Environmental Criminology

Evolution, Theory, and Practice

Author: Martin A. Andresen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135006237

Category:

Page: 274

View: 466

The field of environmental criminology is a staple theoretical framework in contemporary criminological theory. With this book, Martin Andresen presents the first comprehensive and sole-authored textbook on this influential and compelling school of criminological thought. He covers a wide range of topics, including: the origins of environmental criminology; the primary theoretical frameworks, such as routine activity theory, geometric theory of crime, rational choice theory, and the pattern theory of crime; the practical application of environmental criminology; an examination of how theories are operationalized and tested; policy implications for the practice of crime prevention. As well as these "popular topics", Andresen also discusses also a number of topics that are at the leading edge of research within environmental criminology. This text will be ideal for courses on crime prevention, where students are often encouraged to consider policy problems and apply theory to practice. This book offers up environmental criminology as a theoretical framework for making sense of complex neighbourhood problems, meaning that it will be perfect for modules on geography of crime, crime analysis and indeed, environmental criminology. It would also be a good supplement for courses on criminological theory.
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Classics in Environmental Criminology

Author: Martin A. Andresen,Paul J. Brantingham,J. Bryan Kinney

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439817804

Category: Law

Page: 551

View: 4914

A careful analysis of environmental factors is key to understanding the causes of crime, to solving crimes, and eventually helping to predict and prevent them. Classics in Environmental Criminology is a comprehensive collection of seminal pieces from legendary contributors who focus on the role that the immediate environment plays in the occurrence of a crime. Defines the field Divided into three parts, the book begins by highlighting the development of environmental criminology as a discipline through its origins in spatial criminology. It examines social disorganization theory, which explains criminal activity with reference to the characteristics of the community that delinquents live in. It then discusses the ecology of crime with reference to macroenvironments and microenvironments. The next section introduces concepts such as routine activity theory, the geometric theory of crime, the rational choice theory of offending, and crime pattern theory. Offers perspectives on prevention The last part focuses on the concept of crime prevention, examines the idea of altering the environment in order to prevent crime, and discusses situational crime factors and efforts to reduce the opportunities for crimes to be committed. It considers the impact of routine activities on crime prevention initiatives and advocates a flexible approach to crime prevention based on the dynamic nature of our environment. The book concludes with a chapter outlining how environmental criminology has evolved in recent years and provides a future outlook on where it may be headed. Invaluable as a textbook and as a professional reference, this volume is a comprehensive survey of a critical field in contemporary criminological theory. Offering insight assembled by top academic figures within the criminology community, this work is destined to provoke further inquiry and research.
Posted in Law

Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis

Author: Richard Wortley,Lorraine Mazerolle

Publisher: Willan

ISBN: 1136308458

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 7764

Environmental criminology is a generic label that covers a range of overlapping perspectives. At the core, the various strands of environmental criminology are bound by a common focus on the role that the immediate environment plays in the performance of crime, and a conviction that careful analyses of these environmental influences are the key to the effective investigation, control and prevention of crime. Environmental Crime and Crime Analysis brings together for the first time the key contributions to environmental criminology to comprehensively define the field and synthesize the concepts and ideas surrounding environmental criminology. The chapters are written by leading theorists and practitioners in the field. Each chapter will analyze one of the twelve major elements of environmental criminology and crime analysis. This book will be essential reading for both practitioners and undergraduate and postgraduate students taking courses in this subject.
Posted in Social Science

Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis

Author: Richard Wortley,Michael Townsley

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317487109

Category: Social Science

Page: 360

View: 4027

Environmental criminology is a term that encompasses a range of overlapping perspectives. At its core, the many strands of environmental criminology are bound by a common focus on the role that the immediate environment plays in the performance of crime, and a conviction that careful analyses of these environmental influences are the key to the effective investigation, control, and prevention of crime. This new edition brings together leading theorists and practitioners in the field to provide a comprehensive, integrative coverage of the field of environmental criminology and crime analysis. This book is divided into three sequential parts: • Understanding the crime event explores routine activity approach, crime pattern theory, the rational choice perspective, and situational precipitators of crime. • Analysing crime patterns discusses crime mapping, offender mobility, repeat victimisation, geographic profiling, and crime scripts. • Preventing and controlling crime covers topics including problem oriented policing, situational crime prevention, and environmental design. Fully updated and including new chapters on crime scripts and offender mobility, a scene-setting introductory overview, and critical thinking questions at the end of each chapter, this text is an essential and comprehensive resource for practitioners and students taking courses on environmental criminology, crime analysis, and crime prevention.
Posted in Social Science

Evolution and Crime

Author: Jason Roach,Ken Pease

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136233717

Category: Social Science

Page: 130

View: 739

Human physique and behaviour has been shaped by the pressures of natural selection. This is received wisdom in all scientifically informed circles. Currently, the topic of crime is rarely touched upon in textbooks on evolution and the topic of evolution rarely even mentioned in criminology textbooks. This book for the first time explores how an evolution informed criminology has clear implications for enhancing our understanding of the criminal law, crime and criminal behaviour. This book is directed more towards students of criminology than students of evolution. It is suggested that there is scope for more collaborative work, with criminologists and crime scientists exposed to Darwinian thought having much to gain. What is suggested is simply that such thinking provides a fresh perspective. If that perspective yields only a fraction of the understanding when applied to crime as it has elsewhere in science, the effort will have been worthwhile. The authors attempt to provide a modest appraisal of the potential contribution that a more welcoming approach to the evolutionary perspective would make to criminology; both theoretically (by expanding understanding of the complexity of the origins of behaviour labelled criminal) and practically (where the evolutionary approach can be utilised to inform crime control policy and practice). An evolutionary lens is applied to diverse criminological topics such as the origins of criminal law, female crime, violence, and environmental factors involved in crime causation.
Posted in Social Science

Restorative Policing

Concepts, theory and practice

Author: Kerry Clamp,Craig Paterson

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317338308

Category: Social Science

Page: 212

View: 6989

In the UK and elsewhere, restorative justice and policing are core components of a range of university programmes; however, currently no such text exists on the intersection of these two areas of study. This book draws together these diverse theoretical perspectives to provide an innovative, knowledge-rich text that is essential reading for all those engaged with the evolution and practice of restorative policing. Restorative Policing surveys the twenty-five year history of restorative policing practice, during which its use and influence over criminal justice has slowly grown. It then situates this experience within a criminological discussion about neo-liberal responses to crime control. There has been insufficient debate about how the concepts of ‘restorative justice’ and ‘policing’ sit alongside each other and how they may be connected or disconnected in theoretical and conceptual terms. The book seeks to fill this gap through an exploration of concepts, theory, policy and practice. In doing so, the authors make a case for a more transformative vision of restorative policing that can impact positively upon the shape and practice of policing and outline a framework for the implementation of such a strategy. This pathbreaking book will be of interest to undergraduate and postgraduate students taking courses on restorative justice, policing and crime control, as well as professionals interested in the implementation of restorative practices in the police force.
Posted in Social Science

Victims, Policy-making and Criminological Theory

Selected Essays

Author: Paul Rock

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing

ISBN: 9780754629269

Category: Law

Page: 339

View: 8116

Paul Rock's intellectual history over the last fifty years has run parallel to and in conversation with the evolution of the discipline of sociological criminology. His classic journal articles brought together here reflect two of his preoccupations, theoretical and empirical, and form part of what has been, in effect, a running series of comparative ethnographies of government decision-making about the role of the victim in and around the criminal justice system.
Posted in Law

Project Management Theory and Practice, Second Edition

Author: Gary L. Richardson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482254956

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 670

View: 4551

Updated to reflect the Project Management Institute’s (PMI’s) Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide), Fifth Edition, the new edition of this bestselling textbook continues to provide a practical and up-to-date overview of project management theory. Project Management Theory and Practice, Second Edition explains project management theory using language that is easy to understand. The book integrates the organizational environment that surrounds a project to supply the well-rounded knowledge of theories, organizational issues, and human behavior needed to manage real-world projects effectively. This edition includes a new chapter on Stakeholder Management, which is a new knowledge area covered in the new PMBOK® Guide. It also provides updated references and a new streamlined organization of chapters. There are several project-related model frameworks sponsored by PMI®, and many of these are covered in this text. Specifically, the book details: Work breakdown structures (WBS) Earned value management (EVM) Enterprise project management (EPMO) Portfolio management (PPM) Professional responsibility and ethics For many of the major sections, the PMI Global Accreditation curriculum learning objectives have been adapted with permission of PMI and used to guide the content. Filled with end-of-chapter questions, scheduling and budgeting problems, and scoping projects, this text is ideal for classroom use and essential reading for anyone seeking project management certification. The book also includes sample empirically oriented worksheets that demonstrate various management decision and analysis-oriented tools.
Posted in Business & Economics

The Routledge Companion to Criminological Theory and Concepts

Author: Avi Brisman,Eamonn Carrabine,Nigel South

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317593510

Category: Social Science

Page: 574

View: 4545

A comprehensive one-stop reference text, The Routledge Companion to Criminological Theory and Concepts (the ‘Companion’) will find a place on every bookshelf, whether it be that of a budding scholar or a seasoned academic. Comprising over a hundred concise and authoritative essays written by leading scholars in the field, this volume explains in a clear and inviting way the emergence, context, evolution and current status of key criminological theories and conceptual themes. The Companion is divided into six historical and thematic parts, each introduced by the editors and containing a selection of accessible and engaging short essays written specifically for this text: Foundations of criminological thought and contemporary revitalizations The emergence and growth of American criminology From appreciation to critique Late critical criminologies and new directions Punishment and security Geographies of crime Comprehensive cross-referencing between entries will provide the reader with signposts to later developments, to critiques and to associated theoretical developments explored within the book, and lists of further reading in every entry will encourage independent thinking and study. This book is an essential reference work for criminology students at all levels and is the perfect companion for courses on criminological theory.
Posted in Social Science

Environmental Security in the Anthropocene

Assessing Theory and Practice

Author: Judith Nora Hardt

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351785168

Category: History

Page: 286

View: 2983

This book provides a critical assessment of the theories and practice of environmental security in the context of the Anthropocene. The work analyses the intellectual foundations, the evolution and different interpretations, strengths and potential of the link between environment and security, but also its weaknesses, incoherencies and distortions. To do so, it employs a critical environmental security studies analytical framework and uniquely places this analysis within the context of the Anthropocene. Furthermore, the book examines the practice–theory divide, and the political implementation of the environmental security concept in response to global environmental change and in relation to different actors. It pays significant attention to the Environment and Security Initiative (ENVSEC), which is led by different programs of the United Nations, the OSCE and until recently by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), among others, and has largely been overlooked in the academic literature to date. The goal is to study how environmental security practice could inform and shape the environmental security theory, and also to explore how, conversely, new theoretical insights could contribute to the enhancement of environmental security activities. This book will be of great interest to students and academic scholars of Environmental Security, Critical Security Studies, Green Political Theory, Global Governance and International Relations in general.
Posted in History

Laws, Theories, and Patterns in Ecology

Author: Walter Dodds

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520260414

Category: Nature

Page: 232

View: 4000

"Physics and chemistry are distinguished from biology by the way generalizations are codified into theories tested by observation and experimentation. This work enumerates generalizations in ecology. It describes how the practice of science, in general, and ecology specifically, yields theories and laws." -- BOOK PUBLISHER WEBSITE.
Posted in Nature

Conflict Management in Divided Societies

Theories and Practice

Author: Stefan Wolff,Christalla Yakinthou

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136630740

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 886

This exciting and innovative new textbook takes a multi-perspective approach to the study of conflict management in divided societies. Offering a wide range of perspectives from the leading experts in the field, the work explains conflict management from the viewpoint of the political scientist, the constitutional architect, the activist, and the NGO. It examines the philosophies underpinning constitutional design, the actors and processes involved, and the practicalities of the settlement process, combining conceptual and theoretical contributions with empirical case studies. In so doing, it provides a comprehensive global introduction to the study of conflict management in divided societies. Features & benefits of the textbook: Clearly explains the theories underpinning constitutional design including power sharing/liberal consociationalism, centripetalism, power dividing, and territorial solutions Surveys the key actors and processes involved in designing and implementing peace including the evolution of diplomacy in peace-making, and separate chapters about crafting solutions for divided societies from the perspectives of NGOs, the UN, EU and AU Explores the realities on the ground with chapters written by activists and practitioners which draw on their experience of working in conflict zones Written in a clear and engaging style, this work is essential reading for all students of conflict resolution.
Posted in Political Science

Law and Development

Theory and Practice

Author: Yong-Shik Lee

Publisher: Routledge Studies in Development Economics

ISBN: 9781138556690

Category: Law

Page: 198

View: 671

Introduction : what Is law and development? -- Evolution of law and development -- General theory of law and development -- Law and development in South Korea -- Law and development in South Africa -- Application of the law and development approach in the United States -- Law reform projects and analytical law and development model
Posted in Law

Big Data in the Arts and Humanities

Theory and Practice

Author: Giovanni Schiuma,Daniela Carlucci

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351172581

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 214

View: 6104

As digital technologies occupy a more central role in working and everyday human life, individual and social realities are increasingly constructed and communicated through digital objects, which are progressively replacing and representing physical objects. They are even shaping new forms of virtual reality. This growing digital transformation coupled with technological evolution and the development of computer computation is shaping a cyber society whose working mechanisms are grounded upon the production, deployment, and exploitation of big data. In the arts and humanities, however, the notion of big data is still in its embryonic stage, and only in the last few years, have arts and cultural organizations and institutions, artists, and humanists started to investigate, explore, and experiment with the deployment and exploitation of big data as well as understand the possible forms of collaborations based on it. Big Data in the Arts and Humanities: Theory and Practice explores the meaning, properties, and applications of big data. This book examines therelevance of big data to the arts and humanities, digital humanities, and management of big data with and for the arts and humanities. It explores the reasons and opportunities for the arts and humanities to embrace the big data revolution. The book also delineates managerial implications to successfully shape a mutually bene?cial partnership between the arts and humanities and the big data- and computational digital-based sciences. Big data and arts and humanities can be likened to the rational and emotional aspects of the human mind. This book attempts to integrate these two aspects of human thought to advance decision-making and to enhance the expression of the best of human life.
Posted in Business & Economics

Evolutionary Criminology

Towards a Comprehensive Explanation of Crime

Author: Russil Durrant,Tony Ward

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123984939

Category: Social Science

Page: 348

View: 9564

In our attempts to understand crime, researchers typically focus on proximate factors such as the psychology of offenders, their developmental history, and the social structure in which they are embedded. While these factors are important, they don't tell the whole story. Evolutionary Criminology: Towards a Comprehensive Explanation of Crime explores how evolutionary biology adds to our understanding of why crime is committed, by whom, and our response to norm violations. This understanding is important both for a better understanding of what precipitates crime and to guide approaches for effectively managing criminal behavior. This book is divided into three parts. Part I reviews evolutionary biology concepts important for understanding human behavior, including crime. Part II focuses on theoretical approaches to explaining crime, including the evolution of cooperation, and the evolutionary history and function of violent crime, drug use, property offending, and white collar crime. The developmental origins of criminal behavior are described to account for the increase in offending during adolescence and early adulthood as well as to explain why some offenders are more likely to desist than others. Proximal causes of crime are examined, as well as cultural and structural processes influencing crime. Part III considers human motivation to punish norm violators and what this means for the development of a criminal justice system. This section also considers how an evolutionary approach contributes to our understanding of crime prevention and reduction. The section closes with an evolutionary approach to understanding offender rehabilitation and reintegration. Reviews how evolutionary findings improve our understanding of crime and punishment Examines motivations to offend, and to punish norm violators Articulates evolutionary explanations for adolescent crime increase Identifies how this knowledge can aid in crime prevention and reduction, and in offender rehabilitation
Posted in Social Science

The Psychology of Criminal Conduct

Author: James Bonta,D.A. Andrews

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317387414

Category: Political Science

Page: 450

View: 2905

The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, Sixth Edition, provides a psychological and evidence-informed perspective of criminal behavior that sets it apart from many criminological and mental health explanations of criminal behavior. Drawing upon the General Personality and Cognitive Social Learning theory, James Bonta and Donald Andrews provide an overview of the theoretical context and major knowledge base of the psychology of criminal conduct, discuss the eight major risk/need factors of criminal conduct, examine the prediction and classification of criminal behavior along with prevention and rehabilitation, and summarize the major issues in understanding criminal conduct. This book also offers the Risk/Need/Responsivity (RNR) model of offender assessment and treatment that has guided developments in the subject throughout the world. In this edition, the first since Andrews' death, Bonta carefully maintains the book's original contributions while presenting these core concepts succinctly, clearly, and elegantly. Appropriate for advanced undergraduates and graduate students as well as for scholars, researchers, and practitioners, The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, Sixth Edition, further extends and refines the authors' body of work.
Posted in Political Science

Theories and Practices of Development

Author: Katie Willis

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1136918345

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 1016

Global economic crisis and the implications of global environmental change have led academics and policy-makers to consider how ‘development’ in all parts of the world should be achieved. However, ‘development’ has always been a contested idea. While often presented as a positive process to improve people’s lives, the potential negative dimensions of ‘development’ on people and environments must also be recognized. Theories and Practices of Development provides a clear and user-friendly introduction to the complex debates around how development has been understood and achieved. The second edition has been fully updated and expanded to reflect global political and economic shifts, as well as new approaches to development. The rise of China and India is given particular attention, as is the global economic crisis and its implications for development theories and practice. There are new sections on faith-based development, and the development dimensions of climate change, as well as greater engagement with development theories as they are put into practice in the Global North. The book deals with the evolution of development ideas and policies, focusing on economic, political, social, environmental and spatial dimensions. It highlights how development cannot be considered as a neutral concept, but is entwined with inequalities in power at local, as well as national and global scales. The use of boxed examples, tables and illustrations helps students understand complex theoretical ideas and also demonstrates how development theories are put into practice in the real world. Each chapter ends with a summary section, discussion topics, suggestions for further reading and website resources.
Posted in Political Science

Advancing Human Development

Theory and Practice

Author: Frances Stewart,Gustav Ranis,Emma Samman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198794452

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 8641

Human Development has been advocated as the prime development goal since 1990, when the publication of the first UNDP Human Development Report proposed that development should improve the lives people lead in multiple dimensions instead of primarily pursuing economic growth. This approach forms the foundation of Advancing Human Development: Theory and Practice. It traces the evolution of approaches to development, showing how the Human Development approach emerged as a consequence of defects in earlier strategies. Advancing Human Development argues that Human Development is superior to measures of societal happiness. It investigates the determinants of success and failure in Human Development across countries over the past forty years, taking a multidimensional approach to point to the importance of social institutions and social capabilities as essential aspects of change. It analyses political conditions underlying the performance of Human Development, and surveys global progress in multiple dimensions such as life expectancy, infant mortality, and education and outcomes, whilst reflecting on dimensions which have worsened over time, such as rising inequality and declining environmental conditions. These deteriorating conditions inform Advancing Human Development's account of the challenges to the Human Development approach, covering the insufficient attention paid to macroeconomic conditions and the economic structure needed for sustained success.
Posted in Business & Economics

Epidemiological Criminology

Theory to Practice

Author: Eve Waltermaurer,Timothy A. Akers

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136184910

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 4327

Epidemiological criminology is an emerging paradigm which explores the public health outcomes associated with engagement in crime and criminal justice. This book engages with this new theory and practice-based discipline drawing on knowledge from criminology, criminal justice, public health, epidemiology, public policy, and law to illustrate how the merging of epidemiology into the field of criminology allows for the work of both disciplines to be more interdisciplinary, evidence-based, enriched and expansive. This book brings together an innovative group of exemplary researchers and practitioners to discuss applications and provide examples of epidemiological criminology. It is divided into three sections; the first explores the integration of epidemiology and criminology through theory and methods, the second section focuses on special populations in epidemiological criminology research and the role of race, ethnicity, age, gender and space as it plays out in health outcomes among offenders and victims of crime, and the final section explores the role policy and practice plays in worsening and improving the health outcomes among those engaged in the criminal justice system. Epidemiological Criminology is the first text to bring together, in one source, the existing interdisciplinary work of academics and professionals that merge the fields of criminology and criminal justice to public health and epidemiology. It will be of interest to academics and students in the fields of criminology, epidemiology, and public health, as well as clinical psychologists, law and government policy analysts and those working within the criminal justice system.
Posted in Social Science

The Science of Crime Measurement

Issues for Spatially-Referenced Crime Data

Author: Martin A. Andresen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135006261

Category: Social Science

Page: 200

View: 2715

Crime statistics are ubiquitous in modern society – but how accurate are they? This book investigates the science of crime measurement focussing on four main questions: how do we count crime? How do we calculate crime rates? Are there other measurements of crime? What are the issues surrounding crime statistics? All too often we take the measurement of crime at face value when there is, in fact, a science behind it. This book specifically deals with issues related to spatially-referenced crime data that are used to analyse crime patterns across the urban environment. The first section of the book considers alternative crime rate calculations. The second section of the book contains a thorough discussion of a measure of crime specialisation. Finally, the third section of the book addresses a number of aggregation issues that are present with such data: crime type aggregations, temporal aggregations of crime data, the stability of crime patterns over time, and the importance of spatial scale. This book builds on a growing body of literature on the science of crime measurement and offers a comprehensive account of this growing subfield of criminology. The book speaks to wider debates in the fields of crime analysis, environmental criminology and crime prevention and will be perfect reading for advanced level undergraduate and graduate students looking to find out more about the measurement of crime.
Posted in Social Science