Defectives in the Land

Disability and Immigration in the Age of Eugenics

Author: Douglas C. Baynton

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022636416X

Category: History

Page: 185

View: 4187

Defective. Handicapped. Ugly. Dependent. These words are Douglas Baynton s chapter titles, labels that were used to describe disabled immigrants during the period of American history when a series of laws were put in place to restrict immigration from less desirable nations (from Southern and Eastern Europe, 1882 to 1920s). Baynton s history details the ways in which a great variety of disabled immigrants were turned back during these years, among them the deaf, blind, epileptic, and mobility-impaired, also people with curved spines, hernias, flat or club feet, missing limbs, and short limbs, also those who had intellectual or psychiatric disability, even men diagnosed with poor physique or feminism (underdeveloped sex organs). The labels and defects are named in immigration policies and procedures; Baynton insists, quite reasonably, that immigration law offers the clearest revelation of the era s cultural assumptions about disability. One of his findings is that disability, even more than race (which is usually highlighted in immigration histories), was the main concern of immigration restrictionists. Over time, the idea that disabled people were dependent, and thus a burden, got amplified and became a social issue, not confined to family or local community. Meanwhile, the stigma of visible defects grew in intensity, along with the fear of traits that could not be seen (germ theory, defective germ plasm, infectious diseases). Polluted heredity flowing into the future was an ever-present fear. Until now, with Defectives in the Land, the issue of discrimination against people with disabilities in immigration law has gone unrecognized and unexamined."
Posted in History

Defectives in the Land

Disability and Immigration in the Age of Eugenics

Author: Douglas C. Baynton

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022636433X

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 6706

Immigration history has largely focused on the restriction of immigrants by race and ethnicity, overlooking disability as a crucial factor in the crafting of the image of the “undesirable immigrant.” Defectives in the Land, Douglas C. Baynton’s groundbreaking new look at immigration and disability, aims to change this. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Baynton explains, immigration restriction in the United States was primarily intended to keep people with disabilities—known as “defectives”—out of the country. The list of those included is long: the deaf, blind, epileptic, and mobility impaired; people with curved spines, hernias, flat or club feet, missing limbs, and short limbs; those unusually short or tall; people with intellectual or psychiatric disabilities; intersexuals; men of “poor physique” and men diagnosed with “feminism.” Not only were disabled individuals excluded, but particular races and nationalities were also identified as undesirable based on their supposed susceptibility to mental, moral, and physical defects. In this transformative book, Baynton argues that early immigration laws were a cohesive whole—a decades-long effort to find an effective method of excluding people considered to be defective. This effort was one aspect of a national culture that was increasingly fixated on competition and efficiency, anxious about physical appearance and difference, and haunted by a fear of hereditary defect and the degeneration of the American race.
Posted in History

The Radical Lives of Helen Keller

Author: Kim E. Nielsen

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814758142

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 178

View: 1639

The Civil War is a much plumbed area of scholarship, so much so that at times it seems there is no further work to be done in the field. However, the experience of children and youth during that tumultuous time remains a relatively unexplored facet of the conflict.Children and Youth during the Civil War Era seeks a deeper investigation into the historical record by and giving voice and context to their struggles and victories during this critical period in American history. Prominent historians and rising scholars explore issues important to both the Civil War era and to the history of children and youth, including the experience of orphans, drummer boys, and young soldiers on the front lines, and even the impact of the war on the games children played in this collection. Each essay places the history of children and youth in the context of the sectional conflict, while in turn shedding new light on the sectional conflict by viewing it through the lens of children and youth. A much needed, multi-faceted historical account,Children and Youth during the Civil War Era touches on some of the most important historiographical issues with which historians of children and youth and of the Civil War home front have grappled over the last few years.
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

The Birth Control Clinic in a Marketplace World

Author: Rose Holz

Publisher: Boydell & Brewer

ISBN: 1580464890

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 2529

An examination of the complex interrelationship between charity birth control clinics and the commercial marketplace in the United States through the 1970s.
Posted in History

Science at the Borders

Immigrant Medical Inspection and the Shaping of the Modern Industrial Labor Force

Author: Amy L. Fairchild,Professor Amy L Fairchild

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801870804

Category: History

Page: 385

View: 4162

Throughout, Fairchild conveys the humanity of the story, offering detailed accounts of individual immigrants confronting a large scientific and medical bureaucracy.
Posted in History

African American Slavery and Disability

Bodies, Property and Power in the Antebellum South, 1800-1860

Author: Dea H. Boster

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136275312

Category: Social Science

Page: 184

View: 2437

Disability is often mentioned in discussions of slave health, mistreatment and abuse, but constructs of how "able" and "disabled" bodies influenced the institution of slavery has gone largely overlooked. This volume uncovers a history of disability in African American slavery from the primary record, analyzing how concepts of race, disability, and power converged in the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century. Slaves with physical and mental impairments often faced unique limitations and conditions in their diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation as property. Slaves with disabilities proved a significant challenge to white authority figures, torn between the desire to categorize them as different or defective and the practical need to incorporate their "disorderly" bodies into daily life. Being physically "unfit" could sometimes allow slaves to escape the limitations of bondage and oppression, and establish a measure of self-control. Furthermore, ideas about and reactions to disability—appearing as social construction, legal definition, medical phenomenon, metaphor, or masquerade—highlighted deep struggles over bodies in bondage in antebellum America.
Posted in Social Science

Strangers in Our Midst

Author: David Miller Miller

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674969804

Category: Philosophy

Page: 228

View: 3790

How should democracies respond to the millions who want to settle in their societies? David Miller’s analysis reframes immigration as a question of political philosophy. Acknowledging the impact on host countries, he defends the right of states to control their borders and decide the future size, shape, and cultural make-up of their populations.
Posted in Philosophy

Policing Immigrants

Local Law Enforcement on the Front Lines

Author: Doris Marie Provine,Monica W. Varsanyi,Paul G. Lewis,Scott H. Decker

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022636321X

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 6125

The United States deported nearly two million illegal immigrants during the first five years of the Obama presidency—more than during any previous administration. President Obama stands accused by activists of being “deporter in chief.” Yet despite efforts to rebuild what many see as a broken system, the president has not yet been able to convince Congress to pass new immigration legislation, and his record remains rooted in a political landscape that was created long before his election. Deportation numbers have actually been on the rise since 1996, when two federal statutes sought to delegate a portion of the responsibilities for immigration enforcement to local authorities. Policing Immigrants traces the transition of immigration enforcement from a traditionally federal power exercised primarily near the US borders to a patchwork system of local policing that extends throughout the country’s interior. Since federal authorities set local law enforcement to the task of bringing suspected illegal immigrants to the federal government’s attention, local responses have varied. While some localities have resisted the work, others have aggressively sought out unauthorized immigrants, often seeking to further their own objectives by putting their own stamp on immigration policing. Tellingly, how a community responds can best be predicted not by conditions like crime rates or the state of the local economy but rather by the level of conservatism among local voters. What has resulted, the authors argue, is a system that is neither just nor effective—one that threatens the core crime-fighting mission of policing by promoting racial profiling, creating fear in immigrant communities, and undermining the critical community-based function of local policing.
Posted in Political Science

Disability in the Ottoman Arab World, 1500-1800

Author: Sara Scalenghe

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107044790

Category: History

Page: 220

View: 9338

This book is the first on the history of both physical and mental disabilities in the Middle East and North Africa during Ottoman rule.
Posted in History

Paying with Their Bodies

American War and the Problem of the Disabled Veteran

Author: John M. Kinder

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022621012X

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 9163

Christian Bagge, an Iraq War veteran, lost both his legs in a roadside bomb attack on his Humvee in 2006. Months after the accident, outfitted with sleek new prosthetic legs, he jogged alongside President Bush for a photo op at the White House. The photograph served many functions, one of them being to revive faith in an American martial ideal—that war could be fought without permanent casualties, and that innovative technology could easily repair war’s damage. When Bagge was awarded his Purple Heart, however, military officials asked him to wear pants to the ceremony, saying that photos of the event should be “soft on the eyes.” Defiant, Bagge wore shorts. America has grappled with the questions posed by injured veterans since its founding, and with particular force since the early twentieth century: What are the nation’s obligations to those who fight in its name? And when does war’s legacy of disability outweigh the nation’s interests at home and abroad? In Paying with Their Bodies, John M. Kinder traces the complicated, intertwined histories of war and disability in modern America. Focusing in particular on the decades surrounding World War I, he argues that disabled veterans have long been at the center of two competing visions of American war: one that highlights the relative safety of US military intervention overseas; the other indelibly associating American war with injury, mutilation, and suffering. Kinder brings disabled veterans to the center of the American war story and shows that when we do so, the history of American war over the last century begins to look very different. War can no longer be seen as a discrete experience, easily left behind; rather, its human legacies are felt for decades. The first book to examine the history of American warfare through the lens of its troubled legacy of injury and disability, Paying with Their Bodies will force us to think anew about war and its painful costs.
Posted in History

Through Deaf Eyes

A Photographic History of an American Community

Author: Douglas C. Baynton,Jack R. Gannon,Jean Lindquist Bergey

Publisher: Gallaudet University Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 156

View: 9422

Photographs and interviews document the history of deaf culture in the United States.
Posted in History

Framing the moron

The social construction of feeble-mindedness in the American eugenic era

Author: Gerald V O'Brien

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 1526103427

Category: History

Page: 203

View: 4093

Many people are shocked upon discovering that tens of thousands of innocent persons in the United States were involuntarily sterilized, forced into institutions, and otherwise maltreated within the course of the eugenic movement (190030). Such social control efforts are easier to understand when we consider the variety of dehumanizing and fear-inducing rhetoric propagandists invoke to frame their potential victims. This book details the five major themes employed within the context of eugenic propaganda, and provides numerous examples of their use based on original sources of the period. These include the organism, animal, war or national catastrophe, religious and object metaphors. Rhetoric related to these themes was utilized to demonstrate the extent of potential harm posed by the presumptive unrelenting child-bearing among unfit groups; a threat that could only be countered by ensuring that such persons did not breed. Early in the twentieth century the term "moron" was developed to describe the primary targets of eugenic control. This book demonstrates how the image of moronity in the United States was shaped by eugenicists. The book will be of interest not only to disability and eugenic scholars and historians, but to anyone who wants to explore the means by which pejorative metaphors are used to support social control efforts against vulnerable community groups. While readers may be appalled at the use of such rhetoric to support control efforts, they will also no doubt draw parallels regarding the use of similar language in contemporary socio-political speeches and writings.
Posted in History

Better for All the World

The Secret History of Forced Sterilization and America's Quest for Racial Purity

Author: Harry Bruinius

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0375713050

Category: History

Page: 401

View: 7965

Traces the history of eugenics in the United States, drawing on personal letters, diaries, and documents to chronicle the little-known quest for racial purity.
Posted in History

Disabled Upon Arrival

Eugenics, Immigration, and the Construction of Race and Disability

Author: Jay Timothy Dolmage

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780814213629

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 190

View: 2956

"A rhetorical examination of the spaces, technologies, and discourses of immigration restriction during the peak period of North American immigration in the early twentieth century. Links anti-immigration rhetoric to eugenics--and argues racist and ableist ideas about bodily values have never really gone away"--
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

The War Against Boys

How Misguided Policies are Harming Our Young Men

Author: Christina Hoff Sommers

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1501125427

Category: Education

Page: 288

View: 9525

An updated and revised edition of the controversial classic--now more relevant than ever--argues that boys are the ones languishing socially and academically, resulting in staggering social and economic costs. Girls and women were once second-class citizens in the nation's schools. Americans responded w ith concerted efforts to give girls and women the attention and assistance that was long overdue. Now, after two major waves of feminism and decades of policy reform, women have made massive strides in education. Today they outperform men in nearly every measure of social, academic, and vocational well-being. Christina Hoff Sommers contends that it's time to take a hard look at present-day realities and recognize that boys need help. Called "provocative and controversial . . . impassioned and articulate" ("The Christian Science M"onitor), this edition of "The War Against Boys" offers a new preface and six radically revised chapters, plus updates on the current status of boys throughout the book. Sommers argues that the problem of male underachievement is persistent and worsening. Among the new topics Sommers tackles: how the war against boys is harming our economic future, and how boy-averse trends such as the decline of recess and zero-tolerance disciplinary policies have turned our schools into hostile environments for boys. As our schools become more feelings-centered, risk-averse, competition-free, and sedentary, they move further and further from the characteristic needs of boys. She offers realistic, achievable solutions to these problems that include boy-friendly pedagogy, character and vocational education, and the choice of single-sex classrooms. "The War Against Boys" is an incisive, rigorous, and heartfelt argument in favor of recognizing and confronting a new reality: boys are languishing in education and the price of continued neglect is economically and socially prohibitive.
Posted in Education

The Old World in the New

The Significance of Past and Present Immigration to the American People

Author: Edward Alsworth Ross

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Immigrants

Page: 327

View: 8814

Posted in Immigrants

Civic and Medical Worlds in Early Modern England

Performing Barbery and Surgery

Author: E. Decamp

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137471565

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 277

View: 9651

Through its rich foray into popular literary culture and medical history, this book investigates representations of regular and irregular medical practice in early modern England. Focusing on the prolific figures of the barber, surgeon and barber-surgeon, the author explores what it meant to the early modern population for a group of practitioners to be associated with both the trade guilds and an emerging professional medical world. The book uncovers the differences and cross-pollinations between barbers and surgeons' practices which play out across the literature: we learn not only about their cultural, civic, medical and occupational histories but also about how we should interpret patterns in language, name choice, performance, materiality, acoustics and semiology in the period. The investigations prompt new readings of Shakespeare, Jonson, Middleton and Beaumont, among others. And with chapters delving into early modern representations of medical instruments, hairiness, bloodletting procedures, waxy or infected ears, wart removals and skeletons, readers will find much of the contribution of this book is in its detail, which brings its subject to life.
Posted in Literary Criticism

Telethons

Spectacle, Disability, and the Business of Charity

Author: Paul K. Longmore

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190262079

Category: HISTORY

Page: 360

View: 4906

"Marshaling two decades' worth of painstaking research, Paul Longmore's book provides the first cultural history of the telethon, charting its rise and profiling the key figures--philanthropists, politicians, celebrities, corporate sponsors, and recipients--involved"--
Posted in HISTORY

The Traffic in Women's Work

East European Migration and the Making of Europe

Author: Anca Parvulescu

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022611841X

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 208

View: 9625

“Welcome to the European family!” When East European countries joined the European Union under this banner after 1989, they agreed to the free movement of goods, services, capital, and persons. In this book, Anca Parvulescu analyzes an important niche in this imagined European kinship: the traffic in women, or the circulation of East European women in West Europe in marriage and as domestic servants, nannies, personal attendants, and entertainers. Analyzing film, national policies, and an impressive range of work by theorists from Giorgio Agamben to Judith Butler, she develops a critical lens through which to think about the transnational continuum of “women’s work.” Parvulescu revisits Claude Lévi-Strauss’s concept of kinship and its rearticulation by second-wave feminists, particularly Gayle Rubin, to show that kinship has traditionally been anchored in the traffic in women. Reading recent cinematic texts that help frame this, she reveals that in contemporary Europe, East European migrant women are exchanged to engage in labor customarily performed by wives within the institution of marriage. Tracing a pattern of what she calls Americanization, Parvulescu argues that these women thereby become responsible for the labor of reproduction. A fascinating cultural study as much about the consequences of the enlargement of the European Union as women’s mobility, The Traffic in Women’s Work questions the foundations of the notion of Europe today.
Posted in Performing Arts