Getting Risk Right

Understanding the Science of Elusive Health Risks

Author: Geoffrey C. Kabat

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231542852

Category: Medical

Page: 288

View: 5206

Do cell phones cause brain cancer? Does BPA threaten our health? How safe are certain dietary supplements, especially those containing exotic herbs or small amounts of toxic substances? Is the HPV vaccine safe? We depend on science and medicine as never before, yet there is widespread misinformation and confusion, amplified by the media, regarding what influences our health. In Getting Risk Right, Geoffrey C. Kabat shows how science works—and sometimes doesn't—and what separates these two very different outcomes. Kabat seeks to help us distinguish between claims that are supported by solid science and those that are the result of poorly designed or misinterpreted studies. By exploring different examples, he explains why certain risks are worth worrying about, while others are not. He emphasizes the variable quality of research in contested areas of health risks, as well as the professional, political, and methodological factors that can distort the research process. Drawing on recent systematic critiques of biomedical research and on insights from behavioral psychology, Getting Risk Right examines factors both internal and external to the science that can influence what results get attention and how questionable results can be used to support a particular narrative concerning an alleged public health threat. In this book, Kabat provides a much-needed antidote to what has been called "an epidemic of false claims."
Posted in Medical

Getting Risk Right

Understanding the Science of Elusive Health Risks

Author: Geoffrey C. Kabat

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780231166461

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 288

View: 1448

Do cell phones cause brain cancer? Does BPA threaten our health? How safe are certain dietary supplements, especially those containing exotic herbs or small amounts of toxic substances? What role does the HPV virus play in the development of cervical cancer, and is the HPV vaccine safe? In four detailed case studies, Geoffrey C. Kabat shows how science works... and sometimes doesn't, and what distinguishes these two very different outcomes. We depend on science and medicine as never before, yet there is widespread misinformation and confusion, amplified by the media, regarding what influences our health. Kabat's goal in Getting Risk Right is to enable the general reader to distinguish between claims that are supported by solid science and those that are the result of poorly-designed or misinterpreted studies. By exploring different examples, he shows us why certain risks are worth worrying about, while others are not. Attempts to explain anti-science attitudes often focus on irrational fears and beliefs and on the powerful role of business interests. While these factors matter, Kabat emphasizes the variable quality of research in contested areas of health risks and the professional, political, and methodological factors that can distort the research process. Drawing on recent work in the "meta-analysis" of biomedical research and on insights from leading thinkers including John Ioannides, Daniel Kahneman, and Cass Sunstein, this groundbreaking work examines factors both internal and external to the science that can influence what results get attention and how questionable results can be used to support a particular narrative concerning an alleged public health threat. Kabat, a leading public health thinker, provides a much-needed antidote to what has been called "an epidemic of false claims."
Posted in Health & Fitness

Hyping Health Risks

Environmental Hazards in Daily Life and the Science of Epidemiology

Author: Geoffrey C. Kabat

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231141491

Category: Medical

Page: 272

View: 7072

The media constantly bombard us with news of health hazards lurking in our everyday lives. But many of these hazards turn out to have been greatly overblown. According to author and epidemiologist Geoffrey C. Kabat, this hyping of low-level environmental hazards leads to needless anxiety and confusion on the part of the public about which exposures have important effects on health and which are likely to have minimal or no effect. Kabat approaches health scares as "social facts" and shows that a variety of factors can contribute to the inflaming of a hazard. ... By means of four case studies, Kabat demonstrates how a powerful confluence of interests can lead to overstating or distorting scientific evidence. He examines the health risks of pollutants sucha s DDT as a cause of breast cancer, electromagnetic fields from power lines, radon within residences, and secondhand tobacco smoke. Tracing the trajectory of each of these hazards from its initial emergence to the present, Kabat shows how publication of more rigorous studies and critical assessments ultimately helped put the hazard in perspective.--Book jacket flap.
Posted in Medical

Genes, Brains, and Human Potential

The Science and Ideology of Intelligence

Author: Ken Richardson

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 023154376X

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 3687

For countless generations people have been told that their potential as humans is limited and fundamentally unequal. The social order, they have been assured, is arranged by powers beyond their control. More recently the appeal has been to biology, specifically the genes, brain sciences, the concept of intelligence, and powerful new technologies. Reinforced through the authority of science and a growing belief in bio-determinism, the ordering of the many for the benefit of a few has become more entrenched. Yet scientists are now waking up to the influence of ideology on research and its interpretation. In Genes, Brains, and Human Potential, Ken Richardson illustrates how the ideology of human intelligence has infiltrated genetics, brain sciences, and psychology, flourishing in the vagueness of basic concepts, a shallow nature-versus-nurture debate, and the overhyped claims of reductionists. He shows how ideology, more than pure science, has come to dominate our institutions, especially education, encouraging fatalism about the development of human intelligence among individuals and societies. Genes, Brains, and Human Potential goes much further: building on work being done in molecular biology, epigenetics, dynamical systems, evolution theory, and complexity theory, it maps a fresh understanding of intelligence and the development of human potential. Concluding with an upbeat message for human possibilities, this synthesis of diverse perspectives will engender new conversations among students, researchers, and other interested readers.
Posted in Science

Why We Sleep

Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams

Author: Matthew Walker

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1501144316

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 368

View: 8030

"Sleep is one of the most important but least understood aspects of our life, wellness, and longevity ... An explosion of scientific discoveries in the last twenty years has shed new light on this fundamental aspect of our lives. Now ... neuroscientist and sleep expert Matthew Walker gives us a new understanding of the vital importance of sleep and dreaming"--Amazon.com.
Posted in Health & Fitness

The Risk in Crime

Author: Leslie W. Kennedy,Erin Gibbs Van Brunschot

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781442200548

Category: Social Science

Page: 169

View: 7768

The Risk in Crime is an investigation of how risk has been dealt with in crime theories and the usefulness of this concept in connecting crime perspectives together; the ways in which risk is embedded in the evolution of crime; and how we might use the concept of risk to prevent crime and victimization.
Posted in Social Science

Counting Sheep

The Science and Pleasures of Sleep and Dreams

Author: Paul Martin

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 1466848146

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 432

View: 5554

Does the early bird really catch the worm, or end up healthy, wealthy, and wise? Can some people really exist on just a few hours' sleep a night? Does everybody dream? Do fish dream? How did people cope before alarm clocks and caffeine? And is anybody getting enough sleep? Even though we will devote a third of our lives to sleep, we still know remarkably little about its origins and purpose. Paul Martin's Counting Sheep answers these questions and more in this illuminating work of popular science. Even the wonders of yawning, the perils of sleepwalking, and the strange ubiquity of nocturnal erections are explained in full. To sleep, to dream: Counting Sheep reflects the centrality of these activities to our lives and can help readers respect, understand, and extract more pleasure from that delicious time when they're lost to the world.
Posted in Health & Fitness

Social Intelligence

The New Science of Human Relationships

Author: Daniel Goleman

Publisher: Bantam

ISBN: 9780553903195

Category: Psychology

Page: 416

View: 3743

Emotional Intelligence was an international phenomenon, appearing on the New York Times bestseller list for over a year and selling more than five million copies worldwide. Now, once again, Daniel Goleman has written a groundbreaking synthesis of the latest findings in biology and brain science, revealing that we are “wired to connect” and the surprisingly deep impact of our relationships on every aspect of our lives. Far more than we are consciously aware, our daily encounters with parents, spouses, bosses, and even strangers shape our brains and affect cells throughout our bodies—down to the level of our genes—for good or ill. In Social Intelligence, Daniel Goleman explores an emerging new science with startling implications for our interpersonal world. Its most fundamental discovery: we are designed for sociability, constantly engaged in a “neural ballet” that connects us brain to brain with those around us. Our reactions to others, and theirs to us, have a far-reaching biological impact, sending out cascades of hormones that regulate everything from our hearts to our immune systems, making good relationships act like vitamins—and bad relationships like poisons. We can “catch” other people’s emotions the way we catch a cold, and the consequences of isolation or relentless social stress can be life-shortening. Goleman explains the surprising accuracy of first impressions, the basis of charisma and emotional power, the complexity of sexual attraction, and how we detect lies. He describes the “dark side” of social intelligence, from narcissism to Machiavellianism and psychopathy. He also reveals our astonishing capacity for “mindsight,” as well as the tragedy of those, like autistic children, whose mindsight is impaired. Is there a way to raise our children to be happy? What is the basis of a nourishing marriage? How can business leaders and teachers inspire the best in those they lead and teach? How can groups divided by prejudice and hatred come to live together in peace? The answers to these questions may not be as elusive as we once thought. And Goleman delivers his most heartening news with powerful conviction: we humans have a built-in bias toward empathy, cooperation, and altruism–provided we develop the social intelligence to nurture these capacities in ourselves and others. From the Trade Paperback edition.
Posted in Psychology

Mind-Altering Drugs

The Science of Subjective Experience

Author: Mitch Earleywine

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195347432

Category: Psychology

Page: 416

View: 1282

At least one of every three Americans has used an illicit drug. Drugs attract considerable attention in science, legislation, and the media. Nonetheless, many people develop attitudes about drugs and drug users based on limited information. Researchers often find themselves divided into camps based on the drug they study most often, which limits their ability to benefit from important work done on other drugs. As a result, government policies form without a complete understanding of the intoxication experience. What is the nature of intoxication? At first, this question appears to be simple and straightforward, but upon closer inspection, the dichotomous distinctions between everyday awareness and its alternatives grow fuzzy. An in-depth examination of the subjective effects of drugs and the pursuit of altered states soon leads to age-old questions about free will, heredity, environment, and consciousness. Mind-Altering Drugs is the first book to bring together chapters from leading researchers that present diverse, empirically based insights into the subjective experiences of drugs a nd their links to addictive potential. By avoiding simple depictions of psychoactive chemicals and the people who use them, these recognized experts explain how modern research in many fields reveals a complex interaction between people, situations, and substances. Their work demonstrates that only a multitude of approaches can show the nuances of subjective experience, and that each substance may create a different effect with every administration in each user. Simple references to physiological underpinnings or positive reinforcement fail to explain the diverse responses to drugs. However, research has progressed to reveal broad, repeatable evidence that the subjective effects of substances play an important role in our understanding of drug abuse, and so should inform our decisions about policy. This thorough and accessible review of the subjective effects of drugs and the dominant theories behind those effects will provide a wealth of information about the experience of intoxication for lay readers, and a road map to studies in other disciples for student and professional researchers.
Posted in Psychology

Gifts of the Crow

How Perception, Emotion, and Thought Allow Smart Birds to Behave Like Humans

Author: John Marzluff,Tony Angell

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1439198748

Category: Nature

Page: 320

View: 8710

A University of Washington professor of wildlife science taps the findings of his extraordinary research into crow intelligence to offer insight into their ability to make tools and respond to environmental challenges, explaining how they engage in human-like behaviors from giving gifts and seeking revenge to playing and experiencing dreams.
Posted in Nature

Encyclopedia of Environmental Health

Author: Jerome O. Nriagu

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780444522665

Category: Environmental health

Page: 1079

View: 3972

Posted in Environmental health

Green Medicine

Challenging the Assumptions of Conventional Health Care

Author: Larry Malerba, D.O.

Publisher: North Atlantic Books

ISBN: 1583943323

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 416

View: 5600

According to Dr. Larry Malerba, modern medicine has perfected the short-term technical repair of the physical body at the expense of the long-term psychological and spiritual well-being of the whole person. In Green Medicine he examines this issue and provides a realistic blueprint for wellness and a valuable guide for those seeking deeper and more lasting healing. Written in an accessible style, the book draws on a rich range of fields—physics, philosophy, Jungian thought, shamanism, alchemy, Eastern thought, Western esotericism, sustainability, orthodox medicine—to create a green medical paradigm that represents a powerful integrative medical perspective. Dr. Malerba interweaves case histories from his own practice with innovative concepts from alternative and Western medicine in order to address a number of crucial questions: • What are the personal and environmental costs to the overuse of pharmaceutical drugs? • Is conventional medicine as scientific as it claims to be? • How can conventional doctors and alternative healers begin to work together? • How can individuals transform medicine and become participants in their own healthcare? Green Medicine offers a practical and philosophical basis for building a viable green alternative that draws on the inherent unity of body, heart, mind, soul, and nature. From the Trade Paperback edition.
Posted in Health & Fitness

The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids

The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Committee on the Health Effects of Marijuana: An Evidence Review and Research Agenda

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309453070

Category: Science

Page: 486

View: 5457

Significant changes have taken place in the policy landscape surrounding cannabis legalization, production, and use. During the past 20 years, 25 states and the District of Columbia have legalized cannabis and/or cannabidiol (a component of cannabis) for medical conditions or retail sales at the state level and 4 states have legalized both the medical and recreational use of cannabis. These landmark changes in policy have impacted cannabis use patterns and perceived levels of risk. However, despite this changing landscape, evidence regarding the short- and long-term health effects of cannabis use remains elusive. While a myriad of studies have examined cannabis use in all its various forms, often these research conclusions are not appropriately synthesized, translated for, or communicated to policy makers, health care providers, state health officials, or other stakeholders who have been charged with influencing and enacting policies, procedures, and laws related to cannabis use. Unlike other controlled substances such as alcohol or tobacco, no accepted standards for safe use or appropriate dose are available to help guide individuals as they make choices regarding the issues of if, when, where, and how to use cannabis safely and, in regard to therapeutic uses, effectively. Shifting public sentiment, conflicting and impeded scientific research, and legislative battles have fueled the debate about what, if any, harms or benefits can be attributed to the use of cannabis or its derivatives, and this lack of aggregated knowledge has broad public health implications. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids provides a comprehensive review of scientific evidence related to the health effects and potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis. This report provides a research agendaâ€"outlining gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for providing additional insight into these issuesâ€"that summarizes and prioritizes pressing research needs.
Posted in Science

The Man Who Wasn't There

Tales from the Edge of the Self

Author: Anil Ananthaswamy

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101984325

Category: Psychology

Page: 320

View: 4770

"In the tradition of Oliver Sacks, a tour of the latest neuroscience of schizophrenia, autism, Alzheimer's disease, ecstatic epilepsy, Cotard's syndrome, out-of-body experiences, and other disorders--revealing the awesome power of the human sense of self from a master of science journalism Anil Ananthaswamy's extensive in-depth interviews venture into the lives of individuals who offer perspectives that will change how you think about who you are. These individuals all lost some part of what we think of as our self, but they then offer remarkable, sometimes heart-wrenching insights into what remains. One man cut off his own leg. Another became one with the universe. We are learning about the self at a level of detail that Descartes ("I think therefore I am") could never have imagined. Recent research into Alzheimer's illuminates how memory creates your narrative self by using the same part of your brain for your past as for your future. But wait, those afflicted with Cotard's syndrome think they are already dead; in a way, they believe that "I think therefore I am not." Who--or what--can say that? Neuroscience has identified specific regions of the brain that, when they misfire, can cause the self to move back and forth between the body and a doppelganger, or to leave the body entirely. So where in the brain, or mind, or body, is the self actually located? As Ananthaswamy elegantly reports, neuroscientists themselves now see that the elusive sense of self is both everywhere and nowhere in the human brain"--
Posted in Psychology

Governance Of Science

Ideology and the Future of the Open Society

Author: Fuller, Steve

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335202349

Category: Social Science

Page: 167

View: 5991

This ground-breaking text offers a fresh perspective on the governance of science from the standpoint of social and political theory. Science has often been seen as the only institution that embodies the elusive democratic ideal of the 'open society'. Yet, science remains an elite activity that commands much more public trust than understanding, even though science has become increasingly entangled with larger political and economic issues.
Posted in Social Science

In Pursuit of Memory

The Fight Against Alzheimer's

Author: Joseph Jebelli

Publisher: Little, Brown

ISBN: 0316398969

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 320

View: 8759

For readers of Atul Gawande, Siddhartha Mukherjee, and Henry Marsh, a riveting, gorgeously written biography of one of history's most fascinating and confounding diseases--Alzheimer's--from its discovery more than 100 years ago to today's race towards a cure. SHORTLISTED FOR THE ROYAL SOCIETY SCIENCE BOOK PRIZE 2017 Named "Science Book of the Month" by Bookseller Alzheimer's is the great global epidemic of our time, affecting millions worldwide -- there are more than 5 million people diagnosed in the US alone. And as our population ages, scientists are working against the clock to find a cure. Neuroscientist Joseph Jebelli is among them. His beloved grandfather had Alzheimer's and now he's written the book he needed then -- a very human history of this frightening disease. But In Pursuit of Memory is also a thrilling scientific detective story that takes you behind the headlines. Jebelli's quest takes us from nineteenth-century Germany and post-war England, to the jungles of Papua New Guinea and the technological proving grounds of Japan; through America, India, China, Iceland, Sweden, and Colombia. Its heroes are scientists from around the world -- many of whom he's worked with -- and the brave patients and families who have changed the way that researchers think about the disease. This compelling insider's account shows vividly why Jebelli feels so hopeful about a cure, but also why our best defense in the meantime is to understand the disease. In Pursuit of Memory is a clever, moving, eye-opening guide to the threat one in three of us faces now.
Posted in Health & Fitness

The Rise of Superman

Decoding the Science of Ultimate Human Performance

Author: Steven Kotler

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 1477800832

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 234

View: 9323

Using years of research and interviews with adventure sports athletes, the New York Times best-selling author of Abundance and A Small, Fury Prayer attempts to unlock the secrets to ultimate human performance and the state of consciousness called “flow." 25,000 first printing.
Posted in Business & Economics

Your Medical Mind

How to Decide What Is Right for You

Author: Jerome Groopman,Pamela Hartzband

Publisher: Penguin Books

ISBN: 014312224X

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 308

View: 8321

Offers advice on making medical decisions in spite of confusing and conflicting information, and provides insight into the beliefs influencing how choices are made while citing the marketing practices that complicate the process.
Posted in Health & Fitness

Elusive Alliance

Treatment Engagement Strategies with High-risk Adolescents

Author: David Castro-Blanco,Marc S. Karver

Publisher: Amer Psychological Assn

ISBN: 9781433808111

Category: Psychology

Page: 254

View: 4906

This long-awaited second edition of the best and most authoritative text on this most tragic of subjects incorporates almost 15 years of new research and critical thinking about clinical assessment and intervention in addition to an expanded focus on prevention. --
Posted in Psychology

The Great Questions of Tomorrow

Author: David Rothkopf

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 150111994X

Category: Psychology

Page: 128

View: 6933

With the world at the threshold of profound changes, the question becomes: Where are the philosophers? Where are the great thinkers of today? Where is the next Jefferson, Curie, or Mandela? Which technologies and changes in the nature of life will they harness, embrace, or be inspired by? As the world's center of gravity has shifted over the centuries from Europe and then to the US, so too has the center of intellectual gravity. With that center shifting to Asia and also to the emerging world, will those places produce the transformational thinkers of the twenty-first century? Embarking on an around-the-world search, David Rothkopf strives to answer these questions, uncovering what the next big ideas are and where they're emerging. Who are the people behind the ideas, and how they will be colored by their place and culture of origins?
Posted in Psychology