Through a series of essays, Eurasian Environments prompts us to rethink our understanding of tsarist and Soviet history by placing the human experience within the larger environmental context of flora, fauna, geology, and climate. This book is a broad look at the environmental history of Eurasia, specifically examining steppe environments, hydraulic engineering, soil and forestry, water pollution, fishing, and the interaction of the environment and disease vectors. Throughout, the authors place the history of Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union in a trans-chronological, comparative context, seamlessly linking the local and the global. The chapters are rooted in the ecological and geological specificities of place and community while unveiling the broad patterns of human-nature relationships across the planet. Eurasian Environments brings together an international group scholars working on issues of tsarist/Soviet environmental history in an effort to showcase the wave of fascinating and field-changing research currently being written.
Nature and Ecology in Imperial Russian and Soviet History
Author: Nicholas Breyfogle
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press
This book is a collection of the articles presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW 979859) held in St. Petersburg, from the 15-18 November 2003 in the Hermitage Museum. The title of the workshop was “The impact of the environment on Human Migration in Eurasia”. More than 40 scientists from Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Poland, Germany, Switzerland, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Belgium, Finland, Lithuania and Latvia took part. The themes of the workshop focused on the origin, development, interactions, and migrations of prehistoric and ancient populations, specifically the Scythians, in Eurasia and their relationships with the environment of the time. The discussion of these questions necessitated the participation of specialists from a wide range of academic fields. Beyond any doubt, the environment played an important role in the life of ancient nomadic populations, forming the basis of their economies and influencing various aspects of their mode of life. In this respect, the collaboration of specialists in the Humanities and Science is essential for the solution of scientific questions concerning these peoples. Over the past few years, a large amount of new proxy data related to environmental changes during the Pleistocene and the Holocene and their impact on human life has become available. Our discussion was predominantly limited to environmental changes related to the Holocene. In st this period of about 10000 years, the main focus was on the 1 millennium BC.
Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, held in St. Petersburg, 15-18 November 2003
Author: E. M. Scott,Andrey Yu. Alekseev,Ganna Zaitseva
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This is the first environmental history of Russia's steppes. From the early-eighteenth century, settlers moved to the semi-arid but fertile grasslands from wetter, forested regions in central and northern Russia and Ukraine, and from central Europe. By the late-nineteenth century, they had turned the steppes into the bread basket of the Russian Empire and parts of Europe. But there was another side to this story. The steppe region was hit by recurring droughts, winds from the east whipped up dust storms, the fertile black earth suffered severe erosion, crops failed, and in the worst years there was famine. David Moon analyses how naturalists and scientists came to understand the steppe environment, including the origins of the fertile black earth. He also analyses how scientists tried to understand environmental change, including climate change. Farmers, and the scientists who advised them, tried different ways to deal with the recurring droughts: planting trees, irrigation, and cultivating the soil in ways that helped retain scarce moisture. More sustainable, however, were techniques of cultivation to retain scarce moisture in the soil. Among the pioneers were Mennonite settlers. Such approaches aimed to work with the environment, rather than trying to change it by planting trees or supplying more water artificially. The story is similar to the Dust Bowl on the Great Plains of the USA, which share a similar environment and environmental history. David Moon places the environmental story of the steppes in the wider context of the environmental history of European colonialism around the globe.
Agriculture and Environment on Russia's Grasslands, 1700-1914
Author: David Moon
Publisher: OUP Oxford
During the twentieth century, the Soviet Union turned the Kola Peninsula in the northwest corner of the country into one of the most populated, industrialized, militarized, and polluted parts of the Arctic. This transformation suggests, above all, that environmental relations fundamentally shaped the Soviet experience. Interactions with the natural world both enabled industrial livelihoods and curtailed socialist promises. Nature itself was a participant in the communist project. Taking a long-term comparative perspective, The Nature of Soviet Power sees Soviet environmental history as part of the global pursuit for unending economic growth among modern states. This in-depth exploration of railroad construction, the mining and processing of phosphorus-rich apatite, reindeer herding, nickel and copper smelting, and energy production in the region examines Soviet cultural perceptions of nature, plans for development, lived experiences, and modifications to the physical world. While Soviet power remade nature, nature also remade Soviet power.
An Arctic Environmental History
Author: Andy Bruno
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This volume is a compilation of studies on interactions of land-cover/land-use change with climate in a region where the climate warming is most pronounced compared to other areas of the globe. The climate warming in the far North, and in the Arctic region of Northern Eurasia in particular, affects both the landscape and human activities, and hence human dimensions are an important aspect of the topic. Environmental pollution together with climate warming may produce irreversible damages to the current Arctic ecosystems. Regional land-atmosphere feedbacks may have large global importance. Remote sensing is a primary tool in studying vast northern territories where in situ observations are sporadic. State-of-the-art methods of satellite remote sensing combined with GIS and models are used to tackle science questions and provide an outlook of current land-cover changes and potential scenarios for the future. Audience: The book is a truly international effort involving U.S. and European scientists. It is directed at the broad science community including graduate students, academics and other professionals in this field.
Author: Garik Gutman,Anni Reissell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Chaco Canyon was a central place in the Ancient Southwest. Here, in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, architects and masons constructed a dozen 'great houses' made of formal masonry construction with as many as 650 rooms massed up to five stories high. Research in recent years suggests that Chaco appears to have represented a form of regional organisation that existed across much of the Colorado Plateau between AD 900 and 1200. This collection provides detailed analysis of the nature of Anasazi social organisation. This updated version includes a chapter 'Chaco Update 2000' which addresses research on Chaco settlements since the original publication of this volume in 1992.
Author: David Elmond Doyel,Society for American Archaeology. Meeting
Category: Social Science
A worlwide collection of outstanding papers on human migration from internationally renowned scholars that presents a convincing case of the impossibilty of "pure" races, cultures, and languages, as well as returning this study to its rightful place among the known processes of human evolutionary change and variation.
A Multidisciplinary Approach
Author: Peter Neal Peregrine,Ilia Peiros,Marcus W. Feldman
Category: Social Science
For several decades Peter Friend has been one of the leading figures in sedimentary geology and throughout that time he has helped scores of other people by supervising doctoral students, collaborating with colleagues, especially in developing countries, and selflessly sharing ideas with fellow geologists. This collection of papers is a survey of the research frontier in basin dynamics, a field Peter Friend helped initiate, and a token of thanks from people who have benefited from an association with Peter during their careers. The papers in this book fall into four themes - Tectonics and sedimentation, Landscape evolution and provenance, Depositional systems and Fluvial sedimentation - which reflect Peter's research interests and are all important areas of current research in sedimentary geology. There are both case studies and review articles on these themes which reflect recent work, but the collection can also be considered to be a 'sampler' of sedimentary geology for anyone with broad interests in the Earth sciences.
A Tribute to Peter Friend
Author: Gary Nichols,Edward Williams,Chris Paola
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
In the second half of the eighteenth century, the Russian Empire-already the largest on earth-expanded its dominion onto the ocean. Through a series of government-sponsored voyages of discovery and the establishment of a private fur trade, Russians crossed and re-crossed the Bering Strait and the North Pacific Ocean, establishing colonies in Kamchatka and Alaska and exporting marine mammal furs to Europe and China. In the process they radically transformed the North Pacific, causing environmental catastrophe. In one of the most hotly-contested imperial arenas of the day, the Russian empire organized a host of Siberian and Alaskan native peoples to rapaciously hunt for fur seals, sea otters, and other fur-bearing animals. The animals declined precipitously, and Steller's sea cow went extinct. This destruction captured the attention of natural historians who for the first time began to recognize the threat of species extinction. These experts drew upon Enlightenment and Romantic-era ideas about nature and imperialism but their ideas were refracted through Russian scientific culture and influenced by the region's unique ecology. Cosmopolitan scientific networks ensured the spread of their ideas throughout Europe. Heeding the advice of these scientific experts, Russian colonial governors began long-term management of marine mammal stocks and instituted some of the colonial world's most forward-thinking conservationist policies. Highlighting the importance of the North Pacific in Russian imperial and global environmental history, Empire of Extinction focuses on the development of ideas about the natural world in a crucial location far from what has been considered the center of progressive environmental attitudes.
Russians and the North Pacific's Strange Beasts of the Sea, 1741-1867
Author: Ryan Tucker Jones
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Neo-Darwinism is becoming an increasingly important influence on archaeological theory, as a number of recently edited books on `Darwinian archaeologies' make clear. However, many of these volumes are internationally inconsistent and reflect the muddled understanding many archaeologists have of the potential of Darwin's thought for interpreting material culture. Ben Cullen's book starts by critiquing some recent neo-Darwinist approaches, including cultural evolutionism and cultural sociobiology. He then presents a neo-Darwinian paradigm of extreme power, which he has termed the Cultural Virus Theory (CVT). This focuses on explaining the transmission of ideas by comparing cultural memes wit natural genes. In the final section he takes the important step of applying this theory to real materials; demonstrating how CVT can be used to understand the spread of megalithic monuments in prehistoric North-West Europe, the diffusion of the renaissance in medieval Europe and the basis of stylistic change in pottery. Tragically this collection of brilliant thoughts is published posthumously. Ben Cullen was close to finishing a major book when he died suddenly in 1995 and his writings have been gathered into a consistent whole by James Steele, Richard Cullen and Christopher Chippendale.
On Evolution, Culture, Archaeology, and Cultural Virus Theory
Author: Ben Sandford Cullen
Publisher: Oxbow Books Limited
We welcomed participants to the 1st EurAsian Conference on Advances in Information and Communication Technology (EurAsia ICT 2002) held in Iran. The aim of the conference was to serve as a forum to bring together researchers from academia and commercial developers from industry to discuss the current state of the art in ICT, mainly in Europe and Asia. Inspirations and new ideas were expected to emerge from intensive discussions during formal sessions and social events. Keynote addresses, research presentation, and discussion during the conference helped to further develop the exchange of ideas among the researchers, developers, and practitioners who attended. The conference attracted more than 300 submissions and each paper was reviewed by at least three program committee members. The program committee selected 119 papers from authors of 30 different countries for presentation and publication, a task which was not easy due to the high quality of the submitted papers. Eleven workshops were organized in parallel with the EurAsia ICT conference. The proceedings of these workshops, with more than 100 papers, were published by the Austrian Computer Society. We would like to express our thanks to our colleagues who helped with putting together the technical program: the program committee members and external reviewers for their timely and rigorous reviews of the papers, and the organizing committee for their help in administrative work and support. We owe special thanks to Thomas Schierer for always being available when his helping hand was needed.
First EurAsian Conference, Shiraz, Iran, October 29-31, 2002, Proceedings
Author: M. Hassan Shafazand,A Min Tjoa
This book presents an unprecedented dialogue with leading U.S., Russian, and Eurasian economic experts and policy-makers on the pivotal issues of economic reform, trade, and investment, and the prospects for an economic renaissance in the new states of the former Soviet Union. Contributors include Eduard Shevardnadze, Yegor Gaidar, Lee H. Hamilton, S. Frederick Starr, Anders Aslund, and German O. Gref.
U.S. Trade and Investment in Russia and Eurasia
Author: Jan H. Kalicki,Eugene K. Lawson
Publisher: Stanford University Press
Category: Business & Economics
Making environmental history accessible to scholars of the Middle East and the history of the region accessible to environmental historians, Water on Sand opens up new fields of scholarly inquiry.
Environmental Histories of the Middle East and North Africa
Author: Alan Mikhail
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Problems and Prospects
Author: Vildan Serin,Berdal Aral,H. Murat Köse
Limiting Institutions examines the security threats in Eurasia and the role of institutions in the post-Cold War international environment. It looks at both the crucial aspect of foreign policy as well as a theoretical area of security studies and its impact in the former Soviet States including Russia, Belarus, Armenia, the Ukraine and Moldova. The first section addresses the security threats to this area of the world, and examines the range of responses open to European countries and to the US. Threats such as ethnic conflict, transnational crime, and environmental and energy security issues are examined in depth. The second section addresses the role that international institutions can perhaps play as arbiters of conflict and facilitators of cooperation in the region.
The Challenge of Eurasian Security Governance
Author: James Sperling,Sean Kay,S. Victor Papacosma
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Category: Political Science
Providing concisely written entries on the most important current issues in Central Asia and Eurasia, this atlas offers relevant background information on the region’s place in the contemporary political and economic world. Features include: Profiles of the constituent countries of Central Asia, namely Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan Profiles of Mongolia, western China, Tibet, and the three Caucasus states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia Timely and significant original maps and data for each entry A comprehensive glossary, places index and subject index of major concepts, terms and regional issues Bibliography and useful websites section Designed for use in teaching undergraduate and graduate classes and seminars in geography, history, economics, anthropology, international relations, political science and the environment as well as regional courses on the Former Soviet Union, Central Asia, and Eurasia, this atlas is also a comprehensive reference source for libraries and scholars interested in these fields.
Author: Stanley D. Brunn,Stanley Toops,Richard Gilbreath
Category: Social Science
Security is a major contemporary concern, with foreign and security policies topping the agenda of many governments. At the centre of Western security concerns is Turkey, due to its geographical proximity to converging major fault lines such as the Caucasus, the Mediterranean and the Middle East. As trans-Atlantic debates evolve around these major fault lines, future relations will have a direct impact on the re-orientation of Turkish foreign and security policies. This comprehensive study focuses on the future of Turkish foreign and security policies within the emerging strategies of the two Wests. Discussing the challenges Turkey has been facing since the turn of the century, it examines Turkish foreign policy in the context of trans-Atlantic relations - as a global actor, and with respect to conflict, new power relations, energy security, Greece, Cyprus and the environment.
Author: Mr Nursin Atesoglu Guney
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Category: Political Science
This volume seeks to familiarize, at an international level, those with an interest in the pysical geography of Russia with the most significant achievements in classical and contemporary geographical research.
Author: Maria Shahgedanova
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand