fits together has not been available. Andrews, a recognized expert, provides in-depth information about how co-verification really works, how to be successful using it, and pitfalls to avoid. He illustrates these concepts using concrete examples with the ARM core - a technology that has the dominant market share in embedded system product design. The companion CD-ROM contains all source code used in the design examples, a searchable e-book version, and useful design tools. * The only book on verification for systems-on-a-chip (SoC) on the market * Will save engineers and their companies time and money by showing them how to speed up the testing process, while still avoiding costly mistakes * Design examples use the ARM core, the dominant technology in SoC, and all the source code is included on the accompanying CD-Rom, so engineers can easily use it in their own designs
Posted in Technology & Engineering

System-Level Design Techniques for Energy-Efficient Embedded Systems

Author: Marcus T. Schmitz,Bashir M. Al-Hashimi,Petru Eles

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306487361

Category: Computers

Page: 194

View: 3025

System-Level Design Techniques for Energy-Efficient Embedded Systems addresses the development and validation of co-synthesis techniques that allow an effective design of embedded systems with low energy dissipation. The book provides an overview of a system-level co-design flow, illustrating through examples how system performance is influenced at various steps of the flow including allocation, mapping, and scheduling. The book places special emphasis upon system-level co-synthesis techniques for architectures that contain voltage scalable processors, which can dynamically trade off between computational performance and power consumption. Throughout the book, the introduced co-synthesis techniques, which target both single-mode systems and emerging multi-mode applications, are applied to numerous benchmarks and real-life examples including a realistic smart phone.
Posted in Computers

Embedded System Design

Author: Peter Marwedel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402076909

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 241

View: 7263

Until the late eighties, information processing was associated with large mainframe computers and huge tape drives. During the nineties, this trend shifted towards information processing with personal computers, or PCs. The trend towards miniaturization continues. In the future, most of the information processing systems will be quite small and embedded into larger products such as transportation and fabrication equipment. Hence, these kinds of systems are called embedded systems. It is expected that the total market volume of embedded systems will be significantly larger than that of traditional information processing systems such as PCs and mainframes. Embedded systems share a number of common characteristics. For example, they must be dependable, efficient, meet real-time constraints and require customized user interfaces (instead of generic keyboard and mouse interfaces). Therefore, it makes sense to consider common principles of embedded system design. Embedded System Design starts with an introduction into the area and a survey of specification languages for embedded systems. A brief overview is provided of hardware devices used for embedded systems and also presents the essentials of software design for embedded systems. Real-time operating systems and real-time scheduling are covered briefly. Techniques for implementing embedded systems are also discussed, using hardware/software codesign. It closes with a survey on validation techniques. Embedded System Design can be used as a text book for courses on embedded systems and as a source which provides pointers to relevant material in the area for PhD students and teachers. The book assumes a basic knowledge of information processing hardware and software.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

System Level Hardware/Software Co-Design

An Industrial Approach

Author: Joris van den Hurk,Jochen A.G. Jess

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475728050

Category: Computers

Page: 224

View: 9229

Hierarchical design methods were originally introduced for the design of digital ICs, and they appeared to provide for significant advances in design productivity, Time-to-Market, and first-time right design. These concepts have gained increasing importance in the semiconductor industry in recent years. In the course of time, the supportive quality of hierarchical methods and their advantages were confirmed. System Level Hardware/Software Co-design: An Industrial Approach demonstrates the applicability of hierarchical methods to hardware / software codesign, and mixed analogue / digital design following a similar approach. Hierarchical design methods provide for high levels of design support, both in a qualitative and a quantitative sense. In the qualitative sense, the presented methods support all phases in the product life cycle of electronic products, ranging from requirements analysis to application support. Hierarchical methods furthermore allow for efficient digital hardware design, hardware / software codesign, and mixed analogue / digital design, on the basis of commercially available formalisms and design tools. In the quantitative sense, hierarchical methods have prompted a substantial increase in design productivity. System Level Hardware/Software Co-design: An Industrial Approach reports on a six year study during which time the number of square millimeters of normalized complexity an individual designer contributed every week rose by more than a factor of five. Hierarchical methods therefore enabled designers to keep track of the ever increasing design complexity, while effectively reducing the number of design iterations in the form of redesigns. System Level Hardware/Software Co-design: An Industrial Approach is the first book to provide a comprehensive, coherent system design methodology that has been proven to increase productivity in industrial practice. The book will be of interest to all managers, designers and researchers working in the semiconductor industry.
Posted in Computers

A Practical Introduction to Hardware/Software Codesign

Author: Patrick Schaumont

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461437377

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 482

View: 6979

This textbook serves as an introduction to the subject of embedded systems design, with emphasis on integration of custom hardware components with software. The key problem addressed in the book is the following: how can an embedded systems designer strike a balance between flexibility and efficiency? The book describes how combining hardware design with software design leads to a solution to this important computer engineering problem. The book covers four topics in hardware/software codesign: fundamentals, the design space of custom architectures, the hardware/software interface and application examples. The book comes with an associated design environment that helps the reader to perform experiments in hardware/software codesign. Each chapter also includes exercises and further reading suggestions. Improvements in this second edition include labs and examples using modern FPGA environments from Xilinx and Altera, which will make the material in this book applicable to a greater number of courses where these tools are already in use. More examples and exercises have been added throughout the book. “If I were teaching a course on this subject, I would use this as a resource and text. If I were a student who wanted to learn codesign, I would look for a course that at least used a similar approach. If I were an engineer or engineering manager who wanted to learn more about codesign from a very practical perspective, I would read this book first before any other. When I first started learning about codesign as a practitioner, a book like this would have been the perfect introduction.” --Grant Martin, Tensilica--
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Readings in Hardware/software Co-design

Author: Giovanni De Micheli,Rolf Ernst,Wayne Wolf

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 1558607021

Category: Computers

Page: 697

View: 7169

This title serves as an introduction ans reference for the field, with the papers that have shaped the hardware/software co-design since its inception in the early 90s.
Posted in Computers

Real-Time Systems Development

Author: Rob Williams

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080456405

Category: Computers

Page: 320

View: 2019

Real-Time Systems Development introduces computing students and professional programmers to the development of software for real-time applications. Based on the academic and commercial experience of the author, the book is an ideal companion to final year undergraduate options or MSc modules in the area of real-time systems design and implementation. Assuming a certain level of general systems design and programming experience, this text will extend students’ knowledge and skills into an area of computing which has increasing relevance in a modern world of telecommunications and ‘intelligent’ equipment using embedded microcontrollers. This book takes a broad, practical approach in discussing real-time systems. It covers topics such as basic input and output; cyclic executives for bare hardware; finite state machines; task communication and synchronization; input/output interfaces; structured design for real-time systems; designing for multitasking; UML for real-time systems; object oriented approach to real-time systems; selecting languages for RTS development; Linux device drivers; and hardware/software co-design. Programming examples using GNU/Linux are included, along with a supporting website containing slides; solutions to problems; and software examples. This book will appeal to advanced undergraduate Computer Science students; MSc students; and, undergraduate software engineering and electronic engineering students. * Concise treatment delivers material in manageable sections * Includes handy glossary, references and practical exercises based on familiar scenarios * Supporting website contains slides, solutions to problems and software examples
Posted in Computers

Processor Description Languages

Author: Prabhat Mishra,Nikil Dutt

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080558370

Category: Computers

Page: 432

View: 1720

Efficient design of embedded processors plays a critical role in embedded systems design. Processor description languages and their associated specification, exploration and rapid prototyping methodologies are used to find the best possible design for a given set of applications under various design constraints, such as area, power and performance. This book is the first, comprehensive survey of modern architecture description languages and will be an invaluable reference for embedded system architects, designers, developers, and validation engineers. Readers will see that the use of particular architecture description languages will lead to productivity gains in designing particular (application-specific) types of embedded processors. * Comprehensive coverage of all modern architecture description languages... use the right ADL to design your processor to fit your application; * Most up-to-date information available about each architecture description language from the developers...save time chasing down reliable documentation; * Describes how each architecture desccription language enables key design automation tasks, such as simulation, synthesis and testing...fit the ADL to your design cycle;
Posted in Computers

Memory Issues in Embedded Systems-on-Chip

Optimizations and Exploration

Author: Preeti Ranjan Panda,Nikil D. Dutt,Alexandru Nicolau

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461551072

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 188

View: 4893

Memory Issues in Embedded Systems-On-Chip: Optimizations and Explorations is designed for different groups in the embedded systems-on-chip arena. First, it is designed for researchers and graduate students who wish to understand the research issues involved in memory system optimization and exploration for embedded systems-on-chip. Second, it is intended for designers of embedded systems who are migrating from a traditional micro-controllers centered, board-based design methodology to newer design methodologies using IP blocks for processor-core-based embedded systems-on-chip. Also, since Memory Issues in Embedded Systems-on-Chip: Optimization and Explorations illustrates a methodology for optimizing and exploring the memory configuration of embedded systems-on-chip, it is intended for managers and system designers who may be interested in the emerging capabilities of embedded systems-on-chip design methodologies for memory-intensive applications.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Hardware/Software Co-Design

Author: Giovanni DeMicheli,Mariagiovanna Sami

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400901879

Category: Computers

Page: 480

View: 2288

Concurrent design, or co-design of hardware and software is extremely important for meeting design goals, such as high performance, that are the key to commercial competitiveness. Hardware/Software Co-Design covers many aspects of the subject, including methods and examples for designing: (1) general purpose and embedded computing systems based on instruction set processors; (2) telecommunication systems using general purpose digital signal processors as well as application specific instruction set processors; (3) embedded control systems and applications to automotive electronics. The book also surveys the areas of emulation and prototyping systems with field programmable gate array technologies, hardware/software synthesis and verification, and industrial design trends. Most contributions emphasize the design methodology, the requirements and state of the art of computer aided co-design tools, together with current design examples.
Posted in Computers

Reconfigurable Computing: Architectures, Tools, and Applications

4th International Workshop, ARC 2008, London, UK, March 26-28, 2008, Proceedings

Author: Roger Woods,Katherine Compton,Christos Bourganis,Pedro C. Diniz

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540786104

Category: Computers

Page: 346

View: 2436

Coverage in this proceedings volume includes DNA and string processing applications, reconfigurable computing hardware and systems, image processing, run-time behavior, instruction set extension, as well as random number generation and financial computation.
Posted in Computers

Dynamic Memory Management for Embedded Systems

Author: David Atienza Alonso,Stylianos Mamagkakis,Christophe Poucet,Miguel Peón-Quirós,Alexandros Bartzas,Francky Catthoor,Dimitrios Soudris

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319105728

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 243

View: 9782

This book provides a systematic and unified methodology, including basic principles and reusable processes, for dynamic memory management (DMM) in embedded systems. The authors describe in detail how to design and optimize the use of dynamic memory in modern, multimedia and network applications, targeting the latest generation of portable embedded systems, such as smartphones. Coverage includes a variety of design and optimization topics in electronic design automation of DMM, from high-level software optimization to microarchitecture-level hardware support. The authors describe the design of multi-layer dynamic data structures for the final memory hierarchy layers of the target portable embedded systems and how to create a low-fragmentation, cost-efficient, dynamic memory management subsystem out of configurable components for the particular memory allocation and de-allocation patterns for each type of application. The design methodology described in this book is based on propagating constraints among design decisions from multiple abstraction levels (both hardware and software) and customizing DMM according to application-specific data access and storage behaviors.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

ESL Design and Verification

A Prescription for Electronic System Level Methodology

Author: Grant Martin,Brian Bailey,Andrew Piziali

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080488837

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 488

View: 4737

Visit the authors' companion site! http://www.electronicsystemlevel.com/ - Includes interactive forum with the authors! Electronic System Level (ESL) design has mainstreamed – it is now an established approach at most of the world’s leading system-on-chip (SoC) design companies and is being used increasingly in system design. From its genesis as an algorithm modeling methodology with ‘no links to implementation’, ESL is evolving into a set of complementary methodologies that enable embedded system design, verification and debug through to the hardware and software implementation of custom SoC, system-on-FPGA, system-on-board, and entire multi-board systems. This book arises from experience the authors have gained from years of work as industry practitioners in the Electronic System Level design area; they have seen "SLD" or "ESL" go through many stages and false starts, and have observed that the shift in design methodologies to ESL is finally occurring. This is partly because of ESL technologies themselves are stabilizing on a useful set of languages being standardized (SystemC is the most notable), and use models are being identified that are beginning to get real adoption. ESL DESIGN & VERIFICATION offers a true prescriptive guide to ESL that reviews its past and outlines the best practices of today. Table of Contents CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS ESL? CHAPTER 2: TAXONOMY AND DEFINITIONS FOR THE ELECTRONIC SYSTEM LEVEL CHAPTER 3: EVOLUTION OF ESL DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 4: WHAT ARE THE ENABLERS OF ESL? CHAPTER 5: ESL FLOW CHAPTER 6: SPECIFICATIONS AND MODELING CHAPTER 7: PRE-PARTITIONING ANALYSIS CHAPTER 8: PARTITIONING CHAPTER 9: POST-PARTITIONING ANALYSIS AND DEBUG CHAPTER 10: POST-PARTITIONING VERIFICATION CHAPTER 11: HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION CHAPTER 12: SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION CHAPTER 13: USE OF ESL FOR IMPLEMENTATION VERIFICATION CHAPTER 14: RESEARCH, EMERGING AND FUTURE PROSPECTS APPENDIX: LIST OF ACRONYMS * Provides broad, comprehensive coverage not available in any other such book * Massive global appeal with an internationally recognised author team * Crammed full of state of the art content from notable industry experts
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Nonlinear Digital Filters

Principles and Applications

Author: Ioannis Pitas,Anastasios N. Venetsanopoulos

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475760175

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 392

View: 2098

The function of a filter is to transform a signal into another one more suit able for a given purpose. As such, filters find applications in telecommunica tions, radar, sonar, remote sensing, geophysical signal processing, image pro cessing, and computer vision. Numerous authors have considered deterministic and statistical approaches for the study of passive, active, digital, multidimen sional, and adaptive filters. Most of the filters considered were linear although the theory of nonlinear filters is developing rapidly, as it is evident by the numerous research papers and a few specialized monographs now available. Our research interests in this area created opportunity for cooperation and co authored publications during the past few years in many nonlinear filter families described in this book. As a result of this cooperation and a visit from John Pitas on a research leave at the University of Toronto in September 1988, the idea for this book was first conceived. The difficulty in writing such a mono graph was that the area seemed fragmented and no general theory was available to encompass the many different kinds of filters presented in the literature. However, the similarities of some families of nonlinear filters and the need for such a monograph providing a broad overview of the whole area made the pro ject worthwhile. The result is the book now in your hands, typeset at the Department of Electrical Engineering of the University of Toronto during the summer of 1989.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Embedded System Design

Modeling, Synthesis and Verification

Author: Daniel D. Gajski,Samar Abdi,Andreas Gerstlauer,Gunar Schirner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1441905049

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 9893

Embedded System Design: Modeling, Synthesis and Verification introduces a model-based approach to system level design. It presents modeling techniques for both computation and communication at different levels of abstraction, such as specification, transaction level and cycle-accurate level. It discusses synthesis methods for system level architectures, embedded software and hardware components. Using these methods, designers can develop applications with high level models, which are automatically translatable to low level implementations. This book, furthermore, describes simulation-based and formal verification methods that are essential for achieving design confidence. The book concludes with an overview of existing tools along with a design case study outlining the practice of embedded system design. Specifically, this book addresses the following topics in detail: . System modeling at different abstraction levels . Model-based system design . Hardware/Software codesign . Software and Hardware component synthesis . System verification This book is for groups within the embedded system community: students in courses on embedded systems, embedded application developers, system designers and managers, CAD tool developers, design automation, and system engineering.
Posted in Technology & Engineering