Dynamics of Contention

Author: Doug McAdam,Sidney Tarrow,Charles Tilly

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521011877

Category: Political Science

Page: 387

View: 6566

Dissatisfied with the compartmentalization of studies concerning strikes, wars, revolutions, social movements, and other forms of political struggle, McAdam, Tarrow, and Tilly identify causal mechanisms and processes that recur across a wide range of contentious politics. Critical of the static, single-actor models (including their own) that have prevailed in the field, they shift the focus of analysis to dynamic interaction. Doubtful that large, complex series of events such as revolutions and social movements conform to general laws, they break events into smaller episodes, then identify recurrent mechanisms and proceses within them. Dynamics of Contention examines and compares eighteen contentious episodes drawn from many different parts of the world since the French Revolution, probing them for consequential and widely applicable mechanisms, for example, brokerage, category formation, and elite defection. The episodes range from nineteenth-century nationalist movements to contemporary Muslim-Hindu conflict to the Tiananmen crisis of 1989 to disintegration of the Soviet Union. The authors spell out the implications of their approach for explanation of revolutions, nationalism, and democratization, then lay out a more general program for study of contentious episodes wherever and whenever they occur.
Posted in Political Science

Dynamics of Contention

Author: Doug McAdam,Sidney Tarrow,Charles Tilly

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521011877

Category: Political Science

Page: 387

View: 6483

Dissatisfied with the compartmentalization of studies concerning strikes, wars, revolutions, social movements, and other forms of political struggle, McAdam, Tarrow, and Tilly identify causal mechanisms and processes that recur across a wide range of contentious politics. Critical of the static, single-actor models (including their own) that have prevailed in the field, they shift the focus of analysis to dynamic interaction. Doubtful that large, complex series of events such as revolutions and social movements conform to general laws, they break events into smaller episodes, then identify recurrent mechanisms and proceses within them. Dynamics of Contention examines and compares eighteen contentious episodes drawn from many different parts of the world since the French Revolution, probing them for consequential and widely applicable mechanisms, for example, brokerage, category formation, and elite defection. The episodes range from nineteenth-century nationalist movements to contemporary Muslim-Hindu conflict to the Tiananmen crisis of 1989 to disintegration of the Soviet Union. The authors spell out the implications of their approach for explanation of revolutions, nationalism, and democratization, then lay out a more general program for study of contentious episodes wherever and whenever they occur.
Posted in Political Science

The Dynamics of Iranian Borders

Issues of Contention

Author: Mansoureh Ebrahimi,Masoumeh Rad Goudarzi,Kamaruzaman Yusoff

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319898361

Category: Political Science

Page: 131

View: 7810

This book is on Iran’s geopolitical importance representing a continuum of international competition for political gains and economic benefit, due to the country's unique geographical location that has always been a cause of contention. Iran’s massive boarders and evolving political weakness, along with influences from the kings of Qajar that maintained and strengthened Great Britain’s hegemony in the region, were major factors affecting ongoing regional conflicts. Additional roles played by other world powers such as France, Russia and the United States are also noted. Conflicts, unrest and regional wars were all consequences arising from power struggles that led to treaties and international agreements between Iran, Britain and Russia that caused the eventual loss of traditional Iranian territories. Hence, extrinsic impositions on Iran are the subject of this study as authors examine the turbulent climate that altered Iranian borders during the Qajar Dynasty.
Posted in Political Science

The Future of Social Movement Research

Dynamics, Mechanisms, and Processes

Author: Jacquelien van Stekelenburg,Conny Roggeband,Bert Klandermans

Publisher: Social Movements, Protest and Contention

ISBN: 9780816686544

Category: Political Science

Page: 469

View: 1535

In The Future of Social Movement Research, some of the most influential scholars in the field provide a wide-ranging understanding of how social movements arise and persist, engendering unanswered questions pointing to new theoretical strands and fields of research. The resulting work is interdisciplinary and unusually broad in scope, constituting the most comprehensive overview of the dynamics of social movements available.
Posted in Political Science

Power and Change in Iran

Politics of Contention and Conciliation

Author: Daniel Brumberg,Farideh Farhi

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253020794

Category: History

Page: 328

View: 9755

This volume provides an unparalleled and timely look at political, social, economic, and ideological dynamics in contemporary Iran. Through chapters on social welfare and privatization, university education, the role and authority of the Supreme Leader, the rule of law, the evolving electoral system, and the intense debate over human rights within and outside the regime, the contributors offer a comprehensive overview of Iranian politics. Their case studies reveal a society whose multiple vectors of contestation, negotiation, and competition are creating possibilities for transformation that are yet to be realized but whose outcome will affect the Islamic Republic, the region, and relations with the United States.
Posted in History

Contention and Democracy in Europe, 1650-2000

Author: Charles Tilly

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521537131

Category: History

Page: 305

View: 3081

Contention and Democracy in Europe, 1650–2000, first published in 2004, is an analysis of the relationship between democratization and contentious politics that builds upon the model set forth in the pathbreaking book, Dynamics of Contention. Using a sustained comparison of French and British histories since 1650 or so as a springboard for more general comparison within Europe Contention and Democracy goes on to demonstrate that democratization occurred as result of struggles during which (as in 19th century Britain and France) few, if any, of the participants were self-consciously trying to create democratic institutions. Consequently, circumstances for democratization vary from era to era, region to region as functions of previous history, international environments, available models of political organization, and predominant patterns of social relations.
Posted in History

Contention and the Dynamics of Inequality in Mexico, 1910–2010

Author: Viviane Brachet-Márquez

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139917285

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 9195

This book details how contentious politics - everyday as well as exceptional, local as well as national - that took place in three communal villages of Mexico alternately reproduced and reshaped inequality. Narrated and analyzed as instances of the general process of contention, these events took place during three key periods of Mexico's history: the 1910–20 revolution, the Cold War period from the 1950s to the 1970s, and from the 1980s to the present. Together, these episodes of contention build and test a theory of the making and unmaking of inequality in theoretically ideal conditions, illustrating the dynamics of this all-pervasive facet of social organization.
Posted in Political Science

Contentious Politics

Author: Charles Tilly,Sidney G. Tarrow

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190255056

Category: SOCIAL SCIENCE

Page: 268

View: 3945

"An analysis of the major contentious events over the course of the past ten years"--
Posted in SOCIAL SCIENCE

Mobilizing Without the Masses

Control and Contention in China

Author: Diana Fu

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110835615X

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 9623

When advocacy organizations are forbidden from rallying people to take to the streets, what do they do? When activists are detained for coordinating protests, are their hands ultimately tied? Based on political ethnography inside both legal and blacklisted labor organizations in China, this book reveals how state repression is deployed on the ground and to what effect on mobilization. It presents a novel dynamic of civil society contention - mobilizing without the masses - that lowers the risk of activism under duress. Instead of facilitating collective action, activists coach the aggrieved to challenge authorities one by one. In doing so, they lower the risks of organizing while empowering the weak. This dynamic represents a third pathway of contention that challenges conventional understandings of mobilization in an illiberal state. It takes readers inside the world of underground labor organizing and opens the black box of repression inside the world's most powerful authoritarian state.
Posted in Social Science

Spaces of Contention

Spatialities and Social Movements

Author: Byron Miller

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317051769

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 7838

As social movements have become more complex, geographers are increasingly studying the spatial dynamics of collective resistance and sociologists and political scientists increasingly analyzing the role of space, place and scale in contentious political activity. Occupying a position at the intersection of these disciplinary developments, this book brings together leading scholars to examine how social movements have employed spatial practices to respond to and shape changing social and political contexts. It is organised into three main sections: (1) Place, Space and Mobility: sites of mobilization and regulation, (2) Scale and Territory: structuring collective interests, identities, and resources, and (3) Networks: connecting actors and resources across space. It concludes by suggesting that different spatialities (place, scale, networks) interlink within one another in particular instances of collective action, playing distinctive yet complementary roles in shaping how these actions unfold in the political arena. By mapping state of the art conceptual and empirical terrain across Geography, Sociology, and Political Science, 'Spaces of Contention' provides readers with a much needed guide to innovative research on the spatial constitution of social movements and how social movements tactically and strategically approach and produce space.
Posted in Social Science

Strangers at the Gates

Movements and States in Contentious Politics

Author: Sidney Tarrow

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107009383

Category: Philosophy

Page: 260

View: 9756

This book contains the products of work carried out over four decades of research in Italy, France, and the United States, and in the intellectual territory between social movements, comparative politics, and historical sociology. Using a variety of methods ranging from statistical analysis to historical case studies to linguistic analysis, the book centers on historical catalogs of protest events and cycles of collective action. Sidney Tarrow places social movements in the broader arena of contentious politics, in relation to states, political parties, and other actors. From peasants and communists in 1960s Italy, to movements and politics in contemporary western polities, to the global justice movement in the new century, the book argues that contentious actors are neither outside of nor completely within politics, but rather they occupy the uncertain territory between total opposition and integration into policy.
Posted in Philosophy

The Diffusion of Social Movements

Actors, Mechanisms, and Political Effects

Author: Rebecca Kolins Givan,Kenneth M. Roberts,Sarah A. Soule

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139490192

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 6289

It is widely recognized that social movements may spread - or 'diffuse' - from one site to another. Such diffusion, however, is a complex and multidimensional process that involves different actors, networks, and mechanisms. This complexity has spawned a large body of literature on different aspects of the diffusion process, yet a comprehensive framework remains an elusive target. This book is a response to that need, and its framework focuses on three basic analytical questions. First, what is being diffused? Second, how does diffusion occur? Finally, what is the impact of diffusion on organizational development and shifts in the scale of contentious politics? This volume suggests that diffusion is not a simple matter of political contagion or imitation; rather, it is a creative and strategic process marked by political learning, adaptation, and innovation.
Posted in Political Science

The Power of the Internet in China

Citizen Activism Online

Author: Guobin Yang

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231513143

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 320

View: 793

Since the mid-1990s, the Internet has revolutionized popular expression in China, enabling users to organize, protest, and influence public opinion in unprecedented ways. Guobin Yang's pioneering study maps an innovative range of contentious forms and practices linked to Chinese cyberspace, delineating a nuanced and dynamic image of the Chinese Internet as an arena for creativity, community, conflict, and control. Like many other contemporary protest forms in China and the world, Yang argues, Chinese online activism derives its methods and vitality from multiple and intersecting forces, and state efforts to constrain it have only led to more creative acts of subversion. Transnationalism and the tradition of protest in China's incipient civil society provide cultural and social resources to online activism. Even Internet businesses have encouraged contentious activities, generating an unusual synergy between commerce and activism. Yang's book weaves these strands together to create a vivid story of immense social change, indicating a new era of informational politics.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Theories of Political Protest and Social Movements

A Multidisciplinary Introduction, Critique, and Synthesis

Author: Karl-Dieter Opp

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134014392

Category: Political Science

Page: 424

View: 4936

Political protest and social movements are ubiquitous phenomena. This book focuses on the current theoretical approaches that aim at explaining them: the theory of collective action, the resource mobilization perspective, political opportunity structure theory, the identity approach, the framing perspective, and the dynamics of contention approach. The book has three objectives: (1) Many basic concepts like political opportunities or identity are not clearly defined. It is further often a matter of interpretation what factors are supposed to affect which phenomena. The first aim is therefore to provide a detailed introduction to and a clear restatement of the theories. Only then is it possible to assess and improve them. (2) For each theory the major strengths and weaknesses are discussed, and various modifications and extensions are suggested. (3) Building on these analyses, it is shown how the theories can be integrated into a single theoretical paradigm: the structural-cognitive model.
Posted in Political Science

The Politics of Collective Violence

Author: Charles Tilly

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110749480X

Category: Political Science

Page: 290

View: 9694

Are there any commonalities between such phenomena as soccer hooliganism, sabotage by peasants of landlords' property, incidents of road rage, and even the events of September 11? With striking historical scope and command of the literature of many disciplines, this book, first published in 2003, seeks the common causes of these events in collective violence. In collective violence, social interaction immediately inflicts physical damage, involves at least two perpetrators of damage, and results in part from coordination among the persons who perform the damaging acts. Professor Tilly argues that collective violence is complicated, changeable, and unpredictable in some regards, yet that it also results from similar causes variously combined in different times and places. Pinpointing the causes, combinations, and settings helps to explain collective violence and its variations, and also helps to identify the best ways to mitigate violence and create democracies with a minimum of damage to persons and property.
Posted in Political Science

War, States, and Contention

A Comparative Historical Study

Author: Sidney Tarrow

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801456231

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 9119

For the last two decades, Sidney Tarrow has explored "contentious politics"—disruptions of the settled political order caused by social movements. These disruptions range from strikes and street protests to riots and civil disobedience to revolution. In War, States, and Contention, Tarrow shows how such movements sometimes trigger, animate, and guide the course of war and how they sometimes rise during war and in war's wake to change regimes or even overthrow states. Tarrow draws on evidence from historical and contemporary cases, including revolutionary France, the United States from the Civil War to the anti–Vietnam War movement, Italy after World War I, and the United States during the decade following 9/11. In the twenty-first century, movements are becoming transnational, and globalization and internationalization are moving war beyond conflict between states. The radically new phenomenon is not that movements make war against states but that states make war against movements. Tarrow finds this an especially troublesome development in recent U.S. history. He argues that that the United States is in danger of abandoning the devotion to rights it had expanded through two centuries of struggle and that Americans are now institutionalizing as a “new normal” the abuse of rights in the name of national security. He expands this hypothesis to the global level through what he calls “the international state of emergency.”
Posted in Political Science

Silence and Voice in the Study of Contentious Politics

Author: Ronald Aminzade

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521001557

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 1432

This book gives 'voice' to some of the notable 'silences' in the study of contentious politics.
Posted in Political Science

Deeply Divided

Racial Politics and Social Movements in Post-War America

Author: Doug McAdam,Karina Kloos

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199394261

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 3016

By many measures--commonsensical or statistical--the United States has not been more divided politically or economically in the last hundred years than it is now. How have we gone from the striking bipartisan cooperation and relative economic equality of the war years and post-war period to the extreme inequality and savage partisan divisions of today? In this sweeping look at American politics from the Depression to the present, Doug McAdam and Karina Kloos argue that party politics alone is not responsible for the mess we find ourselves in. Instead, it was the ongoing interaction of social movements and parties that, over time, pushed Democrats and Republicans toward their ideological margins, undermining the post-war consensus in the process. The Civil Rights struggle and the white backlash it provoked reintroduced the centrifugal force of social movements into American politics, ushering in an especially active and sustained period of movement/party dynamism, culminating in today's tug of war between the Tea Party and Republican establishment for control of the GOP. In Deeply Divided, McAdam and Kloos depart from established explanations of the conservative turn in the United States and trace the roots of political polarization and economic inequality back to the shifting racial geography of American politics in the 1960s. Angered by Lyndon Johnson's more aggressive embrace of civil rights reform in 1964, Southern Dixiecrats abandoned the Democrats for the first time in history, setting in motion a sustained regional realignment that would, in time, serve as the electoral foundation for a resurgent and increasingly more conservative Republican Party.
Posted in History

The Language of Contention

Revolutions in Words, 1688-2012

Author: Sidney Tarrow

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107036240

Category: Political Science

Page: 249

View: 1032

This book examines the relations between the material and political bases of contentious politics and the construction, diffusion, and endurance of contentious language. Beginning with the language of revolution developed from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries, it examines contentious language at work, in gender and race relations and in nationalist and ethnic movements. It closes with an examination of emotions in contentious politics, reflecting on the changes in political language since 9/11 and assessing the impact of religion and recent innovations in electronic communication on the language of politics.
Posted in Political Science

Social Movement Dynamics

New Perspectives on Theory and Research from Latin America

Author: Federico M. Rossi,Marisa von Bülow

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317053710

Category: Social Science

Page: 242

View: 2885

This book presents an overview of new approaches to the study of social movements emerging out of Latin America, based on original and innovative analyses of the recent changes in collective action across the region. Over the past decade, new repertoires of contention have emerged in parallel to changes in the configuration of actors, in previously established patterns of relationship between social movements and political institutions, and in the shapes of collaborative networks, both domestic and transnational. The authors analyze a broad set of countries and social movements, while focusing on three key theoretical debates: the interactions between routine and contentious politics, the relationship between protest and context, and the organizational configurations of social movements. The research agenda put forward by this book is neither defined nor restricted by geographical boundaries, even though the chapters are based on field research undertaken in Latin America. In doing so, this volume contributes to a still underdeveloped dialogue in theory-building in social movement studies, among scholars from the South and from the North, as well as among scholars specialized in different regions.
Posted in Social Science