Advances in the Mathematical Sciences

Research from the 2015 Association for Women in Mathematics Symposium

Author: Gail Letzter,Kristin Lauter,Erin Chambers,Nancy Flournoy,Julia Elisenda Grigsby,Carla Martin,Kathleen Ryan,Konstantina Trivisa

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319341391

Category: Mathematics

Page: 436

View: 6780

Presenting the latest findings in topics from across the mathematical spectrum, this volume includes results in pure mathematics along with a range of new advances and novel applications to other fields such as probability, statistics, biology, and computer science. All contributions feature authors who attended the Association for Women in Mathematics Research Symposium in 2015: this conference, the third in a series of biennial conferences organized by the Association, attracted over 330 participants and showcased the research of women mathematicians from academia, industry, and government.
Posted in Mathematics

Trends in Representation Theory of Algebras and Related Topics

Author: Andrzej Skowroński

Publisher: European Mathematical Society

ISBN: 9783037190623

Category: Mathematics

Page: 710

View: 9094

This book is concerned with recent trends in the representation theory of algebras and its exciting interaction with geometry, topology, commutative algebra, Lie algebras, quantum groups, homological algebra, invariant theory, combinatories, model theory and theoretical physics. The collection of articles, written by leading researchers in the field, is conceived as a sort of handbook providing easy access to the present state of knowledge and stimulating further development.
Posted in Mathematics

Introduction to Symplectic Topology

Author: Dusa McDuff,Dietmar Salamon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198794894

Category: Mathematics

Page: 632

View: 5194

Over the last number of years powerful new methods in analysis and topology have led to the development of the modern global theory of symplectic topology, including several striking and important results. The first edition of Introduction to Symplectic Topology was published in 1995. The book was the first comprehensive introduction to the subject and became a key text in the area. A significantly revised second edition was published in 1998 introducing new sections and updates on the fast-developing area. This new third edition includes updates and new material to bring the book right up-to-date.
Posted in Mathematics

Mexican Mathematicians Abroad

Author: Noé Bárcenas,Fernando Galaz-García,Mónica Moreno Rocha

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470421925

Category: Mathematicians

Page: 237

View: 7345

This volume contains the proceedings of the First Workshop “Matemáticos Mexicanos Jóvenes en el Mundo”, held from August 22–24, 2012, at Centro de Investigación en Matemáticas (CIMAT) in Guanajuato, Mexico. - See more at: http://bookstore.ams.org/conm-657/#sthash.cUjwTcvX.dpuf This volume contains the proceedings of the First Workshop "Matemáticos Mexicanos Jóvenes en el Mundo", held from August 22-24, 2012, at Centro de Investigación en Matemáticas (CIMAT) in Guanajuato, Mexico. One of the main goals of this meeting was to present different research directions being pursued by young Mexican mathematicians based in other countries, such as Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Estonia, Germany, Spain and the United States, showcasing research lines currently underrepresented in Mexico. Featured are survey and research articles in six areas: algebra, analysis, applied mathematics, geometry, probability and topology. Their topics range from current developments related to well-known open problems to novel interactions between pure mathematics and computer science. Most of the articles provide a panoramic view of the fields and problems the authors work on, making the book accessible to advanced graduate students and researchers in mathematics from different fields. This book is published in cooperation with Sociedad Matemática Mexicana.
Posted in Mathematicians

The Seiberg-Witten Equations and Applications to the Topology of Smooth Four-Manifolds. (MN-44)

Author: John W. Morgan

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400865166

Category: Mathematics

Page: 130

View: 2178

The recent introduction of the Seiberg-Witten invariants of smooth four-manifolds has revolutionized the study of those manifolds. The invariants are gauge-theoretic in nature and are close cousins of the much-studied SU(2)-invariants defined over fifteen years ago by Donaldson. On a practical level, the new invariants have proved to be more powerful and have led to a vast generalization of earlier results. This book is an introduction to the Seiberg-Witten invariants. The work begins with a review of the classical material on Spin c structures and their associated Dirac operators. Next comes a discussion of the Seiberg-Witten equations, which is set in the context of nonlinear elliptic operators on an appropriate infinite dimensional space of configurations. It is demonstrated that the space of solutions to these equations, called the Seiberg-Witten moduli space, is finite dimensional, and its dimension is then computed. In contrast to the SU(2)-case, the Seiberg-Witten moduli spaces are shown to be compact. The Seiberg-Witten invariant is then essentially the homology class in the space of configurations represented by the Seiberg-Witten moduli space. The last chapter gives a flavor for the applications of these new invariants by computing the invariants for most Kahler surfaces and then deriving some basic toological consequences for these surfaces.
Posted in Mathematics

Monopoles and Three-Manifolds

Author: Peter Kronheimer,Tomasz Mrowka

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139468669

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 6280

Originating with Andreas Floer in the 1980s, Floer homology has proved to be an effective tool in tackling many important problems in three- and four-dimensional geometry and topology. This 2007 book provides a comprehensive treatment of Floer homology, based on the Seiberg–Witten monopole equations. After first providing an overview of the results, the authors develop the analytic properties of the Seiberg–Witten equations, assuming only a basic grounding in differential geometry and analysis. The Floer groups of a general three-manifold are then defined and their properties studied in detail. Two final chapters are devoted to the calculation of Floer groups and to applications of the theory in topology. Suitable for beginning graduate students and researchers, this book provides a full discussion of a central part of the study of the topology of manifolds.
Posted in Mathematics

Mirror Symmetry

Author: Claire Voisin

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821819470

Category: Science

Page: 120

View: 6825

This is the English translation of Professor Voisin's book reflecting the discovery of the mirror symmetry phenomenon. The first chapter is devoted to the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds, and the second describes, as motivation, the ideas from quantum field theory that led to the discovery of mirror symmetry. The other chapters deal with more specialized aspects of the subject: the work of Candelas, de la Ossa, Greene, and Parkes, based on the fact that under the mirror symmetry hypothesis, the variation of Hodge structure of a Calabi-Yau threefold determines the Gromov-Witten invariants of its mirror; Batyrev's construction, which exhibits the mirror symmetry phenomenon between hypersurfaces of toric Fano varieties, after a combinatorial classification of the latter; the mathematical construction of the Gromov-Witten potential, and the proof of its crucial property (that it satisfies the WDVV equation), which makes it possible to construct a flat connection underlying a variation of Hodge structure in the Calabi-Yau case. The book concludes with the first ``naive'' Givental computation, which is a mysterious mathematical justification of the computation of Candelas, et al.
Posted in Science

Sheaves on Manifolds

With a Short History. «Les débuts de la théorie des faisceaux». By Christian Houzel

Author: Masaki Kashiwara,Pierre Schapira

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540518617

Category: Mathematics

Page: 512

View: 6145

Sheaf Theory is modern, active field of mathematics at the intersection of algebraic topology, algebraic geometry and partial differential equations. This volume offers a comprehensive and self-contained treatment of Sheaf Theory from the basis up, with emphasis on the microlocal point of view. From the reviews: "Clearly and precisely written, and contains many interesting ideas: it describes a whole, largely new branch of mathematics." –Bulletin of the L.M.S.
Posted in Mathematics

J-holomorphic Curves and Symplectic Topology

Author: Dusa McDuff,Dietmar Salamon

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821887467

Category: Mathematics

Page: 726

View: 2900

The theory of $J$-holomorphic curves has been of great importance since its introduction by Gromov in 1985. In mathematics, its applications include many key results in symplectic topology. It was also one of the main inspirations for the creation of Floer homology. In mathematical physics, it provides a natural context in which to define Gromov-Witten invariants and quantum cohomology, two important ingredients of the mirror symmetry conjecture.

The main goal of this book is to establish the fundamental theorems of the subject in full and rigourous detail. In particular, the book contains complete proofs of Gromov's compactness theorem for spheres, of the gluing theorem for spheres, and of the associatively of quantum multiplication in the semipositive case. The book can also serve as an introduction to current work in symplectic topology: there are two long chapters on applications, one concentrating on classical results in symplectic topology and the other concerned with quantum cohomology. The last chapter sketches some recent developments in Floer theory. The five appendices of the book provide necessary background related to the classical theory of linear elliptic operators, Fredholm theory, Sobolev spaces, as well as a discussion of the moduli space of genus zero stable curves and a proof of the positivity of intersections of $J$-holomorphic curves in four-dimensional manifolds. The second edition clarifies various arguments, corrects several mistakes in the first edition, includes some additional results in Chapter 10 and Appendices C and D, and updates the references to recent developments.
Posted in Mathematics

Homological Mirror Symmetry for the Quartic Surface

Author: Paul Seidel

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470410974

Category: Mirror symmetry

Page: 236

View: 1228

The author proves Kontsevich's form of the mirror symmetry conjecture for (on the symplectic geometry side) a quartic surface in C .
Posted in Mirror symmetry

Bordered Heegaard Floer Homology

Author: Robert Lipshitz,Peter Ozsváth,Dylan P. Thurston

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470428881

Category: Floer homology

Page: 279

View: 3642

The authors construct Heegaard Floer theory for 3-manifolds with connected boundary. The theory associates to an oriented, parametrized two-manifold a differential graded algebra. For a three-manifold with parametrized boundary, the invariant comes in two different versions, one of which (type D) is a module over the algebra and the other of which (type A) is an A∞ module. Both are well-defined up to chain homotopy equivalence. For a decomposition of a 3-manifold into two pieces, the A∞ tensor product of the type D module of one piece and the type A module from the other piece is ^HF of the glued manifold. As a special case of the construction, the authors specialize to the case of three-manifolds with torus boundary. This case can be used to give another proof of the surgery exact triangle for ^HF. The authors relate the bordered Floer homology of a three-manifold with torus boundary with the knot Floer homology of a filling.
Posted in Floer homology

Combinatorial Floer Homology

Author: Vin de Silva,Joel W. Robbin,Dietmar A. Salamon

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821898868

Category: Mathematics

Page: 114

View: 3054

The authors define combinatorial Floer homology of a transverse pair of noncontractible nonisotopic embedded loops in an oriented -manifold without boundary, prove that it is invariant under isotopy, and prove that it is isomorphic to the original Lagrangian Floer homology. Their proof uses a formula for the Viterbo-Maslov index for a smooth lune in a -manifold.
Posted in Mathematics

From Stein to Weinstein and Back

Symplectic Geometry of Affine Complex Manifolds

Author: Kai Cieliebak,Y. Eliashberg

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821885332

Category: Mathematics

Page: 364

View: 6949

A beautiful and comprehensive introduction to this important field. --Dusa McDuff, Barnard College, Columbia University This excellent book gives a detailed, clear, and wonderfully written treatment of the interplay between the world of Stein manifolds and the more topological and flexible world of Weinstein manifolds. Devoted to this subject with a long history, the book serves as a super introduction to this area and also contains the authors' new results. --Tomasz Mrowka, MIT This book is devoted to the interplay between complex and symplectic geometry in affine complex manifolds. Affine complex (a.k.a. Stein) manifolds have canonically built into them symplectic geometry which is responsible for many phenomena in complex geometry and analysis. The goal of the book is the exploration of this symplectic geometry (the road from ``Stein to Weinstein'') and its applications in the complex geometric world of Stein manifolds (the road ``back''). This is the first book which systematically explores this connection, thus providing a new approach to the classical subject of Stein manifolds. It also contains the first detailed investigation of Weinstein manifolds, the symplectic counterparts of Stein manifolds, which play an important role in symplectic and contact topology. Assuming only a general background from differential topology, the book provides introductions to the various techniques from the theory of functions of several complex variables, symplectic geometry, $h$-principles, and Morse theory that enter the proofs of the main results. The main results of the book are original results of the authors, and several of these results appear here for the first time. The book will be beneficial for all students and mathematicians interested in geometric aspects of complex analysis, symplectic and contact topology, and the interconnections between these subjects.|This book is devoted to the interplay between complex and symplectic geometry in affine complex manifolds. Affine complex (a.k.a. Stein) manifolds have canonically built into them symplectic geometry which is responsible for many phenomena in complex geometry and analysis. The goal of the book is the exploration of this symplectic geometry (the road from ""Stein to Weinstein"") and its applications in the complex geometric world of Stein manifolds (the road ""back""). This is the first book which systematically explores this connection, thus providing a new approach to the classical subject of Stein manifolds. It also contains the first detailed investigation of Weinstein manifolds, the symplectic counterparts of Stein manifolds, which play an important role in symplectic and contact topology.

Assuming only a general background from differential topology, the book provides introductions to the various techniques from the theory of functions of several complex variables, symplectic geometry, $h$-principles, and Morse theory that enter the proofs of the main results. The main results of the book are original results of the authors, and several of these results appear here for the first time. The book will be beneficial for all students and mathematicians interested in geometric aspects of complex analysis, symplectic and contact topology, and the interconnections between these subjects.
Posted in Mathematics

Grid Homology for Knots and Links

Author: Peter S. Ozsváth,András I. Stipsicz,Zoltán Szabó

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470417375

Category: Homology theory

Page: 410

View: 313

Knot theory is a classical area of low-dimensional topology, directly connected with the theory of three-manifolds and smooth four-manifold topology. In recent years, the subject has undergone transformative changes thanks to its connections with a number of other mathematical disciplines, including gauge theory; representation theory and categorification; contact geometry; and the theory of pseudo-holomorphic curves. Starting from the combinatorial point of view on knots using their grid diagrams, this book serves as an introduction to knot theory, specifically as it relates to some of the above developments. After a brief overview of the background material in the subject, the book gives a self-contained treatment of knot Floer homology from the point of view of grid diagrams. Applications include computations of the unknotting number and slice genus of torus knots (asked first in the 1960s and settled in the 1990s), and tools to study variants of knot theory in the presence of a contact structure. Additional topics are presented to prepare readers for further study in holomorphic methods in low-dimensional topology, especially Heegaard Floer homology. The book could serve as a textbook for an advanced undergraduate or part of a graduate course in knot theory. Standard background material is sketched in the text and the appendices.
Posted in Homology theory

Renormalization and Effective Field Theory

Author: Kevin Costello

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821852884

Category: Mathematics

Page: 251

View: 8801

This book tells mathematicians about an amazing subject invented by physicists and it tells physicists how a master mathematician must proceed in order to understand it. Physicists who know quantum field theory can learn the powerful methodology of mathematical structure, while mathematicians can position themselves to use the magical ideas of quantum field theory in ``mathematics'' itself. The retelling of the tale mathematically by Kevin Costello is a beautiful tour de force. --Dennis Sullivan This book is quite a remarkable contribution. It should make perturbative quantum field theory accessible to mathematicians. There is a lot of insight in the way the author uses the renormalization group and effective field theory to analyze perturbative renormalization; this may serve as a springboard to a wider use of those topics, hopefully to an eventual nonperturbative understanding. --Edward Witten Quantum field theory has had a profound influence on mathematics, and on geometry in particular. However, the notorious difficulties of renormalization have made quantum field theory very inaccessible for mathematicians. This book provides complete mathematical foundations for the theory of perturbative quantum field theory, based on Wilson's ideas of low-energy effective field theory and on the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism. As an example, a cohomological proof of perturbative renormalizability of Yang-Mills theory is presented. An effort has been made to make the book accessible to mathematicians who have had no prior exposure to quantum field theory. Graduate students who have taken classes in basic functional analysis and homological algebra should be able to read this book.
Posted in Mathematics

Rational Homotopy Theory and Differential Forms

Author: Phillip Griffiths,John Morgan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461484685

Category: Mathematics

Page: 227

View: 6148

This completely revised and corrected version of the well-known Florence notes circulated by the authors together with E. Friedlander examines basic topology, emphasizing homotopy theory. Included is a discussion of Postnikov towers and rational homotopy theory. This is then followed by an in-depth look at differential forms and de Tham’s theorem on simplicial complexes. In addition, Sullivan’s results on computing the rational homotopy type from forms is presented. New to the Second Edition: *Fully-revised appendices including an expanded discussion of the Hirsch lemma *Presentation of a natural proof of a Serre spectral sequence result *Updated content throughout the book, reflecting advances in the area of homotopy theory With its modern approach and timely revisions, this second edition of Rational Homotopy Theory and Differential Forms will be a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers in algebraic topology, differential forms, and homotopy theory.
Posted in Mathematics

Lagrangian Intersection Floer Theory

Anomaly and Obstruction, Part I

Author: Kenji Fukaya

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821852493

Category: Floer homology

Page: 396

View: 5363

This is a two-volume series research monograph on the general Lagrangian Floer theory and on the accompanying homological algebra of filtered $A_\infty$-algebras. This book provides the most important step towards a rigorous foundation of the Fukaya category in general context. In Volume I, general deformation theory of the Floer cohomology is developed in both algebraic and geometric contexts. An essentially self-contained homotopy theory of filtered $A_\infty$ algebras and $A_\infty$ bimodules and applications of their obstruction-deformation theory to the Lagrangian Floer theory are presented. Volume II contains detailed studies of two of the main points of the foundation of the theory: transversality and orientation. The study of transversality is based on the virtual fundamental chain techniques (the theory of Kuranishi structures and their multisections) and chain level intersection theories. A detailed analysis comparing the orientations of the moduli spaces and their fiber products is carried out. A self-contained account of the general theory of Kuranishi structures is also included in the appendix of this volume.
Posted in Floer homology

From Quantum to Classical Molecular Dynamics

Reduced Models and Numerical Analysis

Author: Christian Lubich

Publisher: European Mathematical Society

ISBN: 9783037190678

Category: Mathematics

Page: 144

View: 6542

This text addresses such problems in quantum mechanics from the viewpoint of numerical analysis, illustrating them to a large extent on intermediate models between the Schrodinger equation of full many-body quantum dynamics and the Newtonian equations of classical molecular dynamics. The fruitful interplay between quantum dynamics and numerical analysis is emphasized.
Posted in Mathematics