From Sundials to Atomic Clocks

Understanding Time and Frequency

Author: James Jespersen,Jane Fitz-Randolph

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486409139

Category: Science

Page: 345

View: 4320

Clear and accessible introduction to the concept of time examines measurement, historic timekeeping methods, uses of time information, role of time in science and technology, and much more. Over 300 illustrations.
Posted in Science

Time's Pendulum

The Quest to Capture Time-- from Sundials to Atomic Clocks

Author: Jo Ellen Barnett

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 9780306457876

Category: Science

Page: 340

View: 5508

Jo Ellen Barnett takes us a step further in our perpetual quest to comprehend time. She bridges the gap between the mechanical clocks which record the fleeting moment as it passes, and the powerful radioactive "clocks" which have opened up to us the eons of the earth's history, by showing that both are based upon the counting of identical time segments. Beginning with a historical look at clocks to tell the time of day, she discusses the impact of such inventions as the church bell, the pendulum, and the wristwatch on human culture, and explains how they've gradually transformed our perception not only of the world, but of time itself.
Posted in Science

The Pendulum

Scientific, Historical, Philosophical and Educational Perspectives

Author: Michael R. Matthews,Colin F. Gauld,Arthur Stinner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402035258

Category: Science

Page: 542

View: 6830

The pendulum is a universal topic in primary and secondary schools, but its full potential for learning about physics, the nature of science, and the relationships between science, mathematics, technology, society and culture is seldom realised. Contributions to this 32-chapter anthology deal with the science, history, methodology and pedagogy of pendulum motion. There is ample material for the richer and more cross-disciplinary treatment of the pendulum from elementary school to high school, and through to advanced university classes. Scientists will value the studies on the physics of the pendulum; historians will appreciate the detailed treatment of Galileo, Huygens, Newton and Foucault’s pendulum investigations; psychologists and educators will learn from the papers on Piaget; teachers will welcome the many contributions to pendulum pedagogy. All readers will come away with a new awareness of the importance of the pendulum in the foundation and development of modern science; and for its centrality in so many facets of society and culture.
Posted in Science

Vom Paläolithikum zur Postmoderne

die Genese unseres Epochen-Systems

Author: Andreas Kamp

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9060323831

Category: Philosophy

Page: 309

View: 7114

Dies ist der erste Teil einer zweibändigen Studie zur Genese unseres heutigen, vom Anspruch her den chronologischen Verlauf der gesamten Menschheitsgeschichte strukturierenden „Epochen“-Systems. Der Band skizziert zunächst die geistesgeschichtlichen Prämissen. Von der rudimentären paläolithischen Zeiteinteilung führt er über die ältesten schriftlich dokumentierten Ordnungsversuche in den sumerischen bzw. ägyptischen „Königlisten“, griechische und römische Autoren, Petrarca, Bruni und Vasari bis zu Cellarius, der am Ende des 17. Jahrhunderts die Drei-Zeitalter-Distinktion „Antike-Mittelalter-Neuzeit“ zum zentralen chronologischen Gliederungsprinzip der Weltgeschichte erhob. Anschließend stehen die drei klassischen, von Pyrrhon, Polybios bzw. Ptolemaios entwickelten „Epoché“-Konzepte sowie deren Auftauchen und Rezeption im lateinischen Europa im Fokus. Sodann wird die erstaunlich spät, nämlich erst nach Mitte des 16. Jahrhunderts einsetzende Transformation der „Epoché“ zur fundamentalen historiographischen Ordnungskategorie thematisiert. Schließlich verfolgen wir anhand zahlreicher Autoren sowie der kontemporären Lexikographie ihren auf Latein wie in den relevanten europäischen „Volkssprachen“ (Englisch, Französisch, Deutsch, Spanisch, Portugiesisch, Italienisch) stattfindenden Divulgationsprozeß. Dabei erweist sich der Ausgang des 17. Jahrhunderts erneut als Wasserscheide. Der erste Band endet deshalb an dieser Stelle, der zweite wird dann die weitere Entwicklung von 1700 bis zur Gegenwart analysieren. This is the first part of a two-volume study of the genesis of our modern-day system of epochs, which claims to structure the chronology of the entire history of mankind. The volume sets out by sketching the intellectual premises. It leads from the rudimentary Palaeolithic division of time via the oldest attempts at structuring to have been documented in written form, through to the Sumerian and Egyptian “King Lists”, to Greek and Roman authors, to Petrarch, Bruni, and Vasari, and finally to Cellarius, who in the late 17th century introduced the distinction between the three epochs of “Antiquity, the Middle Ages and the Modern Era” as the basic chronological principle of organising the history of the world. This is followed by a closer look at the three classical concepts of “Epoché” as defined by Pyrrhon, Polybios and Ptolemaios, respectively, as well as their surfacing and reception in Latin Europe. Not until the second half of the 16th century, which is an astonishingly late point in time, can the transformation of “Epoché” into a fundamental category of historiographic structuring be detected. Finally, by studying numerous writers as well as the contemporary lexicography, we will outline the process of divulgation that took place both in Latin as well as in the relevant European “vernaculars” (English, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian). In the process, the late 17th century again proves to be a kind of divide. As a consequence, volume one ends here; a second volume (forthc.) will analyse the further development to the present day.
Posted in Philosophy

VCSELs for Cesium-Based Miniaturized Atomic Clocks

Author: Ahmed Al-Samaneh

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 373927638X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 216

View: 2485

Frequency standards or clocks provide time references for a wide range of applications such as synchronization of communication networks, remote sensing and global positioning. Over the last couple of decades, demands on the data rates of many communication systems have substantially increased, imposing more restricted requirements on the stability of their timing devices. At the same time applications have become more mobile, increasing the demand for small and low-power clocks. Atomic clocks have provided the most stable frequency references for more than 50 years. However, the size and power requirements of microwave-cavity-based atomic clocks prohibit them from being portable and battery-operated. Hence, research on miniaturized atomic clocks (MACs) has been initiated by various research groups. A European research project on MACs, funded by the European commission started in 2008. This dissertation reports on the achievements within the European research project in the development of suitable lasers for such atomic clocks. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are compelling light sources for MACs because of their low power consumption, high modulation bandwidth, and favorable beam characteristics. VCSELs must feature polarization-stable single-mode emission. Additionally, they must provide narrow linewidth emission at a center wavelength of about 894.6nm and be well suited for harmonic modulation at about 4.6GHz in order to employ coherent population trapping effect at the cesium D1 line. The polarization orientation of the emitted light of a standard VCSEL is a priori unknown. Polarization control is achieved by etching a shallow surface grating in the top Bragg mirror. For the purpose of integration with the clock microsystem, flip-chip-bondable VCSEL designs are realized. Such designs facilitate a straightforward mounting and make the electrical contacts high-frequency compatible.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Das Mathebuch

Von Pythagoras bis in die 57. Dimension. 250 Meilensteine in der Geschichte der Mathematik

Author: Clifford A. Pickover

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789089982803

Category:

Page: 527

View: 2345

Posted in

Reference Data for Engineers

Radio, Electronics, Computer, and Communications

Author: Wendy Middleton,Mac E. Van Valkenburg

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 9780750672917

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1672

View: 5397

This standard handbook for engineers covers the fundamentals, theory and applications of radio, electronics, computers, and communications equipment. It provides information on essential, need-to-know topics without heavy emphasis on complicated mathematics. It is a "must-have" for every engineer who requires electrical, electronics, and communications data. Featured in this updated version is coverage on intellectual property and patents, probability and design, antennas, power electronics, rectifiers, power supplies, and properties of materials. Useful information on units, constants and conversion factors, active filter design, antennas, integrated circuits, surface acoustic wave design, and digital signal processing is also included. This work also offers new knowledge in the fields of satellite technology, space communication, microwave science, telecommunication, global positioning systems, frequency data, and radar.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Über Vorgriechische Mathematik

Author: O. Neugebauer

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3663157857

Category: Mathematics

Page: 19

View: 4174

Dieser Buchtitel ist Teil des Digitalisierungsprojekts Springer Book Archives mit Publikationen, die seit den Anfängen des Verlags von 1842 erschienen sind. Der Verlag stellt mit diesem Archiv Quellen für die historische wie auch die disziplingeschichtliche Forschung zur Verfügung, die jeweils im historischen Kontext betrachtet werden müssen. Dieser Titel erschien in der Zeit vor 1945 und wird daher in seiner zeittypischen politisch-ideologischen Ausrichtung vom Verlag nicht beworben.
Posted in Mathematics

About Time

Author: Adam Frank

Publisher: Oneworld Publications

ISBN: 1780740603

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 3850

From Stonehenge to beyond the Big Bang, an exhilarating scientific exploration of how we make time Time is the grandest conception of the universe that we humans have been able to imagine – and its most intimate, the very frame of human life. In About Time, astrophysicist and award-winning writer Adam Frank tells the scientific story of this wonderful and tyrannical invention. A Palaeolithic farmer moved through the sun-fuelled day and star-steered night in a radically different way than the Elizabethan merchants who set their pace to the clocks newly installed in their town squares. Since then, science has swept time into increasingly minute and standardized units – the industrial efficiency of ironworks’ punch clocks; the space-age precision of atomic fountains and GPS satellites; the fifteen-minute increments of Outlook’s digital revolution. And in the past decade, string-theory branes, multiverses, and “clockless” physics have begun to overturn our ideas about how the universe began – the Big Bang – in ways that will completely rewrite time and our experience of it. Weaving cosmology with day-to-day chronicles and a down-to-earth style, About Time is both dazzling and riveting as it confronts what comes next.
Posted in Science

Die Zeit: Vertraut und Fremd

Author: FRASER

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3034860498

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 477

View: 3983

Posted in Juvenile Nonfiction

Längengrad

Die wahre Geschichte eines einsamen Genies, welches das größte wissenschaftliche Problem seiner Zeit löste

Author: Dava Sobel

Publisher: ebook Berlin Verlag

ISBN: 3827072360

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 240

View: 9386

John Harrison, ein schottischer Uhrmacher, setzte sich ein ehrgeiziges und unmöglich erscheinendes Ziel: eine Methode zu ersinnen, die es Seeleuten ermöglicht, den genauen Längengrad ihrer Position auf See zu bestimmen. Über vierzig Jahre arbeitete Harrison wie besessen an der Herstellung eines perfekten Chronometers und kam schließlich — trotz Missgunst und zahlreicher Anfeindungen — zum Erfolg. Dava Sobels in luzider Prosa erzählte Geschichte dieser wissenschaftlichen Gralssuche wurde ein überwältigender internationaler Erfolg.
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

Die Time Catcher

Author: Richard Ungar

Publisher: cbj Verlag

ISBN: 3641096774

Category: Juvenile Fiction

Page: 416

View: 6059

Es ist Zeit für neue Helden! Durch die Zeit zu reisen, um unbezahlbare Objekte aus der Vergangenheit zu klauen, ist das Größte – solange nicht ein anderer Time Catcher versucht, einem die Beute abzujagen sowie die beste Freundin auszuspannen und der eigene Boss plant, Kinder zu kidnappen, um sein florierendes Diebesunternehmen auszubauen. Mehr als ein Grund für Caleb über Flucht nachzudenken. Bloß ist kein Ort der Welt – in Vergangenheit und Zukunft – sicher vor den Schergen des Boss’. Und Abtrünnigen droht die härteste Strafe von allen. Wird Caleb alles riskieren, um in der Zukunft zu landen, die er sich erträumt?
Posted in Juvenile Fiction

Controlling-Management

Zukunftssicherung mit einem leistungsorientierten Steuerungskonzept

Author: Peter W. Weber

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322825310

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 196

View: 4481

"Controlling Management" weist mit einem leistungsorientierten Steuerungskonzept einen neuen Weg zum Unternehmenserfolg und verdeutlicht ihn mit zahlreichen Praxisbeispielen.
Posted in Business & Economics

Observational Astronomy

Author: D. Scott Birney,Guillermo Gonzalez,David Oesper

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316139409

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 5059

The long-awaited second edition of this well-received textbook gives a thorough introduction to observational astronomy. Starting with the basics of positional astronomy and systems of time, it continues with charts and catalogs covering both historically important publications and modern electronic databases. The book builds on a fundamental discussion of the basics of light and the effects of the atmosphere on astronomical observations. Chapters include discussions of optical telescopes, detectors, photometry, variable stars, astrometry, spectroscopy, and solar observations. This edition contains new discussions of measurements with CCDs and appendices give basic statistical methods, useful astronomical software and websites, and sources of accurate time-calibration signals. Observational Astronomy is the perfect textbook for upper level undergraduate or beginning graduate courses on astronomy. Examples based on real astronomical data are placed throughout the text. Each of the well-illustrated chapters is supported by a set of graduated problems and suggestions for further reading.
Posted in Science

Clocks, from shadow to atom

Author: Kathryn Kilby Borland,Helen Ross Speicher

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 62

View: 3851

Describes the machines that man invented to record time from shadow and water clocks to quartz crystal and atomic clocks.
Posted in Juvenile Nonfiction

Idealtheorie

Author: Wolfgang Krull

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642870333

Category: Mathematics

Page: 160

View: 8244

Posted in Mathematics

La Théorie Sensorielle I- Les Analogies Sensorielles

Author: Philippe Roi ,Tristan Girard

Publisher: First Edition Design Pub.

ISBN: 1622874846

Category: Science

Page: 324

View: 8932

Au 4e millénaire avant notre ère, dans le sud de la Mésopotamie, les Urukéens inventent sept outils remarquables : l'araire, le moule à briques normalisé, l'écriture, la comptabilité, la harpe, le métier à tisser vertical et l'image de cônes. Or, toutes ces inventions sont calquées sur des mécanismes biologiques qui permettent aux organes sensoriels de transmettre leurs informations au cerveau. Comment les Urukéens ont-ils pu inventer ces instruments dont les dispositifs sont tout à fait analogues à des mécanismes biologiques pourtant microscopiques, alors qu'ils ne disposaient d'aucune technologie pour les observer ? Pour répondre à cette question, les auteurs de La Théorie Sensorielle ont, pour la première fois, reliés des savoirs jusqu'alors fragmentés et compartimentés entre diverses disciplines. Leurs recherches sur le codage et le traitement de l'information par le cerveau ont été réalisées avec la collaboration de biologistes, de neurologues et de médecins spécialistes (INSERM, CNRS, Institut des Neurosciences de Montpellier, ESPCI-Laboratoire de Neurobiologie, Institut Pasteur, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Institut Cochin) mais aussi d'archéologues et d'historiens (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Musée du Louvre, Vorderasiatisches Museum, Université de la Sorbonne, UCLA, University of London, EHESS).
Posted in Science

Das Haus am Ende der Zeit

Author: Jeanette Winterson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783833350474

Category:

Page: 334

View: 2837

Posted in

Chronologie orientalischer Völker

von Albêrûnî

Author: Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Bīrūnī

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Chronology

Page: 392

View: 2833

Posted in Chronology