Author: Eugen Weber
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Tension and rivalry between France and Germany shaped the history of Western Europe in the century from 1860. Three times that hostility led to war and the invasion of France - in 1870, 1914 and 1940. The outcomes of the battles that followed reset the balance of power across the continent. Yet the German invasions tend to be viewed as separate events, in isolation, rather than as connected episodes in the confrontation between the two nations. ??Douglas Fermer's fresh account of the military campaigns and the preparations for them treats them as part of a cycle of fear, suspicion, animosity and conflicting ambitions extending across several generations. In a clear, concise account of the decisive opening phase of each campaign, he describes the critical decision-making, the manoeuvres and clashes of arms in eastern France as German forces advanced westwards. ??As the 100th anniversary of the start of the Great War approaches, this is a fitting moment to reconsider these momentous events and how they fit into the broad sweep of European history.
The Summers Campaigns of 1830, 1914, 1940
Author: Douglas Fermer
Publisher: Pen and Sword
From the late imperial period until 1922, the British and French made private and government loans to Russia, making it the foremost international debtor country in pre-World War I Europe. To finance the modernization of industry, the construction of public works projects, the building of railroads, and the development of the military-industrial complex, Russia's ministers of finance, municipal leaders, and nascent manufacturing class turned, time and time again, to foreign capital. From the forging of the Franco-Russian alliance onwards, Russia's needs were met, first and foremost, by France and Great Britain, its allies, and diplomatic partners in the developing Triple Entente. Russia's continued access to those ready lenders ensured that the empire of the Tsars would not be tempted away from its alliance and entente partners. This web of financial and political interdependence affected both foreign policy and domestic society in all three countries. The Russian state was so heavily indebted to its western creditors, rendering those western economies almost prisoners to this debt, that the debtor nation in many ways had the upper hand; the Russian government at times was actually able to dictate policy to its French and British counterparts. Those nations' investing classes-which, in France in particular, spanned not only the upper classes but the middle, rentier class, as well-had such a vast proportion of their savings wrapped up in Russian bonds that any default would have been catastrophic for their own economies. That default came not long after the Bolshevik Revolution brought to power a government who felt no responsibility, whatsoever, for the debts accrued by the tsars for the purpose of oppressing Russia's workers and peasants. The ensuing effect on allied morale, the Anglo-French relationship, and, ultimately, on international relations in the twentieth century, was grim and far-reaching. Jennifer Siegel narrates a classic tale of money and power in the modern era-an age of economic interconnectivity and great power interdependency-involving such figures as Lord Revelstoke, chairman of Baring Brothers, the British and French Rothschild cousins, and Sergei Witte, Russia's authoritative finance minister during much of this age of expansion. For Peace and Money highlights the importance of foreign capital in policymaking on the origins and conduct of World War I.
French and British Finance in the Service of Tsars and Commissars
Author: Jennifer Siegel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
DIVA history of the anti-militarist propaganda and activities of the French socialists that seeks to explain why the French left came to accept and in some instances even support World War I./div
Antimilitarism in France, 1870–1914
Author: Paul B. Miller
Publisher: Duke University Press
Public opinion had roots in the nineteenth century with the develop ment of industrialization. What is this public? It is the mass of individuals who comprise a society or a nation; this mass in turn is divided into many groups, which have their own interests, prejudices, and beliefs. A govern ment, whether democratic or not, is well aware of the power of public opinion and is anxious to measure and shape it. All three branches of government may direct and educate public thinking, using the instru ments of propaganda. Propaganda is any idea and action designed to influence the views and actions of others. Today's means of propaganda are books, newspapers, radio, movies, television, public schools, and lastly the rostrum. Molders of opinion believe that words, sounds, and pictures accomplish little unless they are carefully organized and inte grated into a well-conceived plan. Once this is accomplished, the ideas 1 conveyed by the words will become part of the people themselves. Special techniques, such as the employment of fear and the play on prejudices, have been used quite succesfully by modern states to impose their own dogmas and policies. Because the social scientist has been aware of the study of public opinion, he may have concluded that it was a modern innovation; but governments have always been concerned with public opinion, though not always understanding it, and have attempted to influence it.
A Study of Government-Inspired Brochures on French Foreign Policy in their Propaganda Milieu
Author: N. Isser
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Despite the liberalized reconfiguration of civil society and political practice in nineteenth-century Europe, the right to make foreign policy, devise alliances, wage war and negotiate peace remained essentially an executive prerogative. Citizen challenges to the exercise of this power grew slowly. Drawn from the educated middle classes, peace activists maintained that Europe was a single culture despite national animosities; that Europe needed rational inter-state relationships to avoid catastrophe; and that internationalism was the logical outgrowth of the nation-state, not its subversion. In this book, Cooper explores the arguments of these "patriotic pacifists" with emphasis on the remarkable international peace movement that grew between 1889 and 1914. While the first World War revealed the limitations and dilemmas of patriotic pacifism, the shape, if not substance, of many twentieth-century international institutions was prefigured in nineteenth-century continental pacifism.
Waging War on War in Europe, 1815-1914
Author: Sandi E. Cooper
Publisher: Oxford University Press
On June 17, 1940 William L. Shirer stood in the streets of Paris and watched the unending flow of gray German uniforms along its boulevards. In just six lovely weeks in the spring and summer of 1940 a single battle brought down in total military defeat one of the world's oldest, greatest, and most civilized powers—the second mightiest empire on earth and the possessor of one of the finest military machines ever assembled. How did it happen? After nearly a decade of research in the massive archives left from World War II and after hundreds of conversations with the Third Republic’s leaders, generals, diplomats, and ordinary citizens, Shirer presents the definitive answer in his stunning re-creation of why and how France fell before Hitler's armies in 1940. His book is also a devastating examination of the confusion, corruption, and cynicism that drained the strength and toughness of a democracy which Thomas Jefferson once called "every man's second country." This book complements and completes the dramatic story of The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich and continues to rank as one of the most important works of history of our time.
An Inquiry Into the Fall of France in 1940
Author: William Lawrence Shirer
The Islamic Orient studies the travel accounts of four British travelers during the nineteenth century. Through a critical analysis of these works, the author examines and questions Edward Said’s concept of "Orientalism" and "Orientalist" discourse: his argument that the orientalist view had such a strong influence on westerners that they invariably perceived the orient through the lens of orientalism. On the contrary, the author argues, no single factor had an overwhelming influence on them. She shows that westerners often struggled with their own conceptions of the orient, and being away for long periods from their homelands, were in fact able to stand between cultures and view them both as insiders and outsiders. The literary devices used to examine these writings are structure, characterization, satire, landscape description, and word choice, as also the social and political milieu of the writers. The major influences in the author’s analysis are Said, Foucault, Abdel-Malek and Marie Louise Pratt.
British Travel Writers of the Nineteenth Century
Author: Pallavi Pandit Laisram
politics and society
Author: Robert David Anderson
Publisher: Routledge and Kegan Paul
Author: Teresa Hayter
Publisher: London : Overseas Development Institute
Category: Economic assistance, French
Author: Alexander Sedgwick
A collection of essays discusses the nature of the Nazi system, its impact on the world, and the Holocaust, and offers a comparative analysis of the leadership styles of Hitler, Stalin, Tojo, and Roosevelt. BOMC. History Bk Club. UP.
Essays in Modern German and World History
Author: Gerhard L. Weinberg
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Author: Wallace Earl Adams
This landmark collection by an international group of scholars and public intellectuals represents a major reassessment of French colonial culture and how it continues to inform thinking about history, memory, and identity. This reexamination of French colonial culture, provides the basis for a revised understanding of its cultural, political, and social legacy and its lasting impact on postcolonial immigration, the treatment of ethnic minorities, and national identity.
Author: Pascal Blanchard,Sandrine Lemaire,Nicolas Bancel,Dominic Thomas
Publisher: Indiana University Press
Category: Library catalogs
A study of the relationship between the mafia and the Italian government exposes the hidden alliances that have shaped Italian politics since the end of World War II and details the investigations that revealed them. Reprint. 10,000 first printing.
The Mafia and the Death of the First Italian Republic
Author: Alexander Stille
Author: Robert Roswell Palmer,Joel G. Colton
Category: History, Modern
Traces the history of the world's major civilizations discussing their special characteristics and contributions.
Author: Joseph Reese Strayer,Hans Wilhelm Gatzke