Food, Agriculture and Social Change

The Everyday Vitality of Latin America

Author: Stephen Sherwood,Alberto Arce,Myriam Paredes

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1315440075

Category: Social Science

Page: 250

View: 9137

In recent years, food studies scholarship has tended to focus on a number of increasingly abstract, largely unquestioned concepts with regard to how capital, markets and states organize and operate. This has led to a gulf between public policy and people’s realities with food as experienced in homes and on the streets. Through grounded case studies in seven Latin American countries, this book explores how development and social change in food and agriculture are fundamentally experiential, contingent and unpredictable. In viewing development in food as a socio-political-material experience, the authors find new objects, intersubjectivities and associations. These reveal a multiplicity of processes, effects and affects largely absent in current academic literature and public policy debates. In their attention to the contingency and creativity found in households, neighbourhoods and social networks, as well as at the borders of human–nonhuman experience, the book explores how people diversely meet their food needs and passions while confronting the region’s most pressing social, health and environmental concerns.
Posted in Social Science

The Sociology of Food and Agriculture

Author: Michael Carolan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317368622

Category: Social Science

Page: 348

View: 9547

In this second edition of The Sociology of Food and Agriculture, students are provided with a substantially revised and updated introductory text to this emergent field. The book begins with the recent development of agriculture under capitalism and neo-liberal regimes, and the transformation of farming and peasant agriculture from a small-scale, family-run way of life to a globalized system. Topics such as the global hunger and obesity challenges, GM foods, and international trade and subsidies are assessed as part of the world food economy. The final section concentrates on themes of sustainability, food security, and food sovereignty. The book concludes on a positive note, examining alternative agri-food movements aimed at changing foodscapes at levels from the local to the global. With increased coverage of the financialization of food, food and culture, gender, ethnicity and justice, food security, and food sovereignty, the book is perfect for students with little or no background in sociology and is also suitable for more advanced courses as a comprehensive primer. All chapters include learning objectives, suggested discussion questions, and recommendations for further reading to aid student learning.
Posted in Social Science

Indian Agriculture after the Green Revolution

Changes and Challenges

Author: Binoy Goswami,Madhurjya Prasad Bezbaruah,Raju Mandal

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 135197632X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 234

View: 9951

From a country plagued with chronic food shortage, the Green Revolution turned India into a food-grain self-sufficient nation within the decade of 1968-1978. By contrast, the decade of 1995-2005 witnessed a spate in suicides among farmers in many parts of the country. These tragic incidents were symptomatic of the severe stress and strain that the agriculture sector had meanwhile accumulated. The book recounts how the high achievements of the Green Revolution had overgrown to a state of this ‘agrarian crisis’. In the process, it also brings to fore the underlying resilience and innovativeness in the sector which enabled it not just to survive through the crisis but to evolve and revive out of it. The need of the hour is to create an environment that will enable the sector to acquire the robustness to contend with the challenges of lifting levels of farm income and coping with Climate Change. To this end, a multi-pronged intervention strategy has been suggested. Reviving public investment in irrigation, tuning agrarian institutions to the changed context, strengthening of market institution for better farm-market linkage and financial access of farmers, and preparing the ground for ushering in technological innovations should form the major components of this policy paradigm.
Posted in Business & Economics

Food Riots, Food Rights and the Politics of Provisions

Author: Naomi Hossain,Patta Scott-Villiers

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351706179

Category: Social Science

Page: 198

View: 8063

Thousands of people in dozens of countries took to the streets when world food prices spiked in 2008 and 2011. What does the persistence of popular mobilization around food tell us about the politics of subsistence in an era of integrated food markets and universal human rights? This book interrogates this period of historical rupture in the global system of subsistence, getting behind the headlines and inside the politics of food for people on low incomes. The half decade of 2007–2012 was a period of intensely volatile food prices as well as unusual levels of popular mobilization, including protests and riots. Detailed case studies are included here from Bangladesh, Cameroon, India, Kenya and Mozambique. The case studies illustrate that political cultures and ways of organizing around food share much across geography and history, indicating common characteristics of the popular politics of provisions under capitalism. However, all politics are ultimately local, and it is demonstrated how the historic fallout of a subsistence crisis depends ultimately on how the actors and institutions articulate, negotiate and reassert their specific claims within the peculiarities of each policy. A key conclusion of the book is that the politics of provisions remain essential to the right to food and that they involve unruliness. In other words, food riots work. The book explains how and why they continue to do so even in the globalized food system of the 21st century. Food riots signal a state unable to meet a principal condition of its social contract, and create powerful pressure to address that most fundamental of failings. .
Posted in Social Science

The Communication Scarcity in Agriculture

Author: Jessica Eise,Whitney Hodde

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317231295

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 168

View: 758

Today, the general public craves information on food and agriculture with an unprecedented passion. But the agricultural sector, unaccustomed to an interested and inquisitive society, has largely failed to respond to the public’s demands for information. Instead, corporations, time-pressed journalists, bloggers, media celebrities, film-makers, authors and concerned consumers jumped in to fill the void. Food is emotional, and these players - some well-intentioned and others not - got a lot of traction playing off consumer fears of the unknown. This critical and timely book explains how changing demographics, cultural shifts, technological advances and agriculture’s silence all combined to create the perfect storm – a great chasm between those who know, and those who don’t know, agriculture. The ramifications of a poorly-informed consumer base are now becoming clear in our policy debates and consumer-driven business decisions. There is a lot of common ground between the agricultural sector and their consumer base, but each group largely fails to appreciate it, and the consequences of such a divide grow increasingly dire. Drawing on a wide-range of expertise, from leading agricultural researchers to major agribusiness leaders to consumer advocates, Eise and Hodde lay out exactly why communication is so urgently critical to our modern-day agricultural system. They outline the major themes affecting agricultural communication – perception, emotion, technology, science - and what we can do now to improve the debate and safeguard our future food supply for generations to come.This book is suitable for those who study agriculture, environmental economics and mass media and communication.
Posted in Business & Economics

Migration and Agriculture

Mobility and change in the Mediterranean area

Author: Alessandra Corrado,Carlos de Castro,Domenico Perrotta

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131733440X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 370

View: 6264

In recent years, Mediterranean agriculture has experienced important transformations which have led to new forms of labour and production, and in particular to a surge in the recruitment of migrant labour. The Mediterranean Basin represents a very interesting arena that is able to illustrate labour conditions and mobility, the competition among different farming models, and the consequences in terms of the proletarianization process, food crisis and diet changes. Migration and Agriculture brings together international contributors from across several disciplines to describe and analyse labour conditions and international migrations in relation to agri-food restructuring processes. This unique collection of articles connects migration issues with the proletarianization process and agrarian transitions that have affected Southern European as well as some Middle Eastern and Northern African countries in different ways. The chapters present case studies from a range of territories in the Mediterranean Basin, offering empirical data and theoretical analysis in order to grasp the complexity of the processes that are occurring. This book offers a uniquely comprehensive overview of migrations, territories and agro-food production in this key region, and will be an indispensable resource to scholars in migration studies, rural sociology, social geography and the political economy of agriculture.
Posted in Business & Economics

Agriculture and Rural Development in a Globalizing World

Challenges and Opportunities

Author: Prabhu Pingali,Gershon Feder

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315314045

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 404

View: 3411

Rapid structural transformation and urbanization are transforming agriculture and food production in rural areas across the world. This textbook provides a comprehensive review and assessment of the multi-faceted nature of agriculture and rural development, particularly in the developing world, where the greatest challenges occur. It is designed around five thematic parts: Agricultural Intensification and Technical Change; Political Economy of Agricultural Policies; Community and Rural Institutions; Agriculture, Nutrition, and Health; and Future Relevance of International Institutions. Each chapter presents a detailed but accessible review of the literature on the specific topic and discusses the frontiers in research and institutional changes needed as societies adapt to the transformation processes. All authors are eminent scholars with international reputations, who have been actively engaged in the contemporary debates around agricultural development and rural transformation.
Posted in Business & Economics

Transformation and Sustainability in Agriculture

Connecting Practice with Social Theory

Author: Sietze Vellema

Publisher: Wageningen Academic Pub

ISBN: 908686161X

Category: Social Science

Page: 167

View: 1497

Public pressure and societal changes induce interventions and policies, which aim to transform agriculture and food provision. This book shows that for upscaling novel practices and organizational models it is important to include meso-level regime aspects in analysis and practice. The argument presented is that our understanding of the human and social dimensions of transformation processes can be enriched by anchoring practice and policy in social theory. A focus on transitions offers a clear view on the direction and velocity of change. This publication aims to complement this by highlighting theoretical insights in the social or institutional mechanisms enabling or hindering change. Essays on a selection of theorists, varying from idealist or materialist accounts, to actor or system approaches, examine what the presented explanatory framework on social change offers in terms of guidance for intervention and action. The value of these theoretical insights is further explored in a selection of case studies in agriculture and food: rural reconstruction in horticulture and livestock, seed supply systems, and pest control. Each case study systematically applies six theoretical frameworks with the purpose of investigating what novel insights arise from looking at the change process from a particular perspective. Through this exercise the often implicit assumptions of hands-on change processes surface.This book is of interest to practitioners engaged in changing current practices in agriculture and food provision, policy makers interested in grasping why transitions are challenging, applied researchers who like to move beyond individual case studies and social and natural scientists involved in integrative studies of complex change processes.
Posted in Social Science

Beyond the Kale

Urban Agriculture and Social Justice Activism in New York City

Author: Kristin Reynolds,Nevin Cohen

Publisher: University of Georgia Press

ISBN: 0820349496

Category: Social Science

Page: 189

View: 1504

Realizing social and environmental justice requires moving beyond food production to address deeper issues such as structural racism, gender inequity, and economic disparities, Beyond the Kale argues that urban agricultural projects focused on dismantling oppressive systems have the greatest potential to achieve substantive social change.
Posted in Social Science

Coffee Agroecology

A New Approach to Understanding Agricultural Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services and Sustainable Development

Author: Ivette Perfecto,John Vandermeer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134056079

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 9227

Based on principles of the conservation and optimization of biodiversity and of equity and sustainability, this book focuses on the ecology of the coffee agroecosystem as a model for a sustainable agricultural ecosystem. It draws on the authors' own research conducted over the last twenty years as well as incorporating the vast literature that has been generated on coffee agroecosystems from around the world. The book uses an integrated approach that weaves together various lines of research to understand the ecology of a very diverse tropical agroforestry system. Key concepts explored include biodiversity patterns, metapopulation dynamics and ecological networks. These are all set in a socioeconomic and political framework which relates them to the realities of farmers' livelihoods. The authors provide a novel synthesis that will generate new understanding and can be applied to other examples of sustainable agriculture and food production. This synthesis also explains the ecosystem services provided by the approach, including the economic, fair trade and political aspects surrounding this all-important global commodity.
Posted in Science

Food and Agricultural Tourism

Theory and Best Practice

Author: Susan L. Slocum,Kynda R. Curtis

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317395697

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 246

View: 5354

This book fills a gap in the growing academic discipline of food and agricultural tourism, offering the first multidisciplinary approach to food tourism and the role it plays in economic development, destination marketing, and gastronomic exploration. It provides a comprehensive introduction to the discipline by considering food tourism in connection with both cultural values and important issues in agriculture, food consumption and safety, and rural heritage and sustainability. The book is divided into four Parts. Part I defines the elements of food tourism and explains its relationship with sustainability. Part II provides an overview of rural development and demonstrates the impact of industrialization and globalization on eating habits. Part III focuses on food tourism studies and market segmentation techniques to help students understand customer needs regarding food tourism products. Finally, Part IV looks at the financial, policy, and legal requirements relating to food tourism development, providing hands-on tools for students entering food tourism businesses or industries. Complemented by a wide range of international case studies, key definitions, and study questions, Food and Agricultural Tourism is essential reading for students of tourism, geography, and economic development studies.
Posted in Business & Economics

More Than Just Food

Food Justice and Community Change

Author: Garrett Broad

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520962567

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 4154

The industrial food system has created a crisis in the United States that is characterized by abundant food for privileged citizens and “food deserts” for the historically marginalized. In response, food justice activists based in low-income communities of color have developed community-based solutions, arguing that activities like urban agriculture, nutrition education, and food-related social enterprises can drive systemic social change. Focusing on the work of several food justice groups—including Community Services Unlimited, a South Los Angeles organization founded as the nonprofit arm of the Southern California Black Panther Party—More Than Just Food explores the possibilities and limitations of the community-based approach, offering a networked examination of the food justice movement in the age of the nonprofit industrial complex.
Posted in Social Science

The Commons, Plant Breeding and Agricultural Research

Challenges for Food Security and Agrobiodiversity

Author: Fabien Girard,Christine Frison

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351615890

Category: Law

Page: 302

View: 5360

The joint challenges of population increase, food security and conservation of agrobiodiversity demand a rethink of plant breeding and agricultural research from a different perspective. While more food is undeniably needed, the key question is rather about how to produce it in a way that sustains biological diversity and mitigates climate change. This book shows how social sciences, and more especially law, can contribute towards reconfiguring current legal frameworks in order to achieving a better balance between the necessary requirements of agricultural innovation and the need for protection of agrobiodiversity. On the assumption that the concept of property can be rethought against the background of the 'right to include', so as to endow others with a common 'right to access' genetic resources, several international instruments and contractual arrangements drawn from the plant-breeding field (including the Convention on Biological Diversity, technology exchange clearing houses and open sources licenses) receive special consideration. In addition, the authors explore the tension between ownership and the free circulation and exchange of germplasm and issues such as genetic resources managed by local and indigenous communities, the ITPGRFA and participatory plant-breeding programmes. As a whole, the book demonstrates the relevance of the 'Commons' for plant breeding and agricultural innovation.
Posted in Law

US Agricultural and Food Policies

Economic Choices and Consequences

Author: Gerald D. Toland, Jr.,William E. Nganje,Raphael Onyeaghala

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315459515

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 364

View: 4361

Policy analysis is a dynamic process of discovery rather than a passive exercise of memorizing facts and conclusions. This text provides opportunities to "practice the craft" of policy analysis by engaging the reader in realistic case studies and problem-solving scenarios that require the selection and use of applicable investigative techniques. US Agricultural and Food Policies will assist undergraduate students to learn how policy choices impact the overall performance of agricultural and food markets. It encourages students to systematically investigate scenarios with appropriate positive and normative tools. The book emphasizes the importance of employing critical thinking skills to address the complexities associated with the design and implementation of twenty-first-century agricultural and food policies. Students are asked to suspend their personal opinions and emotions, and instead apply research methods that require the careful consideration of both facts and values. The opportunities to build these investigative skills are abundant when we consider the diversity of modern agricultural and food policy concerns. Featuring case studies and critical thinking exercises throughout and supported by a Companion Website with slides, a test bank, glossary, and web/video links, this is the ideal textbook for any agricultural policy class.
Posted in Business & Economics

Reclaiming Food Security

Author: Michael S. Carolan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135067651

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 4189

In this challenging work, the author argues that the goal of any food system should not simply be to provide the cheapest calories possible. A secure food system is one that affords people and nations – in both the present and future – the capabilities to prosper and lead long, happy, and healthy lives. For a variety of reasons, food security has come to be synonymous with cheap calorie security. On this measure, the last fifty years have been a remarkable success. But the author shows that these cheap calories have also come at great cost, to the environment, individual and societal well-being, human health, and the food sovereignty of nations. The book begins by reviewing the concept of food security, particularly as it has been enacted within agrifood and international policy over the last century. After proposing a coherent definition the author then assesses empirically whether these policies have actually made us and the environment any better off. One of the many ways the author accomplishes this task is by introducing the Food and Human Security Index (FHSI) in an original attempt to better measure and quantify the affording qualities of food systems. A FHSI score is calculated for 126 countries based on indicators of objective and subjective well-being, nutrition, ecological sustainability, food dependency, and food system market concentration. The final FHSI ranking produces many counter-intuitive results. Why, for example, does Costa Rica top the ranking, while the United States comes in at number fifty-five? The author concludes by arguing for the need to reclaim food security by returning the concept to something akin to its original spirit, identified earlier in the book. While starting at the level of the farm the concluding chapter focuses most of its attention beyond the farm gate, recognizing that food security is more than just about issues surrounding production. For example, space is made in this chapter to address the important question of, "What can we eat if not GDP?" We need, the author contends, a thoroughly sociological rendering of food security: a position that views food security not as a thing – or an end in itself – but as a process that ought to make people and the Planet better off.
Posted in Social Science

Agricultural Markets Instability

Revisiting the Recent Food Crises

Author: Alberto Garrido,Bernhard Brümmer,Robert M'Barek,Miranda P. M. Meuwissen,Cristian Morales-Opazo

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317384644

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 240

View: 4208

Since the financial and food price crises of 2007, market instability has been a topic of major concern to agricultural economists and policy professionals. This volume provides an overview of the key issues surrounding food prices volatility, focusing primarily on drivers, long-term implications of volatility and its impacts on food chains and consumers. The book explores which factors and drivers are volatility-increasing and which others are price level-increasing, and whether these two distinctive effects can be identified and measured. It considers the extent to which increasing instability affects agents in the value chain, as well as the actual impacts on the most vulnerable households in the EU and in selected developing countries. It also analyses which policies are more effective to avert and mitigate the effects of instability. Developed from the work of the European-based ULYSSES project, the book synthesises the most recent literature on the topic and presents the views of practitioners, businesses, NGOs and farmers' organizations. It draws policy responses and recommendations for policy makers at both European and on international levels.
Posted in Business & Economics

Food Security, Agricultural Policies and Economic Growth

Long-term Dynamics in the Past, Present and Future

Author: Niek Koning

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317622561

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 274

View: 560

Using a political-economic approach supplemented with insights from human ecology, this volume analyzes the long-term dynamics of food security and economic growth. The book begins by discussing the nature of preindustrial food crises and the changes that have occurred since the 19th century with the ascent of technical science and the fossil fuel revolution. It explains how these changes improved living standards but that the realization of this improvement was usually dependent on government support for smallholder modernization. The author sets out how the evolution of food security in different regions has been influenced by farm policy choices and how these choices were shaped by local societal characteristics, international relations and changing configurations in metropolitan countries. Separate chapters are devoted to the interaction of this evolution with debates on food security and economic growth and with international economic policies. The final chapters highlight the new challenges for global food security that will arise as traditional sources of biomass production and the more easily extractable reserves of fossil biomass become depleted or can no longer be used. Overall, the book emphasizes the inadequacy of current explanations with regard to these challenges. It explores what is needed to ensure a sustainable future and calls for a rethinking of these issues; a necessary reflection in today's unstable global political situation.
Posted in Business & Economics

The Politics of the Pantry

Stories, Food, and Social Change

Author: Michael Mikulak

Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP

ISBN: 0773590188

Category: Cooking

Page: 208

View: 3106

"What's for dinner?" has always been a complicated question. The locavore movement has politicized food and challenged us to rethink the answer in new and radical ways. These days, questions about where our food comes from have moved beyond 100-mile-dieters into the mainstream. Celebrity chefs Jamie Oliver and Alice Waters, alternative food gurus such as Michael Pollan, and numerous other popular and academic commentators have all talked about the importance of understanding the sources and transformation of food on a human scale. In The Politics of the Pantry, Michael Mikulak interrogates these narratives - what he calls "storied food" - in food culture. As with any story, however, it is important to ask: who is telling it? Who is the audience? What assumptions are being made? Mikulak examines competing narratives of food, pleasure, sustainability, and value that have emerged from the growing sustainable food movement as well as food's past and present relationship to environmentalism in order to understand the potential and the limits of food politics. He also considers whether or not sustainable food practices can address questions about health, environmental sustainability, and local economic development, while at the same time articulating an ethical globalization. An innovative blend of academic analysis, poetic celebration, and autobiography, The Politics of the Pantry provides anyone interested in the future of food and the emergence of a green economy with a better understanding of how what we eat is transforming the world.
Posted in Cooking

Global Foodscapes

Oppression and resistance in the life of food

Author: Alistair Fraser

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317274857

Category: Social Science

Page: 184

View: 8908

What we eat – as well as how it is produced, processed, moved, sold, and used by our bodies seems to matter like never before. Global Foodscapes takes on this topicality and asks readers to think about how we are all involved in the making of an odd and, in many ways, troubling and contested food economy. It explores how food is conceived, traded, grown, reared, processed, sold, and consumed; investigates what goes wrong along the way; and assesses what diverse people around the world are doing to fix these faults. The text uses a carefully-crafted framework that explores the interaction of five forms of oppression and five means of resistance as they are worked out over five stages in the food economy. It draws on case studies from around the world that illuminate key issues about food in today's world; examines how oppression affects diverse people caught up in the food economy; and highlights how individuals, groups, and institutions such as governments, but also firms, are trying to improve how we interact with the food system. Global Foodscapes is a highly accessible and useful text for undergraduate students interested in the global food economy. The global range of case studies, examples, and reference points, as well as its original framework allows the text to speak to diverse audiences and generate debate about whether anything – and if so, what – needs to be done about the food system we depend upon so heavily. Additional materials such as suggested readings and discussion points help students consider the issues at hand and conduct initial and more detailed research on today's food economy.
Posted in Social Science

Forgotten Agricultural Heritage

Reconnecting food systems and sustainable development

Author: Parviz Koohafkan,Miguel A. Altieri

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 131547008X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 272

View: 7211

Contemporary agriculture is often criticized for its industrial scale, adverse effects on nutrition, rural employment and the environment, and its disconnectedness from nature and culture. Yet there are many examples of traditional smaller scale systems that have survived the test of time and provide more sustainable solutions while still maintaining food security in an era of climate change. This book provides a unique compilation of this forgotten agricultural heritage and is based on objective scientific evaluation and evidence of the value of these systems for present and future generations. The authors refer to many of these systems as Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) and show how they are related to the concepts of heritage and the World Heritage Convention. They demonstrate how GIAHS based on family farms, traditional indigenous knowledge and agroecological principles can contribute to food and nutrition security and the maintenance of agro-biodiversity and environmental resilience, as well as sustain local cultures, economies and societies. Two substantial chapters are devoted to descriptions and assessments of some 50 examples of designated and potential GIAHS from around the world, including rice-fish culture in China, mountain terrace systems in Asia, coffee agroforestry in Latin America, irrigation systems and land and water management in Iran and India, pastoralism in East Africa, and the dehesa agrosilvopastoral system of Spain and Portugal. The book concludes by providing policy and technical solutions for sustainable agriculture and rural development through the enhancement of these systems.
Posted in Technology & Engineering