Differential Geometry

Bundles, Connections, Metrics and Curvature

Author: Clifford Henry Taubes

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191621226

Category: Mathematics

Page: 312

View: 5655

Bundles, connections, metrics and curvature are the 'lingua franca' of modern differential geometry and theoretical physics. This book will supply a graduate student in mathematics or theoretical physics with the fundamentals of these objects. Many of the tools used in differential topology are introduced and the basic results about differentiable manifolds, smooth maps, differential forms, vector fields, Lie groups, and Grassmanians are all presented here. Other material covered includes the basic theorems about geodesics and Jacobi fields, the classification theorem for flat connections, the definition of characteristic classes, and also an introduction to complex and Kähler geometry. Differential Geometry uses many of the classical examples from, and applications of, the subjects it covers, in particular those where closed form expressions are available, to bring abstract ideas to life. Helpfully, proofs are offered for almost all assertions throughout. All of the introductory material is presented in full and this is the only such source with the classical examples presented in detail.
Posted in Mathematics

An Introduction to the Theory of Higher-Dimensional Quasiconformal Mappings

Author: Frederick W. Gehring,Gaven J. Martin,Bruce P. Palka

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821843605

Category: Conformal mapping

Page: 116

View: 4057

This book offers a modern, up-to-date introduction to quasiconformal mappings from an explicitly geometric perspective, emphasizing both the extensive developments in mapping theory during the past few decades and the remarkable applications of geometric function theory to other fields, including dynamical systems, Kleinian groups, geometric topology, differential geometry, and geometric group theory. It is a careful and detailed introduction to the higher-dimensional theory of quasiconformal mappings from the geometric viewpoint, based primarily on the technique of the conformal modulus of a curve family. Notably, the final chapter describes the application of quasiconformal mapping theory to Mostow's celebrated rigidity theorem in its original context with all the necessary background. This book will be suitable as a textbook for graduate students and researchers interested in beginning to work on mapping theory problems or learning the basics of the geometric approach to quasiconformal mappings. Only a basic background in multidimensional real analysis is assumed.
Posted in Conformal mapping

Differential Geometry

Connections, Curvature, and Characteristic Classes

Author: Loring W. Tu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319550845

Category: Mathematics

Page: 347

View: 5288

This text presents a graduate-level introduction to differential geometry for mathematics and physics students. The exposition follows the historical development of the concepts of connection and curvature with the goal of explaining the Chern–Weil theory of characteristic classes on a principal bundle. Along the way we encounter some of the high points in the history of differential geometry, for example, Gauss' Theorema Egregium and the Gauss–Bonnet theorem. Exercises throughout the book test the reader’s understanding of the material and sometimes illustrate extensions of the theory. Initially, the prerequisites for the reader include a passing familiarity with manifolds. After the first chapter, it becomes necessary to understand and manipulate differential forms. A knowledge of de Rham cohomology is required for the last third of the text. Prerequisite material is contained in author's text An Introduction to Manifolds, and can be learned in one semester. For the benefit of the reader and to establish common notations, Appendix A recalls the basics of manifold theory. Additionally, in an attempt to make the exposition more self-contained, sections on algebraic constructions such as the tensor product and the exterior power are included. Differential geometry, as its name implies, is the study of geometry using differential calculus. It dates back to Newton and Leibniz in the seventeenth century, but it was not until the nineteenth century, with the work of Gauss on surfaces and Riemann on the curvature tensor, that differential geometry flourished and its modern foundation was laid. Over the past one hundred years, differential geometry has proven indispensable to an understanding of the physical world, in Einstein's general theory of relativity, in the theory of gravitation, in gauge theory, and now in string theory. Differential geometry is also useful in topology, several complex variables, algebraic geometry, complex manifolds, and dynamical systems, among other fields. The field has even found applications to group theory as in Gromov's work and to probability theory as in Diaconis's work. It is not too far-fetched to argue that differential geometry should be in every mathematician's arsenal.
Posted in Mathematics

Ricci Flow and the Sphere Theorem

Author: Simon Brendle

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821849387

Category: Mathematics

Page: 176

View: 3625

In 1982, R. Hamilton introduced a nonlinear evolution equation for Riemannian metrics with the aim of finding canonical metrics on manifolds. This evolution equation is known as the Ricci flow, and it has since been used widely and with great success, most notably in Perelman's solution of the Poincare conjecture. Furthermore, various convergence theorems have been established. This book provides a concise introduction to the subject as well as a comprehensive account of the convergence theory for the Ricci flow. The proofs rely mostly on maximum principle arguments. Special emphasis is placed on preserved curvature conditions, such as positive isotropic curvature. One of the major consequences of this theory is the Differentiable Sphere Theorem: a compact Riemannian manifold, whose sectional curvatures all lie in the interval (1,4], is diffeomorphic to a spherical space form. This question has a long history, dating back to a seminal paper by H. E. Rauch in 1951, and it was resolved in 2007 by the author and Richard Schoen. This text originated from graduate courses given at ETH Zurich and Stanford University, and it is directed at graduate students and researchers. The reader is assumed to be familiar with basic Riemannian geometry, but no previous knowledge of Ricci flow is required.
Posted in Mathematics

Modeling Differential Equations in Biology

Author: Clifford Henry Taubes

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316582787

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 7353

Based on a very successful one-semester course taught at Harvard, this text teaches students in the life sciences how to use differential equations to help their research. It needs only a semester's background in calculus. Ideas from linear algebra and partial differential equations that are most useful to the life sciences are introduced as needed, and in the context of life science applications, are drawn from real, published papers. It also teaches students how to recognize when differential equations can help focus research. A course taught with this book can replace the standard course in multivariable calculus that is more usually suited to engineers and physicists.
Posted in Mathematics

Lie Groups

An Introduction Through Linear Groups

Author: Wulf Rossmann

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199202515

Category: Mathematics

Page: 265

View: 5285

Lie Groups is intended as an introduction to the theory of Lie groups and their representations at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level. It covers the essentials of the subject starting from basic undergraduate mathematics. The correspondence between linear Lie groups and Lie algebras is developed in its local and global aspects. The classical groups are analysed in detail, first with elementary matrix methods, then with the help of the structural tools typical of thetheory of semisimple groups, such as Cartan subgroups, roots, weights, and reflections. The fundamental groups of the classical groups are worked out as an application of these methods. Manifolds are introduced when needed, in connection with homogeneous spaces, and the elements of differential and integral calculus on manifolds are presented, with special emphasis on integration on groups and homogeneous spaces. Representation theory starts from first principles, such as Schur's lemma and its consequences, and proceeds from there to the Peter-Weyl theorem, Weyl's character formula, and the Borel-Weil theorem, all in the context of linear groups.
Posted in Mathematics

The Seiberg-Witten Equations and Applications to the Topology of Smooth Four-Manifolds. (MN-44)

Author: John W. Morgan

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400865166

Category: Mathematics

Page: 130

View: 8904

The recent introduction of the Seiberg-Witten invariants of smooth four-manifolds has revolutionized the study of those manifolds. The invariants are gauge-theoretic in nature and are close cousins of the much-studied SU(2)-invariants defined over fifteen years ago by Donaldson. On a practical level, the new invariants have proved to be more powerful and have led to a vast generalization of earlier results. This book is an introduction to the Seiberg-Witten invariants. The work begins with a review of the classical material on Spin c structures and their associated Dirac operators. Next comes a discussion of the Seiberg-Witten equations, which is set in the context of nonlinear elliptic operators on an appropriate infinite dimensional space of configurations. It is demonstrated that the space of solutions to these equations, called the Seiberg-Witten moduli space, is finite dimensional, and its dimension is then computed. In contrast to the SU(2)-case, the Seiberg-Witten moduli spaces are shown to be compact. The Seiberg-Witten invariant is then essentially the homology class in the space of configurations represented by the Seiberg-Witten moduli space. The last chapter gives a flavor for the applications of these new invariants by computing the invariants for most Kahler surfaces and then deriving some basic toological consequences for these surfaces.
Posted in Mathematics

The Geometry of Kerr Black Holes

Author: Barrett O'Neill

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486783111

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 7166

Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of mathematics as well as for physicists, this unique monograph and self-contained treatment constitutes an introduction to modern techniques in differential geometry. 1995 edition.
Posted in Science

Complex Geometry

An Introduction

Author: Daniel Huybrechts

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540266879

Category: Mathematics

Page: 309

View: 9373

Easily accessible Includes recent developments Assumes very little knowledge of differentiable manifolds and functional analysis Particular emphasis on topics related to mirror symmetry (SUSY, Kaehler-Einstein metrics, Tian-Todorov lemma)
Posted in Mathematics

Algebraic Models in Geometry

Author: Yves Félix,John Oprea,Daniel Tanré

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199206511

Category: Mathematics

Page: 460

View: 6407

In the past century, different branches of mathematics have become more widely separated. Yet, there is an essential unity to mathematics which still springs up in fascinating ways to solve interdisciplinary problems. This text provides a bridge between the subjects of algebraic topology, including differential topology, and geometry. It is a survey book dedicated to a large audience of researchers and graduate students in these areas. Containing a generalintroduction to the algebraic theory of rational homotopy and giving concrete applications of algebraic models to the study of geometrical problems, mathematicians in many areas will find subjects that are of interest to them in the book.
Posted in Mathematics

Ricci Flow and the Poincaré Conjecture

Author: John W. Morgan,G. Tian

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821843284

Category: Mathematics

Page: 521

View: 2790

For over 100 years the Poincare Conjecture, which proposes a topological characterization of the 3-sphere, has been the central question in topology. Since its formulation, it has been repeatedly attacked, without success, using various topological methods. Its importance and difficulty were highlighted when it was chosen as one of the Clay Mathematics Institute's seven Millennium Prize Problems. In 2002 and 2003 Grigory Perelman posted three preprints showing how to use geometric arguments, in particular the Ricci flow as introduced and studied by Hamilton, to establish the Poincare Conjecture in the affirmative. This book provides full details of a complete proof of the Poincare Conjecture following Perelman's three preprints. After a lengthy introduction that outlines the entire argument, the book is divided into four parts. The first part reviews necessary results from Riemannian geometry and Ricci flow, including much of Hamilton's work. The second part starts with Perelman's length function, which is used to establish crucial non-collapsing theorems. Then it discusses the classification of non-collapsed, ancient solutions to the Ricci flow equation. The third part concerns the existence of Ricci flow with surgery for all positive time and an analysis of the topological and geometric changes introduced by surgery. The last part follows Perelman's third preprint to prove that when the initial Riemannian 3-manifold has finite fundamental group, Ricci flow with surgery becomes extinct after finite time. The proofs of the Poincare Conjecture and the closely related 3-dimensional spherical space-form conjecture are then immediate. The existence of Ricci flow with surgery has application to 3-manifolds far beyond the Poincare Conjecture. It forms the heart of the proof via Ricci flow of Thurston's Geometrization Conjecture. Thurston's Geometrization Conjecture, which classifies all compact 3-manifolds, will be the subject of a follow-up article. The organization of the material in this book differs from that given by Perelman. From the beginning the authors present all analytic and geometric arguments in the context of Ricci flow with surgery. In addition, the fourth part is a much-expanded version of Perelman's third preprint; it gives the first complete and detailed proof of the finite-time extinction theorem. With the large amount of background material that is presented and the detailed versions of the central arguments, this book is suitable for all mathematicians from advanced graduate students to specialists in geometry and topology. Clay Mathematics Institute Monograph Series The Clay Mathematics Institute Monograph Series publishes selected expositions of recent developments, both in emerging areas and in older subjects transformed by new insights or unifying ideas.
Posted in Mathematics

The Ricci Flow in Riemannian Geometry

A Complete Proof of the Differentiable 1/4-Pinching Sphere Theorem

Author: Ben Andrews,Christopher Hopper

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642162851

Category: Mathematics

Page: 296

View: 6366

Focusing on Hamilton's Ricci flow, this volume begins with a detailed discussion of the required aspects of differential geometry. The discussion also includes existence and regularity theory, compactness theorems for Riemannian manifolds, and much more.
Posted in Mathematics

The Many Facets of Geometry

A Tribute to Nigel Hitchin

Author: Nigel J. Hitchin,Oscar Garcia-Prada,Jean Pierre Bourguignon,Simon Salamon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199534926

Category: Mathematics

Page: 434

View: 427

Few people have proved more influential in the field of differential and algebraic geometry, and in showing how this links with mathematical physics, than Nigel Hitchin. Oxford University's Savilian Professor of Geometry has made fundamental contributions in areas as diverse as: spin geometry, instanton and monopole equations, twistor theory, symplectic geometry of moduli spaces, integrables systems, Higgs bundles, Einstein metrics, hyperkähler geometry,Frobenius manifolds, Painlevé equations, special Lagrangian geometry and mirror symmetry, theory of grebes, and many more. The chapters in this fascinating volume, written by some of the greats in their fields (including four Fields Medalists), show how Hitchin's ideas have impacted on a wide variety ofsubjects. The book grew out of the Geometry Conference in Honour of Nigel Hitchin, held in Madrid, with some additional contributions, and should be required reading for anyone seeking insights into the overlap between geometry and physics.
Posted in Mathematics

The Enlightenment: A Very Short Introduction

Author: John Robertson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191665126

Category: Philosophy

Page: 144

View: 9046

A foundational moment in the history of modern European thought, the Enlightenment continues to be a reference point for philosophers, scholars and opinion-formers. To many it remains the inspiration of our commitments to the betterment of the human condition. To others, it represents the elevation of one set of European values to the world, many of whose peoples have quite different values. But what is the relationship between the historical Enlightenment and the idea of 'Enlightenment', and can these two understandings be reconciled? In this Very Short Introduction, John Robertson offers a concise historical introduction to the Enlightenment as an intellectual movement of eighteenth-century Europe. Discussing its intellectual achievements, he also explores how its supporters exploited new ways of communicating their ideas to a wider public, creating a new 'public sphere' for critical discussion of the moral, economic and political issues facing their societies. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Posted in Philosophy

Quanta of Maths

Author: Alain Connes,Institut Henri Poincaré,Institut des hautes études scientifiques (Paris, France),Institut de mathématiques de Jussieu

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821852035

Category: Mathematics

Page: 675

View: 3199

The work of Alain Connes has cut a wide swath across several areas of mathematics and physics. Reflecting its broad spectrum and profound impact on the contemporary mathematical landscape, this collection of articles covers a wealth of topics at the forefront of research in operator algebras, analysis, noncommutative geometry, topology, number theory and physics. Specific themes covered by the articles are as follows: entropy in operator algebras, regular $C^*$-algebras of integral domains, properly infinite $C^*$-algebras, representations of free groups and 1-cohomology, Leibniz seminorms and quantum metric spaces; von Neumann algebras, fundamental Group of $\mathrm{II}_1$ factors, subfactors and planar algebras; Baum-Connes conjecture and property T, equivariant K-homology, Hermitian K-theory; cyclic cohomology, local index formula and twisted spectral triples, tangent groupoid and the index theorem; noncommutative geometry and space-time, spectral action principle, quantum gravity, noncommutative ADHM and instantons, non-compact spectral triples of finite volume, noncommutative coordinate algebras; Hopf algebras, Vinberg algebras, renormalization and combinatorics, motivic renormalization and singularities; cyclotomy and analytic geometry over $F_1$, quantum modular forms; differential K-theory, cyclic theory and S-cohomology.
Posted in Mathematics

Foundations of Arithmetic Differential Geometry

Author: Alexandru Buium

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 147043623X

Category: Geometry, Differential

Page: 344

View: 8026

The aim of this book is to introduce and develop an arithmetic analogue of classical differential geometry. In this new geometry the ring of integers plays the role of a ring of functions on an infinite dimensional manifold. The role of coordinate functions on this manifold is played by the prime numbers. The role of partial derivatives of functions with respect to the coordinates is played by the Fermat quotients of integers with respect to the primes. The role of metrics is played by symmetric matrices with integer coefficients. The role of connections (respectively curvature) attached to metrics is played by certain adelic (respectively global) objects attached to the corresponding matrices. One of the main conclusions of the theory is that the spectrum of the integers is “intrinsically curved”; the study of this curvature is then the main task of the theory. The book follows, and builds upon, a series of recent research papers. A significant part of the material has never been published before.
Posted in Geometry, Differential

The Theory of Sprays and Finsler Spaces with Applications in Physics and Biology

Author: P.L. Antonelli,Roman S. Ingarden,M. Matsumoto

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401581940

Category: Mathematics

Page: 312

View: 1199

The present book has been written by two mathematicians and one physicist: a pure mathematician specializing in Finsler geometry (Makoto Matsumoto), one working in mathematical biology (Peter Antonelli), and a mathematical physicist specializing in information thermodynamics (Roman Ingarden). The main purpose of this book is to present the principles and methods of sprays (path spaces) and Finsler spaces together with examples of applications to physical and life sciences. It is our aim to write an introductory book on Finsler geometry and its applications at a fairly advanced level. It is intended especially for graduate students in pure mathemat ics, science and applied mathematics, but should be also of interest to those pure "Finslerists" who would like to see their subject applied. After more than 70 years of relatively slow development Finsler geometry is now a modern subject with a large body of theorems and techniques and has math ematical content comparable to any field of modern differential geometry. The time has come to say this in full voice, against those who have thought Finsler geometry, because of its computational complexity, is only of marginal interest and with prac tically no interesting applications. Contrary to these outdated fossilized opinions, we believe "the world is Finslerian" in a true sense and we will try to show this in our application in thermodynamics, optics, ecology, evolution and developmental biology. On the other hand, while the complexity of the subject has not disappeared, the modern bundle theoretic approach has increased greatly its understandability.
Posted in Mathematics

An Introduction to Differential Geometry

Author: T. J. Willmore

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486282104

Category: Mathematics

Page: 336

View: 1510

This text employs vector methods to explore the classical theory of curves and surfaces. Topics include basic theory of tensor algebra, tensor calculus, calculus of differential forms, and elements of Riemannian geometry. 1959 edition.
Posted in Mathematics