Engines of Logic

Mathematicians and the Origin of the Computer

Author: Martin Davis

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 9780393322293

Category: Computers

Page: 257

View: 2263

A pioneer in computer development chronicles the history of the machine, and the software that makes it tick, elucidating the core principles driving every calculation, stored record, and mouse click. Originally published as The Universal Computer. Reprint.
Posted in Computers

Computability Theory

Author: S. Barry Cooper

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781584882374

Category: Mathematics

Page: 424

View: 3348

Computability theory originated with the seminal work of Gödel, Church, Turing, Kleene and Post in the 1930s. This theory includes a wide spectrum of topics, such as the theory of reducibilities and their degree structures, computably enumerable sets and their automorphisms, and subrecursive hierarchy classifications. Recent work in computability theory has focused on Turing definability and promises to have far-reaching mathematical, scientific, and philosophical consequences. Written by a leading researcher, Computability Theory provides a concise, comprehensive, and authoritative introduction to contemporary computability theory, techniques, and results. The basic concepts and techniques of computability theory are placed in their historical, philosophical and logical context. This presentation is characterized by an unusual breadth of coverage and the inclusion of advanced topics not to be found elsewhere in the literature at this level. The book includes both the standard material for a first course in computability and more advanced looks at degree structures, forcing, priority methods, and determinacy. The final chapter explores a variety of computability applications to mathematics and science. Computability Theory is an invaluable text, reference, and guide to the direction of current research in the field. Nowhere else will you find the techniques and results of this beautiful and basic subject brought alive in such an approachable and lively way.
Posted in Mathematics

The Fourth Revolution

How the Infosphere is Reshaping Human Reality

Author: Luciano Floridi

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191667706

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 7778

Who are we, and how do we relate to each other? Luciano Floridi, one of the leading figures in contemporary philosophy, argues that the explosive developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is changing the answer to these fundamental human questions. As the boundaries between life online and offline break down, and we become seamlessly connected to each other and surrounded by smart, responsive objects, we are all becoming integrated into an "infosphere". Personas we adopt in social media, for example, feed into our 'real' lives so that we begin to live, as Floridi puts in, "onlife". Following those led by Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud, this metaphysical shift represents nothing less than a fourth revolution. "Onlife" defines more and more of our daily activity - the way we shop, work, learn, care for our health, entertain ourselves, conduct our relationships; the way we interact with the worlds of law, finance, and politics; even the way we conduct war. In every department of life, ICTs have become environmental forces which are creating and transforming our realities. How can we ensure that we shall reap their benefits? What are the implicit risks? Are our technologies going to enable and empower us, or constrain us? Floridi argues that we must expand our ecological and ethical approach to cover both natural and man-made realities, putting the 'e' in an environmentalism that can deal successfully with the new challenges posed by our digital technologies and information society.
Posted in Science

A Science of Operations

Machines, Logic and the Invention of Programming

Author: Mark Priestley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781848825550

Category: Computers

Page: 342

View: 8971

Today, computers fulfil a dazzling array of roles, a flexibility resulting from the great range of programs that can be run on them. A Science of Operations examines the history of what we now call programming, defined not simply as computer programming, but more broadly as the definition of the steps involved in computations and other information-processing activities. This unique perspective highlights how the history of programming is distinct from the history of the computer, despite the close relationship between the two in the 20th century. The book also discusses how the development of programming languages is related to disparate fields which attempted to give a mechanical account of language on the one hand, and a linguistic account of machines on the other. Topics and features: Covers the early development of automatic computing, including Babbage’s “mechanical calculating engines” and the applications of punched-card technology, examines the theoretical work of mathematical logicians such as Kleene, Church, Post and Turing, and the machines built by Zuse and Aiken in the 1930s and 1940s, discusses the role that logic played in the development of the stored program computer, describes the “standard model” of machine-code programming popularised by Maurice Wilkes, presents the complete table for the universal Turing machine in the Appendices, investigates the rise of the initiatives aimed at developing higher-level programming nota tions, and how these came to be thought of as ‘languages’ that could be studied independently of a machine, examines the importance of the Algol 60 language, and the framework it provided for studying the design of programming languages and the process of software development and explores the early development of object-oriented languages, with a focus on the Smalltalk project. This fascinating text offers a new viewpoint for historians of science and technology, as well as for the general reader. The historical narrative builds the story in a clear and logical fashion, roughly following chronological order.
Posted in Computers

Date on Database

Writings 2000-2006

Author: Christopher Date

Publisher: Apress

ISBN: 9781430203490

Category: Computers

Page: 546

View: 3180

C. J. Date is one of the founding fathers of the relational database field. Many of today’s seasoned database professionals "grew up" on Date’s writings. Those same professionals, along with other serious database students and practitioners, form the core audience for Date’s ongoing writing efforts. Date on Database: Writings 2000-2006 is a compilation of Date’s most significant articles and papers over the past seven years. It gives readers a one-stop place in which to find Date’s latest thinking on relational technology. Many papers are not easily found outside this book.
Posted in Computers

The Universal Computer

The Road from Leibniz to Turing

Author: Martin Davis

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 9780393047851

Category: Computers

Page: 257

View: 6679

Chronicles the history and development of computers and the software that makes them tick, explaining the core principles driving every calculation, stored record, and mouse click.
Posted in Computers

Alan Turing's Electronic Brain

The Struggle to Build the ACE, the World's Fastest Computer

Author: B. Jack Copeland

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199609152

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 553

View: 7260

Rev. ed. of: Alan Turing's automatic computing engine / edited by B. Jack Copeland.
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

Alan Turing's Electronic Brain

The Struggle to Build the ACE, the World's Fastest Computer

Author: others

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191625868

Category: Mathematics

Page: 576

View: 5066

The mathematical genius Alan Turing, now well known for his crucial wartime role in breaking the ENIGMA code, was the first to conceive of the fundamental principle of the modern computer-the idea of controlling a computing machine's operations by means of a program of coded instructions, stored in the machine's 'memory'. In 1945 Turing drew up his revolutionary design for an electronic computing machine-his Automatic Computing Engine ('ACE'). A pilot model of the ACE ran its first program in 1950 and the production version, the 'DEUCE', went on to become a cornerstone of the fledgling British computer industry. The first 'personal' computer was based on Turing's ACE. Alan Turing's Automatic Computing Engine describes Turing's struggle to build the modern computer. The first detailed history of Turing's contributions to computer science, this text is essential reading for anyone interested in the history of the computer and the history of mathematics. It contains first hand accounts by Turing and by the pioneers of computing who worked with him. As well as relating the story of the invention of the computer, the book clearly describes the hardware and software of the ACE-including the very first computer programs. The book is intended to be accessible to everyone with an interest in computing, and contains numerous diagrams and illustrations as well as original photographs. The book contains chapters describing Turing's path-breaking research in the fields of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Artificial Life (A-Life). The book has an extensive system of hyperlinks to The Turing Archive for the History of Computing, an on-line library of digital facsimiles of typewritten documents by Turing and the other scientists who pioneered the electronic computer.
Posted in Mathematics

The Origins of Digital Computers

Selected Papers

Author: Brian Randell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540113195

Category: Computers

Page: 580

View: 2699

Computing Milieux -- History of Computing.
Posted in Computers

Turing

Pioneer of the Information Age

Author: B. Jack Copeland

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198719183

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 320

View: 463

Alan Turing is regarded as one of the greatest scientists of the 20th century. But who was Turing, and what did he achieve during his tragically short life of 41 years? Best known as the genius who broke Germany's most secret codes during the war of 1939-45, Turing was also the father of the modern computer. Today, all who 'click-to-open' are familiar with the impact of Turing's ideas. Here, B. Jack Copeland provides an account of Turing's life and work, exploring the key elements of his life-story in tandem with his leading ideas and contributions. The book highlights Turing's contributions to computing and to computer science, including Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life, and the emphasis throughout is on the relevance of his work to modern developments. The story of his contributions to codebreaking during the Second World War is set in the context of his thinking about machines, as is the account of his work in the foundations of mathematics.
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

The Age of Spiritual Machines

When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence

Author: Ray Kurzweil

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781101077887

Category: Computers

Page: 400

View: 6534

Ray Kurzweil is the inventor of the most innovative and compelling technology of our era, an international authority on artificial intelligence, and one of our greatest living visionaries. Now he offers a framework for envisioning the twenty-first century--an age in which the marriage of human sensitivity and artificial intelligence fundamentally alters and improves the way we live. Kurzweil's prophetic blueprint for the future takes us through the advances that inexorably result in computers exceeding the memory capacity and computational ability of the human brain by the year 2020 (with human-level capabilities not far behind); in relationships with automated personalities who will be our teachers, companions, and lovers; and in information fed straight into our brains along direct neural pathways. Optimistic and challenging, thought-provoking and engaging, The Age of Spiritual Machines is the ultimate guide on our road into the next century. From the Trade Paperback edition.
Posted in Computers

An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology

Author: Ian McNeil

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134981643

Category: Reference

Page: 1088

View: 4247

* 22 sections cover the entire field of the history of technology and each section summarises the development of its subject from the earliest times to the present day * Written without unnecessary jargon * 2 extensive indexes of Names and Topics * Usefully illustrated with 150 black & white photographs and line drawings to explain key advances `Contain[s] a vast amount of reliable information over a very wide field. It is certainly a work of which I shall myself make frequent use ... it deserves to find a place ... in every reference library.' - Times Higher Education Supplement `The coverage is excellent ... a most valuable single-volume source which for its comprehensiveness and ease of reference will earn its place in both specialist and general reference collections.' - Reference Reviews `Informative and comprehensive, remarkable in its coverage ... covers every aspect of technology from the Stone Age to the Space Age ... will undoubtedly help readers to get a grip on and feel of an enormous range of subjects ... An invaluable and practical addition to most office bookshelves or libraries.' - New Civil Engineer `The authors represented in this book are to be congratulated for their readable and reliable surveys of the past and present status of the major areas where mankind has harnessed science for the production of useful products and processes.' - Choice
Posted in Reference

The Essential Turing

Author: B. Jack. Copeland

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 9780191520280

Category: Science

Page: 622

View: 6480

Alan Turing, pioneer of computing and WWII codebreaker, is one of the most important and influential thinkers of the twentieth century. In this volume for the first time his key writings are made available to a broad, non-specialist readership. They make fascinating reading both in their own right and for their historic significance: contemporary computational theory, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and artificial life all spring from this ground-breaking work, which is also rich in philosophical and logical insight. An introduction by leading Turing expert Jack Copeland provides the background and guides the reader through the selection. About Alan Turing Alan Turing FRS OBE, (1912-1954) studied mathematics at King's College, Cambridge. He was elected a Fellow of King's in March 1935, at the age of only 22. In the same year he invented the abstract computing machines - now known simply as Turing machines - on which all subsequent stored-program digital computers are modelled. During 1936-1938 Turing continued his studies, now at Princeton University. He completed a PhD in mathematical logic, analysing the notion of 'intuition' in mathematics and introducing the idea of oracular computation, now fundamental in mathematical recursion theory. An 'oracle' is an abstract device able to solve mathematical problems too difficult for the universal Turing machine. In the summer of 1938 Turing returned to his Fellowship at King's. When WWII started in 1939 he joined the wartime headquarters of the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park, Buckinghamshire. Building on earlier work by Polish cryptanalysts, Turing contributed crucially to the design of electro-mechanical machines ('bombes') used to decipher Enigma, the code by means of which the German armed forces sought to protect their radio communications. Turing's work on the version of Enigma used by the German navy was vital to the battle for supremacy in the North Atlantic. He also contributed to the attack on the cyphers known as 'Fish'. Based on binary teleprinter code, Fish was used during the latter part of the war in preference to morse-based Enigma for the encryption of high-level signals, for example messages from Hitler and other members of the German High Command. It is estimated that the work of GC&CS shortened the war in Europe by at least two years. Turing received the Order of the British Empire for the part he played. In 1945, the war over, Turing was recruited to the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in London, his brief to design and develop an electronic computer - a concrete form of the universal Turing machine. Turing's report setting out his design for the Automatic Computing Engine (ACE) was the first relatively complete specification of an electronic stored-program general-purpose digital computer. Delays beyond Turing's control resulted in NPL's losing the race to build the world's first working electronic stored-program digital computer - an honour that went to the Royal Society Computing Machine Laboratory at Manchester University, in June 1948. Discouraged by the delays at NPL, Turing took up the Deputy Directorship of the Royal Society Computing Machine Laboratory in that year. Turing was a founding father of modern cognitive science and a leading early exponent of the hypothesis that the human brain is in large part a digital computing machine, theorising that the cortex at birth is an 'unorganised machine' which through 'training' becomes organised 'into a universal machine or something like it'. He also pioneered Artificial Intelligence. Turing spent the rest of his short career at Manchester University, being appointed to a specially created Readership in the Theory of Computing in May 1953. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in March 1951 (a high honour).
Posted in Science

A universal history of computing

from the abacus to the quantum computer

Author: Georges Ifrah

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: 410

View: 6658

Traces computing from the development of the abacus, through the invention of the binary system, the introduction of mechanical and electronic computers, and projections of quantum computers.
Posted in Mathematics

A Brief History of Computing

Author: Gerard O'Regan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1848000839

Category: Computers

Page: 245

View: 4536

Robert Irwin travels back in time with his real-life best friend, in his third wild adventure Robert and his best friend Riley are visiting the Canadian badlands in Alberta with Riley's Uncle Nate. The badlands are home to more than 35 different species of dinosaur fossils. Robert and Riley get pulled back in time to Alberta, Canada during the Late Cretaceous period, to find a heavily armored euoplocephalus trapped in vines. The rescue doesn't go according to plan when a ferocious gorgosaurus arrives on the scene, looking for a snack.
Posted in Computers

Die Information

Geschichte, Theorie, Flut

Author: James Gleick

Publisher: Redline Wirtschaft

ISBN: 3864142245

Category: Science

Page: 500

View: 1875

Blut, Treibstoff, Lebensprinzip - in seinem furiosen Buch erzählt Bestsellerautor James Gleick, wie die Information zum Kernstück unserer heutigen Zivilisation wurde. Beginnend bei den Wörtern, den "sprechenden" Trommeln in Afrika, über das Morsealphabet und bis hin zur Internetrevolution beleuchtet er, wie die Übermittlung von Informationen die Gesellschaften prägten und veränderten. Gleick erläutert die Theorien, die sich mit dem Codieren und Decodieren, der Übermittlung von Inhalten und dem Verbreiten der Myriaden von Botschaften beschäftigen. Er stellt die bekannten und unbekannten Pioniere der Informationsgesellschaft vor: Claude Shannon, Norbert Wiener, Ada Byron, Alan Turing und andere. Er bietet dem Leser neue Einblicke in die Mechanismen des Informationsaustausches. So lernt dieser etwa die sich selbst replizierende Meme kennen, die "DNA" der Informationen. Sein Buch ermöglicht ein neues Verständnis von Musik, Quantenmechanik - und eine gänzlich neue Sicht auf die faszinierende Welt der Informationen.
Posted in Science

Colossus

The secrets of Bletchley Park's code-breaking computers

Author: B. Jack Copeland

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191578215

Category: Computers

Page: 480

View: 7443

At last - the secrets of Bletchley Park's powerful codebreaking computers. This is a history of Colossus, the world's first fully-functioning electronic digital computer. Colossus was used during the Second World War at the Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park, where it played an invaluable role cracking enemy codes. Until very recently, much about the Colossus machine was shrouded in secrecy, largely because the codes that were employed remained in use by the British security services until a short time ago. This book only became possible due to the declassification in the US of wartime documents. With an introductory essay on cryptography and the history of code-breaking by Simon Singh, this book reveals the workings of Colossus and the extraordinary staff at Bletchley Park through personal accounts by those who lived and worked with the computer. Among them is the testimony of Thomas Flowers, who was the architect of Colossus and whose personal account, written shortly before he died, is published here for the first time. Other essays consider the historical importance of this remarkable machine, and its impact on the generations of computing technology that followed.
Posted in Computers

The Mood of Information

A Critique of Online Behavioural Advertising

Author: Andrew McStay

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1441125353

Category: Social Science

Page: 200

View: 4033

The Mood of Information explores advertising from the perspective of information flows rather than the more familiar approach of symbolic representation. At the heart of this book is an aspiration to better understand contemporary and nascent forms of commercial solicitation predicated on the commodification of experience and subjectivity. In assessing novel forms of advertising that involve tracking users' web browsing activity over a period of time, this book seeks to grasp and explicate key trends within the media and advertising industries along with the technocultural, legal, regulatory and political environment online behavioural advertising operates within. Situated within contemporary scholarly debate and interest in recursive media that involves intensification of discourses of feedback, personalization, recommendation, co-production, constructivism and the preempting of intent, this book represents a departure from textual criticism of advertising to one based on exposition of networked means of inferring preferences, desires and orientations that reflect ways of being, or moods of information.
Posted in Social Science

The Engines of Hippocrates

From the Dawn of Medicine to Medical and Pharmaceutical Informatics

Author: Barry Robson,O. K. Baek

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470461792

Category: Medical

Page: 512

View: 5609

A unique, integrative look at information-based medicine The convergence of medical science, biology, pharmacology, biomedical engineering, healthcare, and information technology is revolutionizing medical and scientific practice, and has broader social implications still being understood. The Engines of Hippocrates provides a unique, integrative, and holistic look at the new paradigm of information-based medicine, covering a broad range of topics for a wide readership. The authors take a comprehensive approach, examining the prehistory, history, and future of medicine and medical technology and its relation to information; how history led to such present-day discoveries as the structure of DNA, the human genome, and the discipline of bioinformatics; and what the future results of these discoveries may hold. Their far-ranging views are their own and not necessarily those of the IBM Corporation or other employers. The Engines of Hippocrates helps readers understand: Forces shaping the pharmaceutical and biomedical industries today, including personalized medicine, genomics, data mining, and bionanotechnology The relationship between pharmaceutical science today and other disciplines such as philosophy of health, history, economics, mathematics, and computer science The integrated role alternative and non-Western medicines could play in a new, information-based medicine Practical, ethical, organizational, technological, and social problems of information-based medicine, along with a novel data-centric computing model and a self-adaptive software engineering model, and corresponding information technology architectures, including perspectives on sharing remote data efficiently and securely for the common good An unmatched, cross-disciplinary perspective on the big picture of today and tomorrow's medicine, The Engines of Hippocrates provides a reference to interested readers both inside and outside the pharmaceutical and medical communities, as well as a peerless classroom supplement to students in a wide variety of disciplines.
Posted in Medical

Aspects of the Computer-based Patient Record

Author: Harold P. Lehmann,Patricia A. Abbott,Nancy K. Roderer,Adam Rothschild,Steven Mandell,Jorge Ferrer,Robert E. Miller,Marion J. Ball

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475738730

Category: Medical

Page: 316

View: 4716

One of the hottest political issues today concerns ways to improve national healthcare systems without incurring further costs. An extensive study by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in the United States formally reported that computer-based patient records are absolutely necessary to help contain the cost explosion in health care. The information obtained from experts, the studies conducted, and the conclusions that went into the IOM's report have now been collected in Aspects of the Computer-Based Patient Record. A large portion of the volume discusses the state-of-the-art in existing computer-based systems as well as the essential needs which must be addressed by future computer-based patients' records. A final section in the book discusses implementation strategies for changing to the electronic system and practical issues: Who will bear the final cost? How and when will healthcare providers who use the system be trained? This volume contains the concise, valuable information which hospital administrators, hospital systems designers, third-party payer groups, and medical technology providers will need if they hope to successfully transit to hospital systems which use a computer-based patient record.
Posted in Medical