Force and Geometry in Newton's "Principia"

Author: François De Gandt

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400864127

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 5716

In this book François De Gandt introduces us to the reading of Newton's Principia in its own terms. The path of access that De Gandt proposes leads through the study of the geometrization of force. The result is a highly original meditation on the sources and meaning of Newton's magnum opus. In Chapter I De Gandt presents a translation of and detailed commentary on an earlier and simpler version of what in 1687 became Book I of the Principia; here in clearer and starker outline than in the final version, the basic principles of Newton's dynamics show forth. Chapter II places this dynamics in the intellectual context of earlier efforts--the first seeds of celestial dynamics in Kepler, Galileo's theory of accelerated motion, and Huygens's quantification of centrifugal force--and evaluates Newton's debt to these thinkers. Chapter III is a study of the mathematical tools used by Newton and their intellectual antecedents in the works of Galileo, Torricelli, Barrow, and other seventeenth-century mathematicians. The conclusion discusses the new status of force and cause in the science that emerges from Newton's Principia. Originally published in 1995. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Posted in Science

Role of Mathematics in the Rise of Science

Author: Salomon Bochner

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 140085282X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 398

View: 5385

The central theme of these essays is the nature and role of mathematics, its growth and spread, and its involvement with ever-wider areas of knowledge. The author attempts to determine the decisive and creative aspects of the abstractness" of mathematics which have made it the dominant intellectual force that it is. He frequently confronts the mathematics and physics of today with the mathematics and physics of the Greeks, which, however renowned, was not yet capable of this abstractness. Originally published in 1966. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Posted in Mathematics

On Their Own Terms

Author: Benjamin A. ELMAN

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674036476

Category: History

Page: 605

View: 4083

Since the middle of the nineteenth century, imperial reformers, early Republicans, Guomindang party cadres, and Chinese Communists have all prioritized science and technology. In this book, Elman gives a nuanced account of the ways in which native Chinese science evolved over four centuries, under the influence of both Jesuit and Protestant missionaries. In the end, he argues, the Chinese produced modern science on their own terms.
Posted in History

The Cambridge Companion to Newton

Author: I. Bernard Cohen,George E. Smith

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521656962

Category: History

Page: 500

View: 9726

In this volume a team of distinguished contributors examines all the main aspects of Newton's thought.
Posted in History

The Tangled Origins of the Leibnizian Calculus

A Case Study of a Mathematical Revolution

Author: Richard C. Brown

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814390798

Category: Mathematics

Page: 310

View: 3357

1. Evolution or revolution in mathematics -- 2. Issues in seventeenth century mathematics -- 3. Isaac Barrow: a foil to Leibniz -- 4. A young central European polymath -- 5. First steps in mathematics -- 6. The creation of calculus -- 7. Logic -- 8. The universal characteristic -- 9. The baroque cultural context -- 10. Epilogue -- 11. Some concluding remarks on mathematical change -- Appendices.
Posted in Mathematics

Newton's Principia for the Common Reader

Author: Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019852675X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 593

View: 7919

Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica provides a coherent and deductive presentation of his discovery of the universal law of gravitation. It is very much more than a demonstration that 'to us it is enough that gravity really does exist and act according to the laws which we have explained and abundantly serves to account for all the motions of the celestial bodies and the sea'. It is important to us as a model of all mathematical physics. Representing a decade's work from a distinguished physicist, this is the first comprehensive analysis of Newton's Principia without recourse to secondary sources. Professor Chandrasekhar analyses some 150 propositions which form a direct chain leading to Newton's formulation of his universal law of gravitation. In each case, Newton's proofs are arranged in a linear sequence of equations and arguments, avoiding the need to unravel the necessarily convoluted style of Newton's connected prose. In almost every case, a modern version of the proofs is given to bring into sharp focus the beauty, clarity, and breath-taking economy of Newton's methods. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar is one of the most reknowned scientists of the twentieth century, whose career spanned over 60 years. Born in India, educated at the University of Cambridge in England, he served as Emeritus Morton D. Hull Distinguished Service Professor of Theoretical Astrophysics at the University of Chicago, where he has was based from 1937 until his deathin 1996. His early research into the evolution of stars is now a cornerstone of modern astrophysics, and earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1983. Later work into gravitational interactions between stars, the properties of fluids, magnetic fields, equilibrium ellipsoids, and black holes has earned him awards throughout the world, including the Gold Medal from the Royal Astronomical Society in London (1953), the National Medal of Science in the United States (1966), and the Copley Medal from the Royal Society (1984). His many publications include Radiative transfer (1950), Hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability (1961), and The mathematical theory of black holes (1983), each being praised for its breadth and clarity. Newton's Principia for the common reader is the result of Professor Chandrasekhar's profound admiration for a scientist whose work he believed is unsurpassed, and unsurpassable.
Posted in Business & Economics

The Geometry of Celestial Mechanics

Author: Hansjörg Geiges

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107125405

Category: Mathematics

Page: 236

View: 8608

A first course in celestial mechanics emphasising the variety of geometric ideas that have shaped the subject.
Posted in Mathematics

Sea Summit

Poems

Author: Yi Lu

Publisher: Milkweed Editions

ISBN: 1571319360

Category: Poetry

Page: 208

View: 5737

Influenced by both the “gray, sinister sea” that came ashore where her artist parents were sent during the Cultural Revolution, and the beauty of the sea in the books she read as a child, Sea Summit is a collection of paradox and questioning. The sea is an impossible force to the poet: It is both a destructive force that predates man, and something to carry with us wherever we go, to be put “by an ancient rattan chair,” so we can watch “it’s waves toss” from above. Exploring the current ecological crisis and our complicated relationship to the wildness around us, Yi Lu finds something more complicated than a traditional nature poet might in the uneasy connection between herself and the forces of nature represented by the boundless ocean. Translated brilliantly by the acclaimed poet Fiona Sze-Lorrain, this collection of poems introduces a major contemporary Chinese poet to English-language readers.
Posted in Poetry

Isaac Newton on Mathematical Certainty and Method

Author: Niccolò Guicciardini

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262013177

Category: Mathematics

Page: 422

View: 5001

An analysis of Newton's mathematical work, from early discoveries to mature reflections, and a discussion of Newton's views on the role and nature of mathematics.
Posted in Mathematics

Shaping Written Knowledge

The Genre and Activity of the Experimental Article in Science

Author: Charles Bazerman

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780299116941

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 356

View: 8483

The forms taken by scientific writing help to determine the very nature of science itself. In this closely reasoned study, Charles Bazerman views the changing forms of scientific writing as solutions to rhetorical problems faced by scientists arguing for their findings. Examining such works as the early Philosophical Transactions and Newton's optical writings as well as Physical Review, Bazerman views the changing forms of scientific writing as solutions to rhetorical problems faced by scientists. The rhetoric of science is, Bazerman demonstrates, an embedded part of scientific activity that interacts with other parts of scientific activity, including social structure and empirical experience. This book presents a comprehensive historical account of the rise and development of the genre, and views these forms in relation to empirical experience.
Posted in Literary Criticism

Principia Mathematica

Author: Alfred North Whitehead,Bertrand Russell

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Logic, Symbolic and mathematical

Page: N.A

View: 9300

Posted in Logic, Symbolic and mathematical

Cracking the AP Physics 1 Exam, 2016 Edition

Author: Princeton Review

Publisher: Princeton Review

ISBN: 0804126216

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 4604

A review of material needed to pass the AP physics 1 exam, including reviews and two full-length practice tests with explanations.
Posted in Science

Physical Relativity

Space-time Structure from a Dynamical Perspective

Author: Harvey R. Brown

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199275831

Category: Science

Page: 225

View: 5510

Physical Relativity explores the nature of the distinction at the heart of Einstein's 1905 formulation of his special theory of relativity: that between kinematics and dynamics. Einstein himself became increasingly uncomfortable with this distinction, and with the limitations of what he called the 'principle theory' approach inspired by the logic of thermodynamics. A handful of physicists and philosophers have over the last century likewise expressed doubts about Einstein'streatment of the relativistic behaviour of rigid bodies and clocks in motion in the kinematical part of his great paper, and suggested that the dynamical understanding of length contraction and time dilation intimated by the immediate precursors of Einstein is more fundamental. Harvey Brown both examines andextends these arguments (which support a more 'constructive' approach to relativistic effects in Einstein's terminology), after giving a careful analysis of key features of the pre-history of relativity theory. He argues furthermore that the geometrization of the theory by Minkowski in 1908 brought illumination, but not a causal explanation of relativistic effects. Finally, Brown tries to show that the dynamical interpretation of special relativity defended in the book is consistent with therole this theory must play as a limiting case of Einstein's 1915 theory of gravity: the general theory of relativity.Appearing in the centennial year of Einstein's celebrated paper on special relativity, Physical Relativity is an unusual, critical examination of the way Einstein formulated his theory. It also examines in detail certain specific historical and conceptual issues that have long given rise to debate in both special and general relativity theory, such as the conventionality of simultaneity, the principle of general covariance, and the consistency or otherwise of the special theory withquantum mechanics. Harvey Brown' s new interpretation of relativity theory will interest anyone working on these central topics in modern physics.
Posted in Science

Newton as Philosopher

Author: Andrew Janiak

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521172448

Category: Philosophy

Page: 210

View: 8944

Newton's philosophical views are unique and uniquely difficult to categorise. In the course of a long career from the early 1670s until his death in 1727, he articulated profound responses to Cartesian natural philosophy and to the prevailing mechanical philosophy of his day. Newton as Philosopher presents Newton as an original and sophisticated contributor to natural philosophy, one who engaged with the principal ideas of his most important predecessor, René Descartes, and of his most influential critic, G. W. Leibniz. Unlike Descartes and Leibniz, Newton was systematic and philosophical without presenting a philosophical system, but over the course of his life, he developed a novel picture of nature, our place within it, and its relation to the creator. This rich treatment of his philosophical ideas, the first in English for thirty years, will be of wide interest to historians of philosophy, science, and ideas.
Posted in Philosophy

The Story of Physics

Author: Lloyd Motz,Jefferson Hane Weaver

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1489963057

Category: Science

Page: 412

View: 4595

Posted in Science

Observations and Predictions of Eclipse Times by Early Astronomers

Author: J.M. Steele

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401595283

Category: History

Page: 324

View: 7134

Eclipses have long been seen as important celestial phenomena, whether as omens affecting the future of kingdoms, or as useful astronomical events to help in deriving essential parameters for theories of the motion of the moon and sun. This is the first book to collect together all presently known records of timed eclipse observations and predictions from antiquity to the time of the invention of the telescope. In addition to cataloguing and assessing the accuracy of the various records, which come from regions as diverse as Ancient Mesopotamia, China, and Europe, the sources in which they are found are described in detail. Related questions such as what type of clocks were used to time the observations, how the eclipse predictions were made, and how these prediction schemes were derived from the available observations are also considered. The results of this investigation have important consequences for how we understand the relationship between observation and theory in early science and the role of astronomy in early cultures, and will be of interest to historians of science, astronomers, and ancient and medieval historians.
Posted in History

Vlamgat

The Story of the Mirage F1 in the South African Air Force

Author: Dick Lord

Publisher: 30° South Publishers

ISBN: 192014336X

Category: History

Page: 316

View: 868

"Their hands are shaking ever so slightly. They will be flying again in the morning" Vlamgat, literally 'flaming hole' in Afrikaans, was the nickname the South African Air Force (SAAF) gave to the Mirage F1, its formidable frontline jet fighter during South Africa's long 'border wars' in South West Africa (Namibia) and Angola from the late 1960s to the late 1980s. Battling Soviet MiG-21s over African skies, the Vlammies, the Mirage pilots as they were affectionately known, acquitted themselves with distinction and honour. Vlamgat is a gripping account of these pilots and their deeds of bravery; their experiences are authentically related with accuracy, humour and pathos—by the author, himself a Vlammie. As Willem Hechter, former Chief of the SAAF, says: "Vlamgat deserves a place of pride in the long history of this, the second oldest air force in the world." Brigadier-General Dick Lord joined the Royal Navy as an air cadet in 1958, where he qualified as a fighter pilot. Flying Sea Venoms and Sea Vixens, he served on board the aircraft carriers Centaur, Victorious, Hermes and Ark Royal on cruises around the world. In the mid '60s, he was selected for a two-year exchange tour with the US Navy, flying A4 Skyhawks and F4 Phantoms out of San Diego, California. He completed tours of air warfare instruction, flying Hunters out of the naval air stations at Lossiemouth, Scotland and Brawdy, Wales. He returned to South Africa in early '70s and joined the South African Air Force (SAAF), flying Impalas, Sabres and Mirage IIIs. During the Border War, he commanded 1 Squadron, flying Mirage F1AZs into Angola, followed by running air force operations out of Oshikati, Windhoek and SAAF Headquarters in Pretoria. A highlight of his career was organizing the successful fly-past of 76 aircraft for Nelson Mandela's inauguration as President of South Africa in 1994.
Posted in History

Technology and the Air Force a Retrospective Assessment

Author: Jacob Neufeld,George M. Watson,David Chenoweth

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781478297048

Category:

Page: 344

View: 2045

The history of the United States Air Force is inextricably bound up in the history of aerospace technology. Major revolutions have influenced the evolution of Air Force capabilities and systems, most notably those of atomic weaponry, the turbojet revolution, supersonic flight, avionics, aerial refueling, space flight, precision weaponry, electronic flying controls, composite materials, and stealth.
Posted in

The Harmony of the World

Author: Johannes Kepler,E. J. Aiton,Alistair Matheson Duncan,Judith Veronica Field

Publisher: American Philosophical Society

ISBN: 9780871692092

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 549

View: 913

The authors have presented and interpreted Johannes Kepler's Latin text to English readers by putting it into the kind of clear but earnest language they suppose Kepler would have used if he had been writing today.
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

The Access Principle

The Case for Open Access to Research and Scholarship

Author: John Willinsky

Publisher: The MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262512664

Category: Computers

Page: 287

View: 5879

An argument for extending the circulation of knowledge with new publishing technologies considers scholarly, economic, philosophical, and practical issues.
Posted in Computers