Digital Rebels

Islamists, Social Media and the New Democracy

Author: Haroon Ullah

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300207182

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 9502

A lively, up-to-date investigation of the expanding influence of social media in the Islamic world The role of social media in the events of the Arab Spring and its aftermath in the Muslim world has stimulated much debate, yet little in the way of useful insight. Now Haroon Ullah, a scholar and diplomat with deep knowledge of politics and societies in the Middle East, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, draws the first clear picture of the unprecedented impact of Twitter, Facebook, and other means of online communication on the recent revolutions that blazed across Muslim nations. The author carefully analyzes the growth of social media throughout the Muslim world, tracing how various organizations learned to employ such digital tools to grow networks, recruit volunteers, and disseminate messages. In Egypt, where young people rose against the regime; in Pakistan, where the youth fought against the intelligence and military establishments; and in Syria, where underground Islamists had to switch alliances, digital communications played key roles. Ullah demonstrates how social media have profoundly changed relationships between regimes and voters, though not always for the better. Looking forward he identifies trends across the Muslim world and the implications of these for regional and international politics.
Posted in History

Digital World War

Islamists, Extremists, and the Fight for Cyber Supremacy

Author: Haroon K. Ullah

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300231105

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 9167

A seasoned diplomat with deep knowledge of Islamist politics and digital innovation draws the first clear picture of the unprecedented impact of online networks Social media has dominated the discourse of recent events in the Muslim world--from the Arab Spring and its aftermath to ISIS's online recruitment. Yet the roles of social media in these events and the use of the dark web, hacking, and digital attacks have received little attention. Haroon Ullah investigates the unprecedented impact of social media across the Middle East, North Africa, and South and Southeast Asia and demonstrates how it has profoundly changed relationships between regimes and peoples, and within populations--mostly, but not always, for the better. He considers its apparent inherently "democratic," anti-establishment revolutionary impact, as well as how religious conservatives and extremists have co-opted various platforms. He goes on to show how political parties, corporations, and governments have learned to exploit digital tools to target and mobilize audiences, to ultimately achieve power and status. Identifying key trends across the Muslim world, Ullah outlines what a proper understanding of social media can teach us about regional and international politics and diplomacy.
Posted in History

Digital World War

Islamists, Extremists, and the Fight for Cyber Supremacy

Author: Haroon Ullah

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 030021023X

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 2610

The role of social media in the events of the Arab Spring and its aftermath in the Muslim world has stimulated much debate, yet little in the way of useful insight. Now Haroon Ullah, a scholar and diplomat with deep knowledge of politics and societies in the Middle East, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, draws the first clear picture of the unprecedented impact of Twitter, Facebook, and other means of online communication on the recent revolutions that blazed across Muslim nations. The author carefully analyzes the growth of social media throughout the Muslim world, tracing how various organizations learned to employ such digital tools to grow networks, recruit volunteers, and disseminate messages. In Egypt, where young people rose against the regime; in Pakistan, where the youth fought against the intelligence and military establishments; and in Syria, where underground Islamists had to switch alliances, digital communications played key roles. Ullah demonstrates how social media have profoundly changed relationships between regimes and voters, though not always for the better. Looking forward he identifies trends across the Muslim world and the implications of these for regional and international politics.
Posted in Political Science

Vying for Allah’s Vote

Understanding Islamic Parties, Political Violence, and Extremism in Pakistan

Author: Haroon K. Ullah

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 1626160163

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 9977

What is driving political extremism in Pakistan? In early 2011, the prominent Pakistani politician Salmaan Taseer was assassinated by a member of his own security team for insulting Islam by expressing views in support of the rights of women and religious minorities. Benazir Bhutto, the former prime minister, was killed by gunfire and explosive devices as she left a campaign event in December 2007; strong evidence links members of extremist organizations to her slaying. These murders underscore the fact that religion, politics, and policy are inextricably linked in Pakistan. In this book, Haroon K. Ullah analyzes the origins, ideologies, bases of support, and electoral successes of the largest and most influential Islamic parties in Pakistan. Based on his extensive field work in Pakistan, he develops a new typology for understanding and comparing the discourses put forth by these parties in order to assess what drives them and what separates the moderate from the extreme. A better understanding of the range of parties is critical for knowing how the US and other Western nations can engage states where Islamic political parties hold both political and moral authority. Pakistan’s current democratic transition will hinge on how well Islamic parties contribute to civilian rule, shun violence, and mobilize support for political reform. Ullah’s political-party typology may also shed light on the politics of other majority-Muslim democracies, such as Egypt and Tunisia, where Islamist political parties have recently won elections.
Posted in Political Science

The Virtual Weapon and International Order

Author: Lucas Kello

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300226292

Category: Computers

Page: 320

View: 9629

An urgently needed examination of the current cyber revolution that draws on case studies to develop conceptual frameworks for understanding its effects on international order The cyber revolution is the revolution of our time. The rapid expansion of cyberspace brings both promise and peril. It promotes new modes of political interaction, but it also disrupts interstate dealings and empowers non-state actors who may instigate diplomatic and military crises. Despite significant experience with cyber phenomena, the conceptual apparatus to analyze, understand, and address their effects on international order remains primitive. Here, Lucas Kello adapts and applies international relations theory to create new ways of thinking about cyber strategy. Kello draws on a broad range of case studies, including the Estonian crisis, the Olympic Games operation against Iran, and the cyber attack against Sony Pictures. Synthesizing qualitative data from government documents, forensic reports of major incidents and interviews with senior officials from around the globe, this important work establishes new conceptual benchmarks to help security experts adapt strategy and policy to the unprecedented challenges of our times.
Posted in Computers

War in 140 Characters

How Social Media Is Reshaping Conflict in the Twenty-First Century

Author: David Patrikarakos

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465096158

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 3593

A leading foreign correspondent looks at how social media has transformed the modern battlefield, and how wars are fought Modern warfare is a war of narratives, where bullets are fired both physically and virtually. Whether you are a president or a terrorist, if you don't understand how to deploy the power of social media effectively you may win the odd battle but you will lose a twenty-first century war. Here, journalist David Patrikarakos draws on unprecedented access to key players to provide a new narrative for modern warfare. He travels thousands of miles across continents to meet a de-radicalized female member of ISIS recruited via Skype, a liberal Russian in Siberia who takes a job manufacturing "Ukrainian" news, and many others to explore the way social media has transformed the way we fight, win, and consume wars-and what this means for the world going forward.
Posted in Political Science

Countering Hate

Author: Bob Pearson,Haroon Ulla

Publisher: 1845 Publishing

ISBN: 9780999662304

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 563

We all start out the same. Whether born in Damascus or Detroit, human beings begin life with similar DNA, common instincts for survival and a basic desire to learn and explore. So why do some young men and women grow up with plans to promote peace and prosperity, while others set out to harm or kill others? Every day we hear of people who try to disrupt our world, often violently. So what, exactly, is happening to our youth? Extremists never stop trying to find the next young recruit. They are smarter, more technically savvy and better-organized than we give them credit for. What are they doing well and what can we learn from these insights? Are we organized the right way to fight extremists? Are we thinking the right way? Are we basing decisions on the most effective models? Pearson and Ullah join as co-authors to provide a mashup of their combined expertise -- years of shaping behavior for the world's top brands with years of countering terrorism. Inspired by classes taught at the U.S. State Department on counterterrorism and dealing with disinformation campaigns, the authors have written a book that is part call to action and part innovation lab for those who want to make a difference. They are joined by a wide range of global leaders who provide their insights related to hate and extremism. The book's goal is to trigger new ideas on how leaders can partner worldwide to make our world a safer and more productive place over the long-term. One team, one world.
Posted in Social Science

Withdrawal

Reassessing America's Final Years in Vietnam

Author: Gregory A. Daddis

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190691107

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 5975

A "better war." Over the last two decades, this term has become synonymous with US strategy during the Vietnam War's final years. The narrative is enticingly simple, appealing to many audiences. After the disastrous results of the 1968 Tet offensive, in which Hanoi's forces demonstrated the failures of American strategy, popular history tells of a new American military commander who emerged in South Vietnam and with inspired leadership and a new approach turned around a long stalemated conflict. In fact, so successful was General Creighton Abrams in commanding US forces that, according to the "better war" myth, the United States had actually achieved victory by mid-1970. A new general with a new strategy had delivered, only to see his victory abandoned by weak-kneed politicians in Washington, DC who turned their backs on the US armed forces and their South Vietnamese allies. In a bold new interpretation of America's final years in Vietnam, acclaimed historian Gregory A. Daddis disproves these longstanding myths. Withdrawal is a groundbreaking reassessment that tells a far different story of the Vietnam War. Daddis convincingly argues that the entire US effort in South Vietnam was incapable of reversing the downward trends of a complicated Vietnamese conflict that by 1968 had turned into a political-military stalemate. Despite a new articulation of strategy, Abrams's approach could not materially alter a war no longer vital to US national security or global dominance. Once the Nixon White House made the political decision to withdraw from Southeast Asia, Abrams's military strategy was unable to change either the course or outcome of a decades' long Vietnamese civil war. In a riveting sequel to his celebrated Westmoreland's War, Daddis demonstrates he is one of the nation's leading scholars on the Vietnam War. Withdrawal will be a standard work for years to come.
Posted in History

The Pentagon's Wars

The Military's Undeclared War Against America's Presidents

Author: Mark Perry

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465093108

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 7175

A gripping insider account of the clash between America's civilian and military leadership The Pentagon's Wars is a dramatic account of the deep and divisive debates between America's civilian leaders and its military officers. Renowned military expert Mark Perry investigates these internal wars and sheds new light on the US military-the most powerful and influential lobby in Washington. He reveals explosive stories, from the secret history of Clinton's "don't ask, don't tell" policy to how the military plotted to undermine Barack Obama's strategy in Afghanistan, to show how internal strife and deep civilian-military animus shapes America's policy abroad, often to the nation's detriment. Drawing on three decades of high-profile interviews, both on and off the record, Perry yields sobering judgments on the tenures of our nation's most important military leaders. The Pentagon's Wars is essential reading for anyone seeking to understand the inner workings of the making of America's foreign policy.
Posted in History

How to Be a Muslim

An American Story

Author: Haroon Moghul

Publisher: Beacon Press

ISBN: 0807020745

Category: Identification (Religion)

Page: 256

View: 2651

A young Muslim leader's memoir of his struggles to forge an American Muslim identity Haroon Moghul was thrust into the spotlight after 9/11, becoming an undergraduate leader at New York University's Islamic Center forced into appearances everywhere: on TV, before interfaith audiences, in print. Moghul was becoming a prominent voice for American Muslims even as he struggled with his relationship to Islam. In high school he was barely a believer and entirely convinced he was going to hell. He sometimes drank. He didn't pray regularly. All he wanted was a girlfriend. But as he discovered, it wasn't so easy to leave religion behind. To be true to himself, he needed to forge a unique American Muslim identity that reflected his beliefs and personality. How to Be a Muslim reveals a young man coping with the crushing pressure of a world that fears Muslims, struggling with his faith and searching for intellectual forebears, and suffering the onset of bipolar disorder. This is the story of the second-generation immigrant, of what it's like to lose yourself between cultures and how to pick up the pieces.
Posted in Identification (Religion)

Why Globalization Works

Author: Martin Wolf

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300102526

Category: Political Science

Page: 398

View: 7704

"Meticulous, well-structured, and persuasive." Martin Vander Weyer, Spectator
Posted in Political Science

Darkness at Dawn

The Rise of the Russian Criminal State

Author: David Satter

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300129092

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 1450

Anticipating a new dawn of freedom and democracy after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Russians could hardly have foreseen the reality of their future a decade later: a country desperately impoverished and controlled at every level by criminals. This compelling book tells the story of the 1990s reform period in Russia through the experiences of individual citizens. Recounting in detail the development of a new era of oppression, journalist David Satter conveys the staggering nature of the changes that have swept Russian life, society, and ways of thinking. Through the stories of people at all levels of Russian society, Satter describes fraudulent investment schemes, massive corruption, and the intrusion of organized crime everywhere. With insights derived from more than twenty years of writing and reporting on Russia, Satter considers why the individual human being there has historically counted for so little. And he offers an illuminating analysis of how Russia’s post-Soviet fate was decided when a new morality failed to fill the vast moral vacuum that communism left in its wake.
Posted in History

Russian Crossroads

Toward the New Millennium

Author: Yevgeny Primakov

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300130539

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 9773

A prominent Russian politician who served as prime minister, foreign minister, and head of foreign intelligence during the 1990s, Yevgeny Primakov has been part of all vital decisions on Russian domestic and foreign policy for the past two decades. His memoir is both an insider’s account of post-perestroika Russian politics and a statement from a representative of the enlightened Russian establishment on their nation’s relationship with America and the world. Primakov is a specialist in the Middle East, and his personal involvement in the problems of that region make his commentary particularly valuable as he articulates Russia’s view of the conflicts there and its stance toward Iraq, Israel, and Palestine. Primakov also offers pertinent opinions on the Gulf War, NATO enlargement, spying, and other aspects of contemporary international relations, and he gives personal assessments of a wide variety of major players, from Saddam Hussein and Yassir Arafat to Madeleine Albright and Bill Clinton. Providing behind-the-scenes information about government shake-ups in Moscow, the history of speculative privatizations, the formation of the new political and economic oligarchy, and much more, this book will be an invaluable aid to political analysts, historians, and anyone interested in Russia’s recent past and future plans.
Posted in History

The New Lion of Damascus

Author: N.A

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300143591

Category: Syria

Page: 288

View: 2022

Posted in Syria

The Future of War

A History

Author: Lawrence Freedman

Publisher: PublicAffairs

ISBN: 1610393066

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 6862

Questions about the future of war are a regular feature of political debate, strategic analysis, and popular fiction. Where should we look for new dangers? What cunning plans might an aggressor have in mind? What are the best forms of defense? How might peace be preserved or conflict resolved? From the French rout at Sedan in 1870 to the relentless contemporary insurgencies in Iraq and Afghanistan, Lawrence Freedman, a world-renowned military thinker, reveals how most claims from the military futurists are wrong. But they remain influential nonetheless. Freedman shows how those who have imagined future war have often had an idealized notion of it as confined, brief, and decisive, and have regularly taken insufficient account of the possibility of long wars-hence the stubborn persistence of the idea of a knockout blow, whether through a dashing land offensive, nuclear first strike, or cyberattack. He also notes the lack of attention paid to civil wars until the West began to intervene in them during the 1990s, and how the boundaries between peace and war, between the military, the civilian, and the criminal are becoming increasingly blurred. Freedman's account of a century and a half of warfare and the (often misconceived) thinking that precedes war is a challenge to hawks and doves alike, and puts current strategic thinking into a bracing historical perspective.
Posted in History

America?s Inadvertent Empire

Author: William E. Odom,Robert Dujarric

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300130368

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 7347

div The United States finds itself at the center of a historically unparalleled empire, one that is wealth-generating and voluntary rather than imperialistic, say the authors of this compelling book. William E. Odom and Robert Dujarric examine America’s unprecedented power within the international arenas of politics, economics, demographics, education, science, and culture. They argue persuasively that the major threat to this unique empire is ineffective U.S. leadership, not a rising rival power center. America cannot simply behave as an ordinary sovereign state, Odom and Dujarric contend. They describe the responsibilities that accompany staggering power advantages and explain that resorting to unilateralism makes sense only when it becomes necessary to overcome paralysis in multilateral organizations. The authors also offer insights into the importance of liberal international institutions as a source of power, why international cooperation pays, and why spreading democracy often inhibits the spread of constitutional order. If the United States uses its own power constructively, the authors conclude, the American empire will flourish for a long time. /DIV
Posted in Political Science

Welcome to the Poisoned Chalice

The Destruction of Greece and the Future of Europe

Author: James K. Galbraith

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300220448

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 232

View: 3039

The economic crisis in Greece is a potential international disaster and one of the most extraordinary monetary and political dramas of our time. The financial woes of this relatively small European nation threaten the long-term viability of the Euro while exposing the flaws in the ideal of continental unity. "Solutions" proposed by Europe's combined leadership have sparked a war of prideful words and stubborn one-upmanship, and they are certain to fail, according to renowned economist James K. Galbraith, because they are designed for failure. It is this hypocrisy that prompted former finance minister Yanis Varoufakis, when Galbraith arrived in Athens as an adviser, to greet him with the words "Welcome to the poisoned chalice." In this fascinating, insightful, and thought-provoking collection of essays--which includes letters and private memos to both American and Greek officials, as well as other previously unpublished material--Galbraith examines the crisis, its causes, its course, and its meaning, as well as the viability of the austerity program imposed on the Greek citizenry. It is a trenchant, deeply felt commentary on what the author calls "economic policy as moral abomination," and an eye-opening analysis of a contemporary Greek tragedy much greater than the tiny economy of the nation itself.
Posted in Business & Economics

Forgotten Continent

The Battle for Latin America's Soul

Author: Michael Reid

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300145268

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 401

View: 5976

Latin America has often been condemned to failure. Not as poor as Africa, nor as booming as India and China, it has largely been overlooked. Yet this vast continent, home to half a billion people, the world's largest reserves of arable land, and 8.5 percent of global oil, is transforming its political and economic landscape. This book argues that Latin America's efforts to build fairer and more prosperous societies make it one of the world's most vigorous laboratories for capitalist democracy. In many countries--including Brazil, Chile and Mexico--democratic leaders are laying the foundations for faster economic growth and more inclusive politics, as well as tackling deep-rooted problems. Failure will increase the flow of drugs and illegal immigrants to the United States and Europe, jeopardize stability in a region rich in strategic commodities, and threaten some of the world's most majestic natural environments.--From publisher description.
Posted in Business & Economics

Preventive Engagement

How America Can Avoid War, Stay Strong, and Keep the Peace

Author: Paul B. Stares

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231544189

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 2929

The United States faces an increasingly turbulent world. The risk of violent conflict and other threats to international order presents a vexing dilemma: should the United States remain the principal guarantor of global peace and security with all its considerable commitments and potential pitfalls––not least new and costly military entanglements––that over time diminish its capacity and commitment to play this vital role or, alternatively, should it pull back from the world in the interests of conserving U.S. power, but at the possible cost of even greater threats emerging in the future? Paul B. Stares proposes an innovative and timely strategy—“preventive engagement”—to resolve America’s predicament. This approach entails pursuing three complementary courses of action: promoting policies known to lessen the risk of violent conflict over the long term; anticipating and averting those crises likely to lead to costly military commitments in the medium term; and managing ongoing conflicts in the short term before they escalate further and exert pressure on the United States to intervene. In each of these efforts, forging “preventive partnerships” with a variety of international actors, including the United Nations, regional organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and the business community, is essential. The need to think and act ahead that lies at the heart of a preventive engagement strategy requires the United States to become less shortsighted and reactive. Drawing on successful strategies in other areas, Preventive Engagement provides a detailed and comprehensive blueprint for the United States to shape the future and reduce the potential dangers ahead.
Posted in Political Science

Angels of Death

Exploring the Euthanasia Underground

Author: Roger S. Magnusson,Peter Harry Ballis

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300094398

Category: Medical

Page: 325

View: 1188

This groundbreaking book uncovers the hidden world of illicit physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia. Through the frank and often troubling first-hand accounts of health professionals who have been involved in assisted death, the book records for the first time this secret but real area of medical and nursing practice. Through face-to-face interviews with these "angels of death, " Roger S. Magnusson explores the social practices, relationships, and networks that constitute "underground" euthanasia. How is assisted death actually practiced within health care settings? What are the issues that surround the making of such a momentous decision? How do health care workers justify their attitudes and actions in this area? Angels of Death offers detailed answers to these questions and many others. The doctors, nurses, and therapists who were interviewed pseudonymously for this study work in the HIV/AIDS communities in the United States and Australia. Their perspectives and practices, their attitudes and feelings, illuminate the assisted death debate and expose a variety of disturbing issues, including the reality of "botched attempts, " euthanasia without consent, and unduly hasty measures to bring about death. The testimony of medical practitioners, combined with Magnusson's thoughtful assessment of the issues, will be of intense interest to both opponents and advocates of proposals to legalize euthanasia.
Posted in Medical